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EIGHTIETH 

ANNUA&. ilEPORT 

Sf ITI iiliD OF EDUCATION 

OF MARYLAND 

1946 



LIBRARY-COLLEGE PARK 




Maryland Roou. 
^MtwciBliy of Maryiaad Llbr»^ 
CoMe«e Park, Md 



DO SOI 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/report00mary_74 



STATE OF MARYLAND 

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 



EIGHTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 

Of The 

State Board of Education 

SHOWING CONDITION 

Of The 

Public Schools of Maryland 

For The 

YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1946 




B^JIMORE, MD, 



STATE OF MARYLAND 



STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION— OCTOBER, 1946 

Name Address Name Address 

TASKER G. LOWNDES, Pres Cumberland NICHOLAS OREM Hyattsville 

WENDELL D. ALLEN, Vice-Pres. Baltimore MRS. ALVIN THALHEIMER Baltimore 

HARRY Y. GEORGE Brunswick OSCAR B. COBLENTZ Catonsville 

HORACE M. MORGAN Queen Anne 

THOMAS G. PULLEN, Jr., Secretary-Treasurer, Catonsville 

OFFICE OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 

1111 Lexington Building, Baltimore - 1, Md. 



State Superintendent of Schools 

THOMAS G. PULLEN, JR. 
Ass't. State Sup't. for Vocational Education 

JOHN J. SEIDEL 
Directors 

EARLE T. HAWKINS, Instruction 
MERLE S. BATEMAN, Certification, 

Accreditation, Publications 
BESSIE C. STERN. Fin., Stat., Ed. Meas. 
R. C. THOMPSON, Vocational Rehabilitation 
tHELEN M. CLARK, Library Extension 
Supervisors 

JAMES E. SPITZNAS, Curriculum 
GRACE L. ALDER. Elementary Schools 
E. CLARKE FONTAINE, High Schools 
WILBUR DEVILBISS, High Schools 
PAUL E. HUFFINGTON, Colored Schools 
ELISABETH AMERY, Home Economics 
R. FLOYD CROMWELL, Guidance 
HERSHEL M. JAMES. Industrial Education 
HARRY M. McDonald, Agriculture 
DAVID W. ZIMMERMAN, Spec. Ed., Att., 

Trans. 

THOMAS C. FERGUSON, Phys. Ed. and 

Recreation 

MRS. GERTRUDE N. BOWIE, School Lunch 
Program 
Assistant Supervisors 

ARTHUR L. BENSON, Guidance 
ETHEL E. SAMMIS. Phys. Ed. and Recrea- 
tion 
Auditor 

BRIAN M. BENSON 
Supervisors Rehabilitation 

W. BIRD TERWILLIGER, Guid., Tr., Place- 
ment 

LIONEL BURGESS, Case Services 
GEORGE W. KELLER, Ser\ices for the Blind 
EMMA E. THOMAS, Phys. Restoration 
aTHOMAS D. BRAUN. Balto. Branch District 
bKENNETH STONER, Hagerstown Branch 
District 

cRAYMOND H. SIMMONS, Salisbury Branch 
District 

dMERL D. MYERS, So. Md. Branch District 
Rehabilitation Counselors 
MYRTLE E. CHELL 

alRVIN D. MEDINGER 

aRUTH F. RING 

aJAMES E. TEAR 

aR. KENNETH BARNES 

aCHARLES P. FONDA 

aCHARLES L. HILL 

aH. SMITH SHUMWAY 

cGEORGE W. ENGLE 
Medical Consultant 

*DEAN W. ROBERTS, M. D. 



Librarians 

tM. E. NAOMI JOHNSON 
IJOSEPHINE M. BALDWIN, Assistant 
tMRS. SUZANNE V. PEARCE, 
Sr Ass't 

tMRS. BEVERLY M. BURMEISTER, 
Jr. Ass't 

Administrative Assistant I 
RUTH E. HOBBS 

Principal Account Clerks 

MRS. GRACE STEELE TRAVERS. I 
BLANCHE E. KEEN, II 

Statisticians 

M. ELEANOR RICE, I 

HELEN D. GEORGE, I 

MARION FREYER, II 

MRS. GENEVIEVE J. NEKERVIS, II 
Clerk 

E. SUE WALTER 
Stenographer-Secretaries 

ELIZABETH McGINNITY 

ELSIE F. FORMAN 

MARGARET E. ALBAUGH 

E. DRUSILLA CHAIRS 

MRS. MADELINE SALBACK RAY- 
MOND 

aEMMA E. LUECKERT (Rehab.) 
Senior Stenographers 

CARRYE HAMBURGER 
MARTHA LEE MARSH 
MRS. BETTY JEAN WAGGONER 
MRS. HARRIET PARCOVER 
DENA BORES 

MRS. HELEN C. KATENKAMP 
MARTHA SAPPINGTON 
RUTH E. TIM ANUS (Library Ext.) 
MRS. C. ELAINE SHIPLEY (Rehab.) 
KATHLEEN E. SCHEVE (Rehab.) 
MRS. SHIRLEY SHAVITZ (Rehab.) 
CHARLOTTE A. SYLVESTER 
(Rehab.) 
aDOROTHY C. McLAUGHLIN 

(Rehab.) 
aBELL M. SKLAR (Rehab.) 
aMILDRED R. ECK (Rehab.) 
bMRS. ALFREDA E. COFFMAN 
(Rehab.) 

cMRS. PAULINE DAWSON (Rehab.) 
dMRS. LILLIAN MAY BELT (Rehab.) 
Stenographer-Accounting 

MRS. LAURA M. GAITHER 
Senior Clerk 

aMRS. MARGARET A. SCHROFF 
(Rehab.) 
Senior Typist 

MRS. MARY W. ASENDORF 



*Part-time 

aBalto. Br.. 500 Liberty Bldg., Baltimore-1. 
bHagerstown Br., 170 W. Washington St.. 

Hagerstown 
t400 Cathedral St.. Baltimore-1. 



cSalisbury Br.. Chamber of Commerce 
Bldg., Salisbury 

dSo. Md. Br.. 317 Stewart Bldg.. 402 
Sixth St.. N W., Washington. D. C. 



2 



PRESIDENTS OF STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES 



M. THERESA WIEDEFELD, Towson 
LILLIAN C. COMPTON, Frostburg 



J. D. BLACKWELL, Salisbury 
WILLIAM E. HENRY. Jr. Bowie 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
MARYLAND TEACHERS RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

911 Lexington Building:, Baltimore - 1, Md. 

HOOPER S. MILES State Treasurer and Chairman 

J. MILLARD TAWES State Comptroller 

THOMAS G. PULLEN, Jr State Superintendent of Schools 

EDWIN W. BROOME Sup't of Montgomery County Schools, Vice-Chairman 

ALTHEA FULLER Principal, Allegany County 

THOMAS I. HAYS Secretary 

MINNIE M. HAMILTON Stenographer-Secretary 

HELEN M. KIRKMAN Senior Clerk 

MAMIE K. RUSSELL Senior Clerk 



MARYLAND COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS AND SUPERVISORS 

1946—1947 



County Address 

ALLEGANY— Cumberland 
Charles L. Kopp, Supt. 
Richard T. Rizer, Asst. Supt. 
Ruby M. Adams, Dir. El. Ed. 
Jane E. Botsford 
Winifred Greene 
Mildred Willison 
Jack Piatt (Music) 

J. D. Lonnholm (Voc. and Adult Ed.) 

ANNE ARUNDEL— Annapolis 
David S. Jenkins, Supt. 
Dorothy Siddons 
Mrs. Virginia D. Moore 
Ruth V. Dudderar 
Howard A. Kinhart (High Schools) 
Frank C. Gunderloy (Voc. Ed. & Vets' Tr.) 
Sarah V. Jones (Colored Schools) 
Mrs. Flora Andrews (Colored Schools) 

BALTIMORE— Towson 

Raymond S. Hyson, Supt. 

Edward G. Stapleton, Assoc. Supt. 

M. Lucetta Sisk, (Ass't Supt. Curr. Inst.) 

James A. Sensenbaugh, (Ass't Supt. El. 

Schools) 
Myrtle S. Eckhardt ^ 
Jennie E. Jessop ^ 
M. Katherine Dost 
Anna G. Shepperd 
C. James Velie (Music) ^ 
Olive Jobes (Art)i 

James B. O'Toole, Jr. (Jr. High Schools) 
Herbert R. Steiner (Physical Ed.) 
Mary E. Kelleher (Home Ec.) 
Mrs. Pauline Hobbs (Colored Schools) 

CALVERT— Prince Frederick 
Harry R. Hughes, Supt. 
Clarence W. Mason 
J. P. Layne (Colored Schools) 

CAROLINE— Denton 

W. Stewart Fitzgerald, Supt. 
A. May Thompson 
•Mrs. Lula D. Ward (Colored Schools) 



* Part time 
1 200 W. Saratoga St.. Balto. 1 



County Address 

CARROLL— Westminster 

Samuel M. Jenness, Supt. 
Ruth DeVore 
Charles E. Reck 

John F. Wooden, Jr. (High Schools) 
♦May E. Prince (Colored Schools) 
♦Philip S. Royer (Music) 
♦Mrs. Josephine I>. West (Home Ec.) 

CECIL— Elkton 

H. E. McBride, Supt. 
Olive L. Reynolds 
Edwin B. Fockler (High Schools) 
♦Edwin H. Barnes (Colored Schools) 

CHARLES— La Plata 

F. Bernard Gwvnn. Supt. 
B. Lucile Bowie 

Joseph C. Parks (Colored Schools) 

DORCHESTER— Cambridge 

W. Theodore Boston, Supt. 
Evelyn E. Johnson 

Albert S. Farver (Jr. High Schools) 
Mrs. Viola J. Comegr>'s (Colored 
Schools) 

FREDERICK— Frederick 
E. W. Pruitt. Supt. 
Charlotte E. Eader 

Mrs. L. Louise Freeman Thompson 
A. Drucilla Worthington 
♦Charles E. Henson (Colored Schools) 

GARRETT- Oakland 

Franklin E. Rathbun. Supt. 
Kate Bannatyne 2 
Mrs. Caroline Wilson 

HARFORD— Bel Air 

Charles W. Willis. Supt. 
Benjamin S. Carroll, Asst. Supt. 
Hazel L. Fisher 
Mary L. Grau 3 

Dorothy Mudd (Jr. High Schools) 
Percy Williams (Colored Schools) 



2 Grantsville 
3 Havre de Grace 



14^569 



County Address 



County Address 



HOWARD— EUicott City 
H. C. Brown, Supt. 
Gail W. Chadwick 

*Harry T. Murphy (Colored Schools) 

KENT— Chestertown 

William M. Brish, Supt. 
Anne Mildred Hoyle 
*Sara B. Chambers (Colored Schools) 

MONTGOMERY— Rockville 
E. W. Broome, Supt. 
Edgar M. Douglass, Asst. Supt. 
Etheleen Daniel 
Mrs. Ruth S. Gue 
Elizabeth Meany 

Mrs. Elizabeth H. Retzer (Phys. Ed.) 

Lucille Johnson (Music) 

Marjorie Billows (Art) 

Mrs. Fern D. Schneider (High Schools) 

William C. Feddeman (Industrial) 

Julia Watkins (Home Ec.) 

Mrs. Louise Watkins (Guidance) 

T. H. Owen Knight (Guidance) 

Edward U. Taylor (Colored Schools) 

PRINCE GEORGE'S— Upper Marlboro 
G. Gardner Shugart, Supt. 
William S. Schmidt, Asst. Supt. 
Rowannetta S. Allen 4 
Mrs. Mary Jane Carpv (Music) 4 
Mrs. Catherine T. Reed i 
Mrs. May Beth Wackwitii (Art) 
Mrs. Leo L. Cleaves Quinn (Healtli) 
Vincent Holochwost (Phys. Ed.) 

*Elmer K. Zeller (Ind. & Adult Ed.) 

*M. Gladys Dickerson (Home Ec.) 
DosweU E. Brooks (Colored Schools) 



* Part time 
4 Hyattsville 



QUEEN ANNE'S Centerville 

Franklin D. Day, Supt. 
Mrs. Margaret S. Stack 
*Mrs. Lola P. Brown (Colored Schools) 

ST. MARY'S — Leonardtown 
Lettie M. Dent, Supt. 

E. Violette Young 

Ralph S. Waters (Colored Schools) 

SOMERSET — Princess Anne 
C. Allen Carlson, Supt. 
Alice Mae Coulbourn 
♦Clinton W. Corbin (Colored Schools) 

TALBOT— Easton 

J. Willard Davis, Supt. 
M. Lillian Cheezum 
*W. H. Fauntleroy (Colored Schools) 

WASHINGTON— Hagerstown 
B. C. Willis, Supt. 

F. Pauline Blackford 
Katherine L. Healy 
Anne H. Richardson 

Mary Helen Chrissinger (Art) 
Miriam L. Hoffman (Music) 
William C. Diehl (High Schools) 
Alfred C. Roth (Ind. & Adult Ed.) 

WICOMICO— Salisbury 

James M. Bennett, Supt. 

Mrs. Leah M. Phillips 

Lester A. Hall (High Schools) 

Marie A. Dashiell (Colored Schools) 

WORCESTER— Snow Hill 

William S. Sartorius, Supt. 
Mrs. Margaret Laws Engle 
*Mrs. Lucy S. Pilchard (Colored 
Schools) 



4 



CONTENTS 



Letter of Transmittal 6 

Enrollment, Teaching Staff and Number of Public and Non-Public 

Elementary and Secondary Schools 8 

Dates of Opening and Closing Schools and Length of Session 9 

Enrollment in Public and Non-Public Schools, Birth Rates, Public 

Elementary and High School Enrollment 10 

Percent and Index of Attendance 15 

Grade Enrollment, Non-Promotions and its Causes, Age-grade Dis- 
tribution, Overage Pupils, Survival 19 

Education for Handicapped Children in Counties and City 34 

High School Graduates: Number, Persistence and Occupations 36 

Colleges Attended by 1945 County Graduates in and out of State 44 

High School Enrollment by Year and Subject 49 

Participation of White High School Pupils in Music Activities 59 

High School Failures and Withdrawals 60 

Teachers by Subject, Clerks, Certification, Resignations, Turnover, 

Sex, Summer School Attendance 63 

Number Belonging and Average Salary per Teacher 77 

Number and Size of Schools 90 

Adult Education, Vocational Rehabilitation, Summer Schools 96 

Costs of Maryland Schools: 

Total, Percent from State, Distribution of School Tax Dollar 101 

Cost per Pupil 107 

Financing the Vocational Education Program 120 

The Adult Education Program 124 

Transportation of Pupils 125 

Capital Outlay, Bonds Outstanding, Value of School Property 129 

1946-47 County Levies; Percent of Levies Used for Schools; Assess- 
ments; Wealth per Pupil; Tax Rates; Individual State Income 

Tax per Capita; Total Income per Capita 133 

Other than Public Funds; Parent-Teacher Associations 142 

State and County School Administration and Supervision: 

Conferences of State Department Staff 144 

County School Administration 159 

Supervision of White Elementary Schools 181 

1945 Summer Workshop 187 

Supervision of High Schools 204 

Supervision of Colored Schools 209 

High School Equivalence Examinations, Approval of Schools for 

Veterans Training, On the Job Training 215 

The Maryland State Teachers Colleges-Towson, Frostburg, Salis- 
bury, Bowie 219 

Contributions of Teachers to State Teachers' Retirement System 228 

Library Extension; Aid to School Libraries 229 

The State and County Health Program for School Children 233 

List of Financial Statements and Statistical Tables 236 

Index 289 



6 



Honorable Herbert H. O'Conor, 
Governor of Maryland, 
Annapolis, Maryland 



Baltimore, Md. 
Jan. 1, 1947 



Dear Governor O'Conor: 

In accordance with Section 24 of Article 77 of the Laws of Maryland, 
the eightieth "annual report, covering all operations of the State Depart- 
ment of Education and the support, condition, progress, and needs of educa- 
tion throughout the State" for the school year ending in June, 1946, is 
herewith presented to you. 

Continuing the policy during the emergency created by war conditions 
of limiting State reports to the most important and essential data, an abbre- 
viated report has been prepared similiar to the one issued for the last five 
years, omitting the verbal analysis of information included in tables or charts. 

The excellent legislation of 1945 put into effect during the school year 
1945-46 brought smaller classes to the elementary schools and made possible 
introduction of the twelve-year program for county pupils who had com- 
pleted the sixth grade in 1944-45 and in three counties for those pupils as 
well who had completed the seventh grade. In order to prepare the way 
for the reorganization of the curriculum resulting from inauguration of the 
twelve-year system State-wide Workshops were held at Towson and Bowie 
in. July 1945 and in June 1946 under the leadership of the State Department 
staff for outstanding representatives from each county who prepared 
material which was mimeographed for use of all county administrators and 
teachers. The State-wide Workshops were followed later in the summer of 
1945 by workshops in a number of counties. The challenge and opportunity 
offered by the twelve-year program made it possible to rethink the entire 
school offering to make it more functional in meeting the needs of present-day 
boys and girls. Earlier attempts to reorganize the curriculum planned 
when the bulletin "Maryland Looks Ahead in Education, A Curriculum 
Study Guide", was prepared in November 1941 had had to be postponed 
because of the emphasis which the schools had to put into the war effort 
and because travel restrictions made it impossible to bring groups of teachers 
together to carry out the necessary rethinking and reorganizing of the 
program. 

The 1945 salary scale for teachers which incorporated the temporary 
State and county adjustments of 1943-44 and 1944-45 into the regular 
minimum State schedule took effect in September 1945 and was of only slight 
help in keeping teachers in the profession and drawing back some of those 
who entered the armed and allied services or who took more remunerative 
positions in industry and business. A study of the tables dealing with with- 
drawals of teachers shows that those of 1945-46 were only exceeded by the 
year 1942-43. The number of substitutes and teachers holding war emer- 
gency certificates who could not meet standard qualifications was higher in 
1945-46 than for any year preceding. 

The elimination of tuition fees at the State Teachers Colleges for 
white students as well as the 1945 revised salary schedule in the Fall of 1945 
brought a 75 percent increase in the enrollment in the freshman class oyer 
the exceedingly small number the preceding year. This was encouraging 
but it will take four years to graduate this group at a time when the short- 
age of elementary school teachers is most acute. 

The first full year of the child-study program in which Maryland is 
pioneering on a State-wide basis to help teachers who undertake the inten- 
sive study of one pupil in their class to understand all of their pupils better, 
developed great enthusiasm and interest in those participating. The work 
is proceeding under the guidance of Dr. Daniel Prescott of the University 
of Chicago Institute of Child Growth and Development. 



6 



School construction which had to be postponed during the war because 
of the shortage of materials and man power became the subject of confer- 
enoes with architects and experts in surveying the needs in individual 
counties to take care of the additional year which will result from the 
twelve-year program, the increased enrollment due to migration of population 
to Maryland and the increase in birth rate since the beginning of the war, 
and the need of replacing obsolescent buildings. Attention was given to 
means of financing the program which is made more difficult because of the 
backlog of building which had to be postponed during the war years and the 
increase in costs. 

The department was asked for an analysis of the methods of financing 
the Maryland schools by the Commission on the Redistribution of State 
Revenues. Recommendations grew out of this study for simplification of 
plans for State aid, for the elimination of inequities, for an increase in the 
amount of aid, and for a new form of State aid for school capital outlay. 

As a result of 1945 legislation the new Division of Library Extension in 
the State Department of Education was established as of January 1, 1946 for 
the purpose of developing county, school and institutional libraries. The 
new director of the division took office in February 1946. 

The department was called on for guidance of veterans regarding 
educational and training opportunities, for lists of approved educational 
institutions for the use of the Veterans' Administration and for the approval 
of business establishments offering on-the-job training to veterans. The 
1945 State legislation required approval of private trade schools and this 
new service was inaugurated during the year. 

With continued interest of patrons and parent-teacher associations, 
the greater financial support of county commissioners, the legislature and 
the administration in insuring a better program of education for the boys 
and girls of Maryland, the school officials and teachers carry on with renewed 
inspiration. 

The excellent law which governs the Maryland school program, its 
simple and efficient plan of organization for administration and financing, 
as well as the sincere cooperation received from all county teachers, clerks, 
attendance workers, supervisors, and superintendents, who have been given 
the generous moral and financial support of their patrons, county boards of 
education, county commissioners and members of the legislature and the 
Governor have made possible the conditions shown in this report. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Thomas G. Pullen, Jr. 

Secretary - Treasurer. 

State Board of Education 
Tasker G. Lowndes, President 
Wendell D. Allen, Vice-President 
Oscar Coblentz 
Harry Y. George 
Horace M. Morgan 
Nicholas Orem 
Fannie Thalheimer 



7 



8 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 1 

White and Colored Enrollment, Teaching Staff, and Number of Public and Non-Public 
Schools in the Counties of Maryland and Baltimore City, Year Ending June 30, 1946 



Type of School 


Elementary 


Secondary 


Grand Total 


White 


Colored 


Total 


White 


Colored 


Total 


White 


Colored 


Total 


Enrollment 


Public 
County 
City 

Elementary 


102,148 
50,482 


22 Ififi 
27,686 


124 ^14. 
78,168 






fin 791^ 

19,587 
12,417 
2,379 


100 , to 

50,482 
14,762 
10,342 
1,500 


, iOD 

27,686 
4,825 
2,075 
879 


loO , uoy 

78,168 
19,587 
12,417 
2,379 


Junior High 


14,762 
10,342 
1,500 


4,825 
2,075 
879 


Senior High 








Vocational 








State 

Non-Public 

County 








152,630 

16,513 
29,297 


49,852 

658 
1,358 


202,482 

17,171 
30,655 


80,329 

4,712 
6,638 


14,779 


95,108 

4,712 
6,849 


232,959 

21 ,225 
35,935 


64,631 

658 
1,569 


297,590 

21,883 
37,504 


City 

State 

Public and Non-Public 

County 

City 

State 


211 


45,810 

118,661 
79,779 


2,016 

22,824 
29,044 


47,826 

141,485 
108,823 


11,350 

58,437 
33,242 


211 

7,000 
7,990 


11,561 

65,437 
41,232 


57,160 

177,098 
113,021 


2,227 

29,824 
37,034 


59,387 

206.922 
150,055 


198,440 


51,868 


250,308 


91,679 


14,990 


106,669 


290,119 


66,858 


356,977 



Teaching Staff 



Public 

County 

City Elementary 


2,719 
1,204 


598 
690 


3,317 
1,894 


4,282 


261 


4,543 


7,001 
1,204 
587 
272 
101 


859 
690 
170 
89 
45 


7,860 
1,894 
757 
361 
146 


Junior High 


587 
272 
101 


170 

89 
45 


757 
361 
146 


Senior High 

Vocational 








State 

Non-Public 

County 








3,923 


1,288 


5,211 


5,242 


565 


5,807 


9,165 

1,031 
1,300 


1,853 

18 
64 


11,018 

1.049 
1,364 


City 














State 


























2,331 

8,032 
3,464 


82 

877 
1,058 


2,413 

8,909 
4,522 


Public and Non-Public 
County 














City 














State 


























11,496 


1,935 


13,431 
















Number of Schools 


Public 

County 

City Elementary 


515 
87 


269 
43 


784 
130 


151 


32 


183 


*573 
87 
16 
7 
7 


*276 
43 
4 
2 
2 


*849 
130 
20 
9 
9 




16 
7 
7 


4 
2 
2 


20 
9 
9 


Senior High 








Vocational 








State 

Non-Public 

County 






602 

116 
94 


312 

7 
11 


914 

123 
105 


*175 

47 
19 


*38 


*213 

47 
22 


*684 

*130 
*98 


*325 
7 

*11 


*1,009 

*137 
*109 


City 

State 

Public and Non-Public 

County 

City 

State 


3 


210 

631 
181 


18 

276 
54 


228 

907 

235 


66 

198 
*43 


3 

32 
*9 


69 

230 

*52 


*228 

*703 
*209 


*18 

*283 
*60 


*246 

*987 
*268 


812 


330 


1,142 


*241 


*41 


*282 


*912 


*343 


*1,255 



* Excludes duplicates 
For additional data on these subjects see Tables I, II, III, IV, V pages 240-248. 



Public and Non Public School Enrollment, Teachers, Schools; 9 
Length of Session, Public Schools 



TABLE 2 

Opening and Closing Dates Year Ending June 30, 1946 



County 

U 

Allegany 

Anre Arundel . . . 

Balti'iore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. ... 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 



Date of 
Opening 
Schools in 
September, 
1945 



6 
10 
10 
5 
5 
12 
10 
10 
11 
5 
4 
10 



Date of 
Closing 
Schools in 
1946 



June 



14* 

14 

21 

7 

3 

14 

7 
14 
12 

7 

7 

7 



County 



Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery . . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City 



Date of 
Opening 
Schools in 
September, 
1945 



10 
5 

10 
7 
5 

10 
4 
6 
5 
4 
5 



Date of 
Closing 
Schools in 
1946 



Juae 



May 

June 
f f 

May 
May 



14 
7 
14 
13 
4 
14 
30 
7 
7 
31 
31 



June 21 



* High schools closed May 30-31. See Table IX, page 252. 



In 1945-46 Maryland with 185.5 days in session for all schools 
ranked second among the states, exceeded only by Illinois. 



TABLE 3 

Number of County Schools in Session Fewer than 180 Days 
Year Ending June 30, 1946 





For All Counties By Year- 
Schools 




For 1946 By County- 
Schools 


Year 


Total 
No. 


Having 

One 
Teacher 


Having 
More 
Than One 
Teacher 


County 


Total 
No. 


Having 

Ore 
Teacher 


Larger 
Ele- 
mentary 
Schools 


High 
Schools 



Schools for White Pupils 



124 
28 
33 
12 
12 
8 
24 
19 



109 
22 
18 
6 
7 
4 
13 
6 



15 


Anne Arundel. 


1 






bl 


6 


Charles 


2 




cl 


cl 


15 


Dorchester. . 


4 


ai 


ad2 


dl 


6 


Frederick 


2 


bl 


al 




5 


Garrett 


5 


aabh4 


bl 




4 


Howard 


1 




al 




11 


Pr. George's. . 


3 




aa2 


bi 


13 


Worcester. . . . 


1 




el 





Schools for Colored Pupils 



12 


11 


1 


Anne Arundel . 


3 


cg2 


al 


6 


5 


1 


Chark^ 


1 


fl 


4 




4 


Dorchester. . . 


1 




bl 


5 


5 




Frederick 


1 


ai 




13 


9 


4 


Montgomery. . 
Pr. George's. . 


2 


bl 


bi 


9 


4 


5 


1 




al 



179 days 
178 days 
177 days 
176 days 
174 days 



f 165 days because of plumbing and beating difficulties in new building 
g 163 days because teacher was absent and substitute could not be obtained 
h 155 days because of illness of teacher 



10 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 4 — Enrollment by Color in Public and Non-Public Schools of the 
Counties and Baltimore City: 1930-1946; and Public School Enrollment by 

County and Color: 1923, 1945, 1946 



Year 


Total 


Public Schools 


Catholic 


Schools 


Non-Catholic 
Non-Public 
Schools 




Counties*! 


Baltimore 
City 


Counties* t 


Balto. 
City 


Counties 


Balto. 
City 


Counties 


Balto. 
City 



White Enrollment 



1930 


146,610 


127,326 


133,497 


92,272 


10,202 


32,152 


2, 


911 


2 , 902 


1932 


153,698 


130,280 


139,917 


94,122 


10,895 


33,507 


2, 


886 


2.851 


1935 


157,382 


131,871 


143,482 


94,715 


11,214 


34,758 


2, 


686 


2,398 


1937 


159,560 


130,538 


144,914 


93,464 


11,492 


34,252 


3, 


154 


2,822 


1938 


159,429 


128,205 


144,051 


91,104 


11,720 


33,946 


3, 


658 


3,155 


1939 


161,633 


126,660 


146,216 


89,860 


11,845 


33,700 


3, 


572 


3,100 


1940 


162,992 


124,040 


147,646 


88,317 


11,911 


32,788 


3, 


435 


2,935 


1941 


166,058 


122,185 


149,969 


87,291 


12,578 


31,753 


3, 


511 


3,141 


1942 


169,579 


119,651 


152,449 


85,039 


13,319 


31,122 


3, 


811 


3,490 


1943 


172,317 


118,800 


154,701 


84,389 


13,770 


3€,809 


3, 


846 


3,602 


1944 


171,917 


117,414 


153,158 


82,709 


14,721 


31,097 


4, 


038 


3,608 


1945 


174,113 


115,289 


154,502 


79,552 


15,192 


31,783 


4, 


419 


3,954 


1946 


177,016 


113,021 


155,873 


77,086 


16,221 


31,571 


4, 


922 


4,364 



Colored Enrollment 



1930 
1932 
1935 
1937 
1938 
1939 
1940 
1941 
1942 
1943 
1944 
1945 
1946 



29,466 


24,419 


28,712 


22,978 


633 


1,362 


121 


79 


29,758 


26,372 


29,047 


25,083 


658 


1,229 


53 


60 


29,504 


29,901 


28,927 


28,353 


543 


1,403 


34 


145 


29,251 


31,841 


28,728 


30,284 


523 


1,440 




117 


29,031 


31,611 


28,467 


30,064 


541 


1,444 


' 23 


103 


29,171 


33,668 


28,619 


32,088 


529 


1,473 


23 


107 


29,146 


34,026 


28,627 


32,441 


519 


1,490 




95 


29,282 


34,703 


28,720 


33,169 


562 


1,447 




87 


28,965 


34,487 


28,356 


33,047 


609 


1,377 




63 


28,769 


34,318 


28,137 


32,840 


632 


1,407 




71 


28,555 


34,804 


27,928 


33,189 


627 


1,539 




76 


29,061 


35,747 


28,431 


34,269 


630 


1,403 




75 


29,824 


37,034 


29,166 


35,465 


658 


1,476 




93 



Public School Enrollment^: by County and Color: 1923, 1945, 1946 



County 


White 


Colored 


1923 


1945 


1946 


1923 . 


1945 


1946 




*12,772 


*14,979 


*15,103 


303 


176 


240 




5,401 


10,675 


10,835 


2,911 


*3,638 


*3,704 




*14,845 


*27,858 


*27,821 


1,942 


2,719 


3,143 




1,203 


1,097 


1,120 


1,343 


1,262 


1,289 




3,622 


2,327 


2,400 


1,207 


731 


768 




6,677 


6,181 


6,231 


440 


343 


369 


Cecil 


3,919 


4,723 


4,582 


548 


456 


454 




1,902 


2,445 


2,486 


1,821 


1,795 


1,833 




3,990 


3,042 


3,038 


2,025 


1,386 


1,408 




9,926 


8,463 


8,475 


1,204 


859 


855 




5,822 


4,474 


4,459 










4,941 


6,301 


6,485 


916 


1,020 


950 




2,525 


3,008 


3,058 


848 


713 


738 


Kent 


2,030 


1,540 


1,519 


1,218 


752 


707 




5,133 


15,277 


15,940 


1,898 


1,858 


2,017 




7,245 


18,169 


18,564 


2,781 


*3,730 


*3,859 




2,504 


1,732 


1,792 


1,093 


677 


695 


St. Mary's 


2,140 


1,723 


1,739 


1,404 


904 


939 




3,521 


2,006 


1,987 


2,255 


1,385 


1,372 


Talbot 


2,542 


1,972 


1,992 


1,413 


977 


983 




12,140 


12,666 


12,793 


377 


222 


273 




4,887 


*4,036 


*4,122 


1,792 


1,531 


1,530 




2,947 


2,285 


2,422 


2,088 


1,406 


1,394 



* Includes enrollment in elementary schools of State teachers colleges, 
t Excludes duplicates between counties in public schools. 
t Includes duplicates between counties in public schools. 



Total, Public and Non Public School Enrollment 



11 



CHART 1 

Total White and Colored Enrollment in the Public Schools of the 
Counties of Maryland and Baltimore City: 1923-1946 



140 - 



120 - — 



100 - 



20 



1923 '25 27 '29 'Si '35 '35 '37 '39 '41 '43 '46 '47 

Year 



12 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 5 — Comparision of Elem., High and Vocational School Enrollment in 
Counties and Baltimore City in Public and Non-Public Schools, 1930 to 1946 



Year 


Total 


Public Schools 


Catholic Schools 


Non-Catholic 
Non-Public Schools 




J Counties 


Baltimore 
City 


t Counties 


Baltimore 
City 


Counties 


Baltimore 
City 


Counties 


Baltimore 
City 



$ White Elementary School Enrollment 



1930. . . . 


118,717 


109,159 


108,737 


78,133 


8,722 


29,002 


1,258 


2,024 


1932. . . . 


121,923 


108,720 


111,370 


76,949 


9,321 


29,954 


1,232 


1,817 


1935 


122,559 


107,192 


111,696 


74,818 


9,622 


30,735 


1,241 


1,639 


1937 


122,247 


105,173 


110,955 


73,452 


9,785 


29,817 


1,507 


1,904 


1938 


121,422 


103,094 


109,636 


71,392 


9,933 


29,384 


1,853 


2,318 


1939 


121,137 


100,250 


109,579 


68,863 


9,823 


29,090 


1,735 


2,297 


1940. . . . 


120,719 


96,947 


109,154 


66,896 


9,828 


27,947 


1,737 


2,104 


1941 


121,933 


95,401 


110,021 


65,732 


10,082 


27,371 


1,830 


2,298 


1942 


124,973 


94,438 


112,294 


65,123 


10,643 


26,703 


2,036 


2,612 


1943 


128,436 


94,780 


115,253 


65,904 


11,059 


26,104 


2,124 


2,772 


1944 


129,828 


94,497 


115,586 


65,708 


11,797 


26,010 


2,445 


2,779 


1945 


131,549 


92,309 


116,611 


62,969 


12,162 


26,322 


2,776 


3,018 


1946 


118,579 


79,779 


*102,148 


*50,482 


tl3,187 


t25,883 


t3,244 


t3,414 



White High and Vocational School Enrollment 



1930. .. 


27,893 


18,167 


24,760 


14,139 


1,480 


3,150 


1,653 


878 


1932 


31,775 


21,560 


28,547 


17,173 


1,574 


3,553 


1,654 


834 


1935 


34,823 


24,679 


31,786 


19,897 


1,592 


4,023 


1,445 


759 


1937 


37,313 


25,365 


33,959 


20,012 


1,707 


4,435 


1,647 


918 


1938 


38.007 


25,111 


34,415 


19,712 


1,787 


4,562 


1,805 


837 


1939 


40,496 


26,410 


36,637 


20,997 


2,022 


4,610 


1,837 


803 


1940 


42,273 


27,093 


38,492 


21,421 


2,083 


4,841 


1,698 


831 


1941 


44,125 


26,784 


39,948 


21,559 


2,496 


4,382 


1,681 


843 


1942. . . . 


44,606 


25,213 


40,155 


19,916 


2,676 


4,419 


1,775 


878 


1943 


43,881 


24,020 


39,448 


18,485 


2,711 


4,705 


1,722 


830 


1944 


42,089 


22,917 


37,572 


17,001 


2,924 


5,087 


1,593 


829 


1945. . . . 


42,564 


22,980 


37,891 


16,583 


3,030 


5,461 


1,643 


936 


1946 


58,437 


33,242 


*53,725 


*26,604 


t3,034 


t5,688 


tl,678 


t950 



JColored Elementary School Enrollment 



1930 


27,367 


22,068 


26,759 


20,643 


582 


1,347 


26 


78 


1932 . . . 


27,169 


23,560 


26,558 


22,289 


583 


1,211 


28 


60 


1935 . . . 


26,451 


26,702 


25,908 


25,189 


543 


1,392 




121 


1937 


25,221 


28,519 


24,698 


27,038 


523 


1,382 




99 


1938 


24,693 


28,131 


24,133 


26,686 


537 


1,360 


" 23 


85 


1939. . . . 


24,604 


29,830 


24,052 


28,374 


529 


1,367 


23 


89 


1940 


24,328 


29,877 


23,809 


28,408 


519 


1,393 




76 


1941 


24,114 


30,515 


23,552 


29,112 


562 


1,335 




68 


1942. . . . 


23,853 


30,546 


23,244 


29,247 


609 


1,249 




50 


1943 


23,505 


30,553 


22,873 


29,245 


632 


1,253 




55 


1944 


23,337 


31,254 


22,736 


29,857 


601 


1,334 




63 


1945 


23,825 


31,753 


23,195 


30,503 


630 


1,179 




71 


1946. . . . 


22,824 


29,044 


*22,166 


*27,686 


t658 


tl,270 




t88 



Colored High and Vocational School Enrollment 



1930 


2,099 


2,351 


1,953 


2,335 


51 


15 


95 


1 


1932 


2,589 


2,812 


2,489 


2,794 


75 


1 


25 




1935 


3,053 


3,199 


3,019 


3,164 




11 


34 


24 


1937. . . . 


4,030 


3,322 


4,030 


3,246 




58 




18 


1938 


4,338 


3,480 


4,334 


3,378 


■ ■ 4 


84 




18 


1939 


4,567 


3,838 


4,567 


3,714 




106 




18 


1940 


4,818 


4,149 


4,818 


4,033 




97 




19 


1941. . . . 


5,168 


4,188 


5,168 


4,057 




112 




19 


1942. . . . 


5,112 


3,941 


5,112 


3,800 




128 




13 


1943 


5,264 


3,765 


5,264 


3,595 




154 




16 


1944. . . . 


5,218 


3,550 


5,192 


3,332 


' 26 


205 




13 


1945 


5,236 


3,994 


5,236 


3,766 




224 




4 


1946 


7,000 


7,990 


*7.000 


*7,779 




t206 




t5 



X Includes for county public schools enrollment in elementary schools of State nornial schools or 
teachers colleges, and until 1946, in grades 7 or grades 7-8 in junior high schools of counties and City 

* For public school enrollment in detail by counties and Baltimore City see Table II, pages 241-2. 

t For non-public school enrollment in detail by school, county and Baltimore City, see Tables III-V, 
pages 243 to 248. 



Public and Non Public School Enrollment; Birth Rates 13 



TABLE 6 

Recorded and Resident Birth Rates per 1,000 White and Colored Population 

Reported by Bureau of Vital Statistics, Maryland State Department of Health 





Recorded Birth Rates 


Resident Birth Rates* 


County 


1930 


1935 


1940 


1943 


1944 


1945 


1940 


1943 


1944 


1945 



White 



County Average 


17 


4 


14 


3 


13 


4 


16 


1 


16 


.0 


16 


.2 


18 


.7 


24 


.5 


23 


.8 


23 .2 


Allegany 


22 


.2 


20 


4 


22 


.7 


24 


.9 


23 


8 


25 





20 


.0 


22 


.0 


20 


.8 


21.1 


Anne Arundel 


14 


4 


13 


.8 


11 


.3 


17 


.7 


17 


.5 


21 


.4 


16 


.9 


26 


9 


25 


.3 


24.4 


Baltimore 


13 


9 


8 


.1 


6 


4 


7 


.4 


5 


5 


4 


4 


18 


.8 


27 


9 


25 


.8 


25.2 


Calvert 


22 


2 


19 


8 


21 


.2 


23 


.7 


18 


.1 


20 


6 


21 


2 


24 


4 


20 


6 


27.7 


Caroline 


16 


5 


16 


.6 


15 


4 


19 


.5 


9 


9 


12 


9 


17 


4 


21 





20 


6 


19.2 


Carroll 


15 


1 


13 





10 


.6 


10 


.7 


7 


5 


8 


1 


17 


4 


20 


6 


16 


8 


17.8 


Cecil 


19 


9 


15 


7 


16 


.1 


21 


.2 


21 


5 


20 


6 


18 


4 


24 


8 


21 


9 


22.3 


Charles 


20 


1 


17 


.2 


17 


1 


24 


.1 


23 


5 


20 





20 


1 


29 


5 


29 


2 


26.0 


Dorchester 


19 


.2 


15 


5 


14 


.6 


17 


.8 


18 


6 


16 


1 


15 


2 


18 





18 


4 


17.3 


Frederick 


20 


.2 


17 


.6 


17 


3 


23 


. 5 


22 


9 


23 


9 


16 


9 


21 


4 


20 


6 


21.6 


Garrett 


24 


.2 


24 


.3 


21 


.1 


20 


7 


17 


3 


14 


2 


24 


1 


25 


7 


25 





22.9 


Harford 


17 


.8 


14 


.0 


13 


1 


24 


.6 


27 


6 


27 


5 


18 


3 


27 


3 


27 


9 


26.1 


Howard 


14 


.9 


13 


9 


11 


5 


11 


3 


9 


4 


8 





21 


2 


23 


5 


22 


9 


20.5 


Kent 


12 


.6 


11 


.8 


16 


1 


18 


6 


27 


2 


21 


5 


17 


7 


16 


5 


23 





18.2 


Montgomery 


13 


6 


14 


9 


11 


5 


13 


2 


15 


9 


17 


3 


20 


7 


25 


5 


26 


4 


26.5 


Prince George's 


11 


4 


7 


5 


4 


5 


9 


5 


10 


6 


12 


6 


19 


3 


28 


4 


26 


3 


26.3 


Queen Anne's 


18 


1 


13 


1 


11 


3 


9 





9 


1 


8 


6 


15 


3 


19 


8 


19 


9 


20.9 


St. Mary's 


26 


7 


25 


8 


24 


2 


25 





34 


6 


22 





24 


6 


26 


6 


32 


1 


20.1 


Somerset 


17 


9 


14 


6 


13 


9 


13 


2 


13 





12 





16 


5 


17 


6 


18 


3 


17.4 


Talbot 


19 


4 


16 


9 


20 


5 


27 


4 


32 


3 


30 


8 


16 


5 


18. 


5 


18 


7 


19.6 


Washington 


20 


4 


17 


5 


18 


3 


21 


6 


21 


9 


21 


3 


18. 


4 


21. 


5 


21 


7 


21.3 


Wicomico 


18 


4 


14 





21. 


8 


28 


6 


32. 


2 


32 


7 


17. 





18. 


8 


19 


4 


18.3 


Worcester 


15 


7 


9 


3 


10. 


7 


10 


1 


8. 


5 


6. 


6 


14 


5 


16. 


8 


18. 


7 


17.5 


Baltimore City 


17. 


6 


15. 


4 


18. 


1 


26. 


4 


24. 


6 


24. 





14. 


6 


20. 


6 


18. 


5 


17.7 


Entire State 


17. 


5 


14. 


9 


15. 


6 


20. 


9 


19. 


9 


19. 


7 


16. 


7 


22. 


7 


21. 


4 


20.8 



Colored 



County Average 


23 


5 


26 


.7 


19 


8 


20 


. 5 


18 


5 


19 


.1 


24 


9 


24 


9 


22 


.6 


23 


.9 


Allegany 


18 


.7 


15 





25 


.0 


28 


.4 


22 


.9 


27 


.0 


24 


3 


26 


1 


19 


.7 


27 


.0 


Anne Arundel 


25 


.6 


20 


.2 


19 


.4 


18 


1 


16 


5 


16 


3 


27 


3 


23 


1 


20 


6 


21 


.2 


Baltimore 


15 


1 


9 


3 


8 


.9 


13 


.2 


8 


3 


14 


.9 


22 


1 


27 





18 


2 


30 


.7 


Calvert 


32 


7 


29 





27 


6 


32 


.0 


33 


1 


31 


1 


28 





32 


6 


33 


4 


31 


.7 




24 


5 


20 


7 


25 


.9 


26 


7 


21 


2 


19 


9 


26 


4 


30 


4 


26 


6 


25 


.6 


Carroll 


22 


1 


17 


4 


17 


2 


19 


5 


15 


3 


16 


3 


21 


5 


21 


1 


19 


6 


20 


.1 


Cecil 


20 


4 


25 


7 


19 


6 


22 


1 


14 


2 


17 


3 


20 


9 


22 


1 


15 


3 


17 


.3 


Charles 


30 


8 


29 


4 


30 


1 


30 





30 


9 


31 


7 


35 


2 


32 


4 


35 


4 


37 


.1 




22 


2 


19 


7 


22 


9 


23 


7 


23 


5 


23 


4 


22 


7 


24 


3 


23 


4 


23 


.4 


Frederick 


26 


1 


19 


8 


24 


2 


26 


4 


25 


4 


26 


4 


24 


4 


26 


4 


25 


4 


26 


.4 


Harford 


29 


1 


20 


1 


19 


3 


16 


4 


20 


5 


17 


6 


22 


1 


17 


7 


22 


9 


19 


.6 


Howard 


20 


2 


21 


3 


18 


3 


21 


1 


18 


3 


15 


3 


26 


5 


29 


1 


21 


9 


21 


.2 


Kent 


23 


4 


19 


4 


21 


9 


24 


2 


22 


5 


18 


2 


23 


1 


25 


2 


22 


8 


20 


.3 


Montgomery 


22 


7 


19 


2 


17 


3 


17 


5 


14 


8 


17 


3 


22 


6 


21 





19 


5 


20 


.9 


Prince George's 


21 


7 


17 


9 


10 


3 


9 


9 


8 


5 


8 


5 


26 


7 


23 


1 


21 


1 


21 


6 


Queen Anne's 


19 


4 


18 


7 


19 


3 


15 


6 


13 


9 


15 





20 


2 


18 


5 


18 


8 


22 


.3 


St. Mary's 


27 


4 


24 


5 


30 


1 


31 


3 


30 


5 


28 




31 


5 


33 


8 


31 


3 


30 


4 


Somerset 


22 


2 


22 


2 


21 


5 


25 


5 


25 


3 


32 


\ 


23 


9 


28 


1 


28 


3 


27 


1 


Talbot 


19 


8 


22 


1 


23 


6 


25 


1 


30 


8 


23 




22 





21 


2 


24 


3 


22 


3 


Washington 


13 


4 


12 


6 


20 


7 


17 


5 


13 


7 


27 


5 


23 


5 


17 


5 


13 


7 


s 


8 


Wicomico 


25 


9 


23 


9 


22 


6 


25 


5 


28 





24 


6 


20 


1 


22 


2 


23 


8 


23 


1 




28 


3 


23 


4 


22 


2 


24 


5 


24 


4 


26 


9 


24 


1 


26 


3 


25 


5 


29 


2 


Baltimore City 


22. 


6 


19 


5 


23 


3 


27 


6 


28 


2 


27 


4 


21. 


6 


25 


9 


26 


7 


25 


4 


Entire State 


23. 


1 


20. 





21 


7 


24 


5 


23 


8 


23 


'1 


22 


8 


25 


5 


24 


8 


24 


7 



*Prior to 1935. birth rates were calculated on births occurri)ip in the indicated areas and are 
shown under the heading "Recorded Birth Rates." For 1940, 1943, 1944, and 1945, birth rates 
are shown by residence of mother, and according to geographical location of birth. 



14 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 7— Total White and Colored Enrollment in Maryland Public Ele- 
mentary and High Schools for Years Ending in June 1923, 1945, and 1946 





White Enrollment 




Colored Enrollment 


County 


1923 


1945 


1946 


County 


1923 


1945 


1946 



Elementary Schools 



1 otal Counties . . 




* lUo.iyi 


sfco-iAi con 


Baltimore 


°13,154 


°20,661 


°19,063 


Pr. George's .... 


6,421 


13,810 


12,499 


Montgomery. . . 


4,524 


10,050 


10,593 




°10,985 


°8,965 


°9,074 




10 859 


7 817 


7, 762 


Anne Arundel . . 


4)947 


7^929 


7)315 




8,505 


6,102 


5,316 




4,290 


4,570 


4,293 


Carroll 


5,902 


4,302 


3,940 




5,373 


3,437 


3,317 


Cecil 


3,405 


3,478 


2,904 




3,986 


°2,792 


°2,817 


Howard 


2,241 


2,299 


2,046 


Dorchester 


3,432 


2,123 


1,930 


Charles 


1,803 


1,858 


1,677 


Worcester 


2,298 


1,594 


1,512 


Caroline 


3,025 


1,483 


1,428 


Somerset 


3,059 


1,464 


1,254 


Talbot 


2,105 


1,305 


1,215 


Queen Anne's . . . 


2,101 


1,262 


1,182 


St. Mary's 


2,117 


1,224 


1,159 


Kent 


1,748 


1,090 


1,036 


Calvert 


1,060 


814 


841 


Baltimore City . 


70,917 


53,261 


51,529 


Entire State .... 


*175,256 


*160,434 


♦152,119 



Total Counties . 

Pr. George's. . . 
Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Montgomery . . . 

Charles 

Wicom<ico 

Calvert 

Dorchester 

Somerset 

Worcester 

St. Mary's 

Talbot 

Harford 

Frederick 

Howard 

Caroline 

Queen Anne's. . 

Kent 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Washington . . . . 
Allegany 



Baltimore City 
Entire State. . 



*3 1,070 

2,781 
2,853 
1,942 
1,898 
1,803 
1,675 
1,343 
1,947 
2,255 
2,088 
1,404 
1,373 
916 
1,150 
848 
1,188 
1,093 
1,188 
548 
440 
377 
267 



15,946 
*46,745 



*°22.668 

°3,249 
°2,967 
2,414 
1,537 
1,471 
1,110 
1,084 
1,068 
1,069 
1,098 
736 
770 
821 
650 
571 
545 
527 
577 
351 
251 
167 
134 



27,167 
*49,728 



Junior, Junior-Senior, and Regular High Schools 



Total Counties . . 


*14,888 


♦45,843 


♦53,725 


Baltimore 


1,512 


6,990 


8,513 


Pr. George's .... 


824 


4,359 


6,065 




1,665 


5,849 


5,861 


Montgonvey. . . 


609 


5,227 


5,347 


Washington. . . . 


1,281 


4,849 


5,031 


Anne Arundel . . 


454 


2,746 


3,520 


Frederick 


1,421 


2,361 


3,114 


Carroll 


775 


1,879 


2,291 


Harford 


651 


1,731 


2,192 


Cecil 


514 


1,245 


1,678 


Wicomico 


901 


1,148 


1,207 


Garrett 


449 


1,037 


1,142 


Dorchester 


558 


919 


1,108 


Howard 


284 


709 


1,012 


Caroline 


597 


844 


972 




649 


691 


910 


Charles 


99 


587 


809 


Talbot 


437 


667 


777 


Somerset 


462 


542 


733 


Queen Anne's . . . 
St. Mary's 


403 


470 


610 


23 


499 


580 


Kent 


282 


450 


483 




143 


283 


279 


Baltimore City . 


17,660 


27,721 


26,930 


Entire State .... 


♦32,391 


♦73,152 


♦80,329 



Total Counties 

Anne Arundel . 
Pr. George's. . 

Baltimore 

Montgomery . . 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Charles 

Dorchester .... 

Talbot 

Harford 

Frederick ...... 

Caroline 

Calvert 

Howard 

St. Mary's 

Cecil 

Kent 

Queen Anne's. . 

Carroll 

Washington . . . 
Allegany 



Baltimore City 
Entire State. . . 



♦447 

58 



117 
18 

78 
40 



54 
19 



30 



36 



1,355 
♦1,778 



♦5,236 

651 
385 
305 
321 
308 
316 
421 
324 
318 
207 
199 
209 
186 
178 
142 
168 
105 
175 
150 
92 
55 
42 



7,261 
♦12,445 



♦ Totals exclude duplicates. 

° Excludes enrollment in elementary schools of State teachers colleges: 



College 1923 1945 1946 

Towson 179 207 245 

Frostburg 122 165 168 

Salisbury 96 98 



College 1945 1946 

Bowie 116 99 

Anne Arundel 20 16 

Prince George's. ... 96 83 



Data for Grades 7 and 8 in Junior High Schools, formerly included in the Elementary Grades, are 

included in the High School figures for 1945 and 1946. 
For enrollment by counties arranged alphabetically, see Table II, pages 241-2. 



Public School Enrollment and Percent of Attendance 15 



In 1945-46 Maryland with 160.3 average number of days 
attended per pupil enrolled, ranked sixth among the states, ex- 
ceeded by Pennsylvania, Michigan, Illinois, Maine and Ohio. 



TABLE 8 — Percent of Attendance in White and Colored Elementary Schools 
for School Years Ending in June 1923 and June 1946 



County 



County Average 

Kent 

Dorchester 

Caroline 

Allegany 

Somerset 

Queen Anne's. . 

Carroll 

Talbot 

Frederick 

Prince George's . 

Charles 

Washington. . . . 

Wicomico 

Garrett 

Baltimore 

Anne Arundel. . 

Calvert 

Worcester 

Harford 

St. Mary's 

Howard 

Cecil 

Montgomery. . . 

Baltimore City. 

Total State. . . . 



White Schools 



1923 


1946 


*84.2 


*90.4 


86.7 


93.1 


83.6 


92.8 


86.5 


92.2 


*88.9 


*92.2 


83.3 


92.1 


85.4 


91.8 


79.4 


91.2 


85.8 


91.2 


83.6 


90.9 


84.9 


90.9 


79.5 


90.8 


84.9 


90.8 


86.5 


*90.7 


83.9 


90.3 


*84.0 


*90.0 


84.5 


89.9 


79.9 


89.8 


83.5 


89.8 


84.5 


89.6 


74.5 


89.5 


84.0 


89.5 


84.8 


89.1 


81.9 


88.1 


89.6 


88.2 


86.4 


89.7 



County 



County Average 

Allegany 

Queen Anne's. . 

Talbot 

Caroline 

Wicomico 

Dorchester. . . . 

Kent 

Prince George's. 
Anne Arundel . . 
Washington. . . . 

Harford 

Baltimore 

Somerset 

Frederick 

Cecil 

St. Mary's 

Montgomery ... 

Carroll 

Howard 

Calvert 

Charles 

Worcester 

Baltimore City . 
Total State 



Colored Schools 



1923 


1946 


76.2 


*87..5 


87.4 


94.0 


73.1 


94.0 


84.3 


90.8 


76.4 


90.3 


84.8 


90.1 


74.2 


89.7 


73.4 


89.4 


76.4 


*89.1 


71.2 


*88.9 


81.7 


88.5 


79.9 


87.9 


75.4 


87.5 


80.5 


87.4 


84.6 


87.3 


74.4 


86.8 


62.9 


86.6 


80.8 


86.3 


72.0 


86.5 


71.0 


85.0 


65.3 


83.5 


66.8 


81.3 


80.1 


81.1 


87.0 


86.6 


79.9 


87.0 



For attendance in 1946 arranged alphabetically and by type of organization, see Table IX. 
page 252 . 

* Excludes percent of attendance in elementary schools of State Teachers Colleges: 

STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE 1923 1946 STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE 1928 1946 

Frostburg 92.2 94.4 Bowie 90.2 

Towson 87.4 90.0 Anne Arundel 81.9 

Salisbury 90.9 Prince George's 91.1 



16 



1946 Report of 



Maryland State Department of Education 



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Percent and Index of Attendance Public Elementary Schools 



17 



TABLE 10 — An Index of School Attendance in County Elementary Schools,* 
White and Colored, for School Year Ending June 30, 1946 





Percent of 


Rank 


IN Percent of 




Attend- 


Late 


With- 


Attend- 


Late 


With- 




ancet 


EntrantsJ 


drawal.s° 


ance! 


Entrants^ 


drawals" 


White Schools 


County Average. . 


90.4 


.3 


1.0 








Queen Anne's .... 


91.8 


.1 


.1 


6 


2 


1 


Allegany 


92.2 


.3 


.8 


4 


7 


6 


Frederick 


90.9 


.1 


.6 


9 


5 


4 


Prince George's . . . 


90.9 


.2 


.7 


10 


6 


6 


Carroll 


91.2 


.3 


.9 


7 


8 


8 


Washington 


90.8 


.4 


.5 


12 


13 


2 


Somerset 


92.1 


.3 


1.0 


5 


11 


12 


Garrett 


90.3 


.1 


1.2 


14 


1 


17 


Kent 


93.1 


.6 


1.0 


1 


20 


13 


Dorchester 


92.8 


.4 


1.2 


2 


16 


16 


Charles 


90.8 


.5 


.8 


11 


17 


7 


Anne Arundel .... 


89.9 


.4 


.9 


16 


12 


10 


Wicomico 


90.7 


.1 


2.0 


13 


3 


23 


Baltimore 


90.0 


.3 


1.0 


15 


10 


14 


Caroline 


92.2 


.6 


1.5 


3 


18 


21 


Worcester 


89.8 


.1 


1.5 


18 


4 


20 


Harford 


89.6 


.3 


1.1 


19 


9 


15 


Howard 


89.5 


.4 


.9 


21 


14 


9 


Cecil 


89.1 


.6 


.6 


22 


21 


3 


Talbot 


91.2 


.6 


1.9 


8 


19 


22 


Calvert 


89.8 


.7 


1.0 


17 


22 


11 


Montgomery 


88.1 


.4 


1.3 


23 


15 


18 


St. Mary's 


89.5 


1.5 


1.4 


20 


23 


19 


Colored Schools 


County Average. . 


87.5 


1.5 


1.3 








Allegany 


94.0 




.7 


1 


1 


3 


Queen Anne's. . . . 


94.0 


" " .2 




2 


2 


1 


Dorchester 


89.7 


.4 


.9 


6 


4 


9 


Washington 


88.5 


.6 


.6 


10 


7 


2 


Prince George's . . . 


89.1 


.4 


.9 


8 


5 


10 


Talbot 


90.3 


1.9 


.9 


3 


15 


7 


Baltimore 


87.5 


1.3 


.7 


12 


11 


4 


Cecil 


86.8 


1.1 


.7 


15 


8 


6 


Wicomico 


90.1 


.6 


3.1 


5 


6 


22 


Anne Arundel. . . . 


88.9 


2.1 


.9 


9 


16 


8 


Harford 


87.9 


.3 


3.0 


11 


3 


21 


Frederick 


87.3 


1.3 


1.0 


14 


12 


11 


Caroline 


90.3 


2.7 


1.3 


4 


22 


13 


Somerset 


87.4 


1.2 


2.0 


13 


9 


17 


St. Mary's 


86.6 


2.4 


.8 


16 


18 


6 


Carroll 


85.5 


1.2 


1.6 


18 


10 


16 


Howard 


85.0 


1.6 


1.1 


19 


13 


12 


Kent 


89.4 


2.4 


2.0 


7 


19 


19 


Montgomery 


86.3 


2.3 


1.4 


17 


17 


14 


Worcester 


81.1 


1.7 


1.8 


22 


14 


16 


Calvert 


83.5 


2.7 


2.0 


20 


21 


18 


Charles 


81.3 


2.5 


2.3 


21 


20 


20 



* Excludes elementary schools of State Teachers Colleges. 

t For percent of attendance by counties arranged alphabetically see Table IX, page 252. 

X Late entrance for employment, indifference, or neglect. The county having the smallest percentage 

of late entrants is ranked first. 
° Withdrawals for causes other than removal, transfer, commitment to institutions, or de$tth. Tb^ 

county having the smallest percentage of withdrawals is ranked first, 



18 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 11 — Percent of Attendance in Maryland High Schools for Year 

Ending June 1923 and June 1946 



County 



County Average 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Dorchester 

Allegany 

Queen Anne's. . 

Frederick 

Carroll 

Caroline 

Charles 

Baltimore 

Kent 

Howard 

Worcester 

Montgomery 

Washington 

Garrett 

Prince George's. 

Talbot 

Harford 

Anne Arundel . . . 

Calvert 

Cecil 

St. Mary's 

Baltimore City* 

Total State 



White High Schools 



1923 


1946 


91 


9 


91 


4 


91 


4 


93 


7 


92 


3 


93 


3 


92 


4 


92 


6 


94 


8 


92 


5 


91 


.9 


92 


3 


91 


5 


92 


3 


88 


7 


92 


1 


91 


2 


92 





88 


7 


91 


9 


91 


3 


91 


8 


90 


2 


91 


5 


89 


9 


91 


5 


91 


7 


91 





88 


9 


90 


9 


93 


1 


90 


8 


90 


2 


90 


8 


91 


8 


90 


7 


93 


2 


90 


7 


91 


2 


90 


6 


92 


1 


90 


2 


93 


5 


90 





92 





89 


5 


86 


8 


89 





91. 


5 


91. 


6 


91. 


6 


91. 


4 



County 



County Average 

Kent 

Allegany 

Dorchester. . . . , 

Wicomico 

Frederick 

Prince George's. 

Harford 

Carroll 

Baltimore 

Washington . . . . , 
Queen Anne's. . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Worcester 

Calvert 

Anne Arundel . . . 

Cecil 

Charles 

Montgomery . . . . 

Howard 

Caroline 

Baltimore City* 
Total State 



Colored High Schools 



1923 



89 


3 


90 


.2 


86 


3 


94 





93 


5 


93 


.9 


87 


4 


93 


2 


90 


5 


92 


1 


90 


5 


92 


.1 






92 


.0 






91 


8 






91 


7 






91 


5 






90 


3 






89 


9 






89 


4 






89 


3 


87 




89 


2 






89 


2 






89 


1 


88 




88 


9 






88 


7 


88 


4 


88 


3 






87 


7 






86 


9 


85 


6 


86 





88 


8 


90 


2 


88. 


9 


90 


2 



For attendance in 1946, for counties arranged alphabetically see Table IX page 252. 
* Includes pupils in vocational schools. 



Percent of High School Attendance; Grade Enrollment 



19 



CHART 2 



Number of Boys and Girls Enrolled by Grades in Maryland County 
Public Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1946 



Total Total „ , , 



1946 ^"''^ 1946 



COLORED 



^'90 I 3689 
3262 



Kgn. 
1* 



7t 



8+ 



II 



III 



IVt 



1 Special 
36 Claesee 



13,9 a a 



28025 - . 

Grand 

28463 Total 



1145 
1245 1 

180491 
17265 
15909 
16365 
15039 
15170 
14352 
14736 
14332 
13882 
13740 
13787 
13505 
13186 
3515 
6609 
12314 
9305 
9842 
10090 
8201 
8393 
6797 
6992 
1787 



648 
5 ST 



,935 



«b.750 



fo,510 



3,353 



4-831 



4.671 



5,4-19 



3.53Z 



4-,8fc.l 



2.743 



4-. 24-9 



1327 LJ422 

148527 74.751 
148352 7 3.601 



□ 



Enrollment excluding withdrawals for removal, transfer and death, and including 

enrollment in cltmentary schools of State Teachers Colk'Kes. 

* Includes enrollment in junior first prade. 

T Includes enrollment in elementary and junior high schools. 

t Includes 2 white boys, 12 white girls, and one colored boy who were post-graduates in 
1945 ; also 13 white boys and 12 white girls who were post-graduates in 1946. 



20 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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cS be." 
o aj 73 

J3= C 

*j o ea 
-U-a 

TJ 2.b 

• =^ Si c 

•u *J C 

ca ^jE-i c 

•5 = .El 

5 o a ca 

m ea 
o ^ ^ cj 
ea's 
c be ■*> 

o a 

^ L- C _ 

c: O ea 0, 
3-E- 3 



22 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 3 

Non-Promotions* by Grades in County Elementary Schools for 

Year Ending June 30, 1946 



I Percent B<?y8 
COLORED 




Z5.0I 



Grade 
It 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 



Special 
Classes 



I I Percent Oirls 



WHITK 




695 
295 

468 

20312:21 

34ipu&aH 

205LL9] 




* Excludes kindergarten classes and pupils in elementary schools at the State Teachers 
Colleges. Withdrawals for reasons other than removal, transfer and death are included. 

t Includes junior first grade. 



NoN Promotions by Grade and in First Grade 



23 



TABLE 14 — Number and Percent of Non-Promotions in First Grade* 
in Maryland White and Colored Schools: 1946 



County 



Total Counties: 

1944 

1945 

1946 

Worcester 

Frederick 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Washington. . . 

Carroll 

Allegany 

Cecil 

Talbot 

Kent 

Garrett 

Montgomery. . 

Howard 

Prince George's 

Caroline 

Saint Mary's. . . 

Baltimore 

Charles 

Calvert 

Anne Arundel . . 

Dorchester 

Queen Anne's. . 
Harford 



Wh}te Schools 
First Grade Non-Promotions 



Number 



Boys 



1,617 
1,230 
979 



7 
3 
24 
18 
46 
14 
7 
12 
32 

104 
27 

154 
10 
11 

231 
23 
15 

114 
31 
15 
72 



Girls 



991 
711 

584 

2 
3 
3 
2 
13 
4 
22 
10 
4 
3 
21 
60 
12 
75 
16 
10 
160 
14 
5 
68 
16 
17 
44 



Percent 



Boys 



17.3 
12.8 
10.7 

0.7 
1.9 
3.0 
2.9 
3.7 
4.8 
5.1 
4.8 
8.1 
11.4 
10.4 
12.4 
12.6 
13.2 
8.0 
10.8 
14.3 
15.3 
18.5 
18.6 
18.6 
15.3 
20.6 



Girls 



12.3 
8.5 
7.2 

1.6 
0.8 
1.5 
2.0 
2.2 
1.3 
3.1 
4.6 
5.5 
4.3 
6.8 
7.5 
7.5 
7.4 
14.5 
13.7 
10.6 
11.2 
9.6 
12.3 
12.2 
17.7 
12.6 



County 



Total Counties: 

1944 

1945 

1946 

Allegany 

Queen Anne's. . 

Worcester 

Wicomico 

Cecil 

Frederick 

Somerset 

Caroline 

Howard 

Carroll 

Dorchester. . . . 
Prince George's 

Talbot 

Kent 

Anne Arundel . . 
Saint Mary's. . 
Washington. . . 

Charles 

Baltimore 

Montgomery . . . 

Calvert 

Harford 



Colored Schools 
First Grade Non-Promotions 



Number 


Percent 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


568 


389 


28.5 


21.4 


561 


372 


25.4 


18.7 


452 


301 


20.9 


15.3 


3 


2 


3.6 


2.6 


7 


3 


8.8 


3.5 


1 


1 


4.8 


3.6 


3 


2 


5.8 


3.8 


10 


3 


9.2 


4.1 


10 


2 


19.2 


4.7 


7 


2 


11.9 


5.0 


5 


3 


18.5 


8.3 


10 


8 


12.3 


9.0 


63 


28 


20.2 


10.3 


17 


9 


20.2 


15.5 


6 


7 


17.6 


15.9 


70 


45 


25.6 


17.5 


17 


12 


27.4 


17.6 


2 


2 


16.7 


18.2 


42 


36 


29.8 


23.2 


86 


61 


30.1 


24.9 


40 


36 


27.8 


25.0 


36 


25 


31.3 


26.6 


17 


14 


27.4 


29.2 



♦Excludes pupils in first grade of elementary schools of State teachers colleges, but includes pupils in 
junior first grade. 



24 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 4 

Number and Percent of County White Elementary School Pupils 
through Grade 8 Not Promoted:! 1946 



Coonty 

Total and 
Co. Arerag* 

Waahin^oa 

Woroeatar 

Sonerset 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Kent 

Prlnoo George* 8 

Allegany* 

Montgoaezy 

Calrert 

Talbot 

Oarrett 

WlOOBlOO* 

Queen Anne's 

St. Ilax7'8 

Caroline 

Corobester 

Anne Amndel 

Charles 

Howard 

BaltlJMre* 

Barford 



i.sse rTT 



Ifunber 
B^s Oirla 



3,191 

13 
58 
16 
25 
57 
99 
31 
314 
262 
273 
S3 
49 
114 
108 
42 
40 
54 
85 
314 
74 
98 
82« 

sot 



?eroent Boye I I Peroent Oirle 








1 


30 








t Excludes pupils in kindergarten, and includes those in junior first grade and special 
classes. Includes withdrawals, for reasons other than removal, transfer and death. 
* Excludes pupils in elementary school classes at the State Teachers Colleges. 



NoN Promotions of County Elementary School Pupils 25 



CHART 5 



Number and Percent of Countv Colored Elementary School Pupils 
through Grade 8 Not Promoted:! 1946 



County 



Total and 
Co. Average 



Qaean Anne's 

Tredarlolc 

WaahlngtoB 

Allogaoor 

Caoll 

Homrd 

Kent 

Carroll 

Woro eater 

Carolina 

Sonerset 

Vioonloo 

Prince George's* 

Talbot 

St. Marr's 

Doroheeter 

Ifontgoaeiy 

Harford 

Anne Arundel* 

Charles 

Calyert 

Baltlaore 



Rumber 
Boys Girls 



Percent Boys 1 | Percent Olrls 



1,583 



908 I 6 fe 




t Includes pupils in junior first grade and special classes who are considered not ready 
for advancement. Also includes withdrawals for reasons other than removal, transfer and 
death. 

* Excludes pupils in elementary school at Bowie State Teachers College. 



26 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 15 



Causes for Non-Promotion of County White Elementary Pupils Not Pro- 
moted by Year, 1931 to 1946, and by County for Year Ending June 30, 1946 



YEAR 

county 


Total 
Not 
Promoted 




Percent of Pupils Not 


Promoted r>Y 


Cause 




All Causes 


Unfortunate Home 
Conditions and 
Lack of Interest 


Personal Illness 


Mental Incapacity 


Irregular Atten- 
dance Not Due 
to Sickness 


Transfer from 
Another School 


14 Years or Over, 
Employed 


Late Entrance and 
Early Withdrawal 


Other Causes 


By Year 


1931 


14,505 


13.8 


4.8 


1.6 


2.7 


1.2 


.8 


t.8 


.3 


1.6 


1932 


15,251 


14.3 


5.4 


1.8 


2.7 


1.2 


.8 


.7 


.3 


1.4 


1933 


16,727 


15.5 


5.8 


1.5 


3.1 


1.3 


.8 


.7 


.2 


2.1 


1934 


17,818 


16.6 


5.8 


2.4 


3.3 


1.5 


.9 


.6 


.2 


1.9 


1935 


14,709 


13.7 


4.7 


1.9 


2.5 


1.3 


.7 


.8 


.1 


1.7 


1936 


14,751 


13.8 


4.9 


1.7 


2.3 


1.4 


.7 


.8 


.1 


1.9 


1937 


14,575 


13.7 


5.0 


1.8 


2.1 


1.3 


.8 


.9 


.1 


1.7 


1938 


12,520 


11.9 


4.5 


1.4 


1.8 


1.0 


.7 


.7 


.3 


1.5 


1939 


11,759 


11.1 


4.6 


1.2 


1.6 


.9 


.7 


.5 


.2 


1.4 


1940 


11,057 


10.5 


4.2 


1.1 


1.6 


.9 


.7 


.5 


.2 


1.3 


1941* 


10,685 


10.1 


3.8 


1.1 


1.3 


1.0 


.6 


.6 


.2 


1.5 


1942* 


10,287 


9.6 


3.7 


1.1 


1.1 


1.0 


.6 


.6 


.2 


1.3 


1943* 


11,255 


10.3 


3.9 


1.1 


1.1 


1.3 


.6 


.6 


.2 


1.5 


1944* 


10,585 


9.8 


4.0 


1.1 


1.0 


1.0 


.5 


.5 


.2 


1.5 


1945* 


8,083 


7.3 


2.8 


.9 


.7 


.9 


.3 


.4 


.1 


1.2 


1946*° 


°4,852 


5.0 


1.9 


.6 


.5 


.4 


.3 


.2 


.1 


1.0 



By County, 1946° 



Frederick 


19 





4 





1 





1 













.1 




X 




: 








87 


1 


2 





5 





2 





1 





1 









1 





1 





1 




26 


1 


9 





8 





4 





2 





1 









.2 





1 





1 


Somerset 


36 


2 


9 


1 








5 





5 





5 













2 





2 


Cecil 


79 


3 





1 


5 





3 





4 





1 





1 





1 





3 





2 


Carroll 


129 


3 


4 


1 


4 





4 


1 








2 





1 





1 









2 


Kent 


37 


3 


8 


2 


2 





1 





2 





2 





4 





2 









5 


Prince George's 


484 


4 


2 


1 


4 





6 





8 





2 





3 









2 





7 


Montgomery 


X405 


4 


3 


1 


4 





6 





5 





4 





2 









1 


1 


1 




399 


4 


6 


1 


3 





4 


1 


1 





3 





1 





i 






1 


3 




179 


5 


6 


2 


5 





9 





6 





2 





4 





1 





i 





8 


Talbot 


66 


5 


6 


2 





1 


1 





8 





8 





2 





2 





1 





4 




44 


5 


6 


2 


8 





4 





1 





8 









6 





1 





8 




161 


6 





2 


9 





7 





7 









3 





9 









5 




69 


6 


2 


4 


2 





6 









4 





3 













7 


St. Mary's 


60 


6 


2 


1 


8 





6 









9 





2 





2 


o' 


2 


2 


3 




87 


6 


5 


2 








4 


1 


6 





4 





6 









3 


1 


8 




125 


6 


9 


3 


2 





7 


1 


6 





2 





4 









1 





7 


Anne Arundel 


467 


7 


2 


3 


7 





5 





8 





9 





5 





i 





2 





5 




109 


7 


4 


2 





1 


2 





9 





8 





5 





1 





1 


1 


8 




1,318 


7 


6 


2 


5 


1 








1 





7 





5 





3 





2 


2 


3 


Howard 


137 


7 


7 


3 


1 





7 


1 


4 


1 


2 





6 





2 





3 





2 


Harford 


329 


8 


7 


4 


3 





6 





3 





7 





8 





1 





3 


1 


6 



tl3 years, 1931. 

♦Excludes pupils attending the elementary schools of State teachers colleges. 
tLess than .1 of 1 percent. 

"Prior to 1946 grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools were included with elementary school figures. 
Due to 1945 legislation (Chapters 558 and 597), junior high school pupils are included with the 
high school data. 

xincludes kindergarten. 



Causes of Non Promotion of County Elementary School Pupils 27 



TABLE 16 

Causes for Non-Promotion of County Colored Elementary Pupils Not 
Promoted, by Year, 1931-1946, and by County for Year Ending June 30, 1946 



Year and 
County 



♦Total 
Not 
Promoted 



as 



Percent of Pupils Not Promoted by Cause 



6 

§1:: 

3 +i O 

O C o 
O 03 



cs 
a 
o 

m 



u 

a 
a 
w 
a 



u 

a 

es 
T5 
C 

0) 

*J o 

!: ^ 

a? 
^1 



o « 



0^ 



> 
o 

O a; 
00 >> 

>^ e 



^ eg 



By Year 



1931 


4,932 


18.5 


5 


8 


2 


4 


1 


8 


4 


4 


.5 


tl 


4 


1.0 


1 


2 


1932 


4,952 


18.7 


6 


6 


2 


4 


1 


7 


4 


3 


.3 


1 


.2 


.8 


1 


4 


1933 


5.266 


19.8 


7 


8 


1 


8 


1 


8 


4 


4 


.4 


1 


.1 


.8 


1 


7 


1934 


5,310 


20.8 


7 


3 


2 


2 


1 


7 


6 


2 


.5 


1 


.2 


.5 


1 


2 


1935 


4,797 


19.2 


6 


4 


2 


1 


1 


9 


5 





.5 


1 


3 


.5 


1 


5 


1936 


4.660 


19.1 


6 


7 


2 





1 


.4 


5 


3 


.6 


1 


.3 


.5 


1 


3 


1^37 


4,350 


18.3 


6 


6 


2 


4 


1 


4 


4 


4 


.5 


1 


3 


.4 


1 


3 


1938 


4,484 


19.2 


7 


9 


1 


7 


1 


3 


4 





.7 


1 


2 


.7 


1 


7 


1939 


4,303 


18.5 


8 


5 


1 


6 


1 


4 


3 


7 


.5 




9 


.6 


1 


3 


1940 


4,832 


16.6 


7 


7 


1 


5 




9 


3 


2 


.8 


1 


.0 


.6 




9 


1941 


3,663 


16.1 


7 





1 


8 




9 


3 





.7 


1 





.5 


1 


2 


1942 


3,645 


16.2 


7 


5 


1 


4 




9 


3 


1 


.6 




.9 


.4 


1 


4 


1943 


3,891 


17.6 


7 


5 


1 


5 




9 


4 


4 


.5 


1 





.3 


1 


5 


1944 


3,788 


17.2 


7 


3 


1 


7 




9 


4 


2 


.7 




.8 


.5 


1 


1 


1945 


3,464 


15.2 


6 


8 


1 


2 




.8 


3 


8 


.6 




7 


.4 




9 


1946° 


°2,491 


11.6 


4 


5 


1 


2 




.5 


3 


1 






4 


.3 


1 






By County, 1946° 



Queen Anne's 


2 





4 





2 











2 


















Frederick 


14 


2 


5 


1 


1 


1 


4 
























Washington 


8 


5 


1 





6 


1 


9 
















1 


3 


1 


3 


Cecil 


15 


5 


6 


3 


8 





7 




1 


1 


















Allegany 


8 


5 


6 


2 


1 


1 


4 




1 


4 

















7 


Howard 


32 


6 





2 


4 





4 


0.2 


1 


5 





2 





2 





7 





4 


Kent 


38 


7 


1 


3 


8 


1 


5 


0.7 





2 





2 





7 










Carroll 


18 


7 


4 


3 


7 





4 




1 


7 





4 


1 


2 










Worcester 


71 


8 





3 


6 


1 










7 





7 


1 








2 





8 


Caroline 


44 


8 


2 


5 


6 





4 







7 





6 





7 





2 






Somerset 


76 


8 


3 


3 


3 





5 


1.0 


1 


9 









9 





3 





4 


Wicomico 


89 


8 


6 


4 


3 


1 


3 


1.5 









7 





6 





2 






Prince George's 


296 


9 


9 


4 


8 





7 


0.6 


1 


7 





7 





1 





6 





7 


Talbot 


66 


10 


.1 


5 


8 





9 




2 


4 





3 





2 





5 






St. Mary's 


74 





2 


2 


6 


1 


1 




3 


9 


1 








1 





3 


1 


2 




109 


10 


7 


6 


5 


1 


1 


1.0 





2 





1 





6 






1 


2 


Montgomery 


181 


12 


3 


3 


9 


1 


9 


0.5 


4 


2 





3 





3 





5 





7 


Harford 


83 


12 


5 


6 





2 


3 


0.3 


2 


9 


1 



















380 


13 


5 


5 


6 


1 


6 


0.8 


4 


1 





6 





2 





2 





4 


Charles 


233 


16 


7 


4 


9 


1 


4 


1.2 


7 


6 





7 





5 





2 





2 


Calvert 


199 


18 


6 


4 


8 





7 


0.1 


10 


2 





5 





5 





7 


1 


1 


Baltimore 


455 


19 


2 


5 


6 


1 


1 


0.2 


5 





1 


8 





4 





2 


4 


9 



t 13 Years, 1931. 

* Excludes pupils at elementary school, Bowie State Teachers College. 

° Prior to 1946 grades 7 and 8 of junior high school were included with elementary school figures. 
Due to 1945 legislation junior high school pupils are included with the high school data. 



28 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 17 

Agef-Grade Distribution of Maryland County Boys Enrolled Nov. 1945 



tAGE 



Elementary Grade? 



High School Year° 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


7 


8 


I 


II 


III 


IVa 


Maryland County White Boys 


* 5 and under. . 


2,182 




























t6 


5,622 


1,678 


4 


1 






















7 


1,135 


4,962 


1,399 


12 






















8 


196 


1,638 


4,109 


1,156 


11 




















9 


46 


410 


1,733 


3,698 


1,023 


17 


















10 


11 


88 


653 


1,886 


3,259 


1,050 


2 




15 












11 


11 


17 


133 


766 


1,656 


2,911 


287 




594 


8 


12 








12 


1 


12 


40 


244 


867 


1,843 


995 


14 


1,796 


466 


412 


22 






13 


2 


4 


13 


52 


311 


889 


673 


41 


1,108 


1,286 


1,564 


467 


7 




14 




1 


4 


11 


79 


361 


349 


37 


540 


795 


1,640 


1,721 


416 


3 


15 








3 


19 


75 


144 


10 


157 


307 


806 


1,602 


1,471 


399 


16 








1 


1 


3 


10 




13 


63 


218 


618 


1,208 


1,244 


17 












1 






3 


4 


34 


131 


332 


925 


18 






















3 


4 


27 


77 


19 
























2 


5 


14 


19+ 
























3 


6 


8 


Total number . . . 


9,206 


8,810 


8,088 


7.830 


7,226 


7,150 


2,460 


102 


4,226 


2,929 


4,689 


4,570 


3,472 


2,670 


Number overage 


267 


532 


843 


1,077 


1,277 


1,329 


503 


10 


713 


374 


704 


521 


236 


71 


Percent overage 


2.9 


6.0 


10.4 


13.8 


17.7 


18.6 


20.4 


9.8 


16.9 


12.8 


15.0 


11.4 


6.8 


2.7 



Maryland County Colored Boys 



5 and under . . . 


373 


4 


























6 


1,174 


258 


























7 


433 


851 


147 


3 






















8 


120 


485 


596 


153 






















9 


45 


217 


460 


580 


133 


2 


















10 


19 


80 


259 


430 


472 


134 


2 




7 












11 


4 


29 


132 


272 


367 


451 


84 




56 


1 


9 








12 


1 


13 


54 


146 


257 


371 


250 




144 


40 


111 


10 






13 


2 


5 


26 


65 


159 


246 


218 




111 


107 


271 


85 


4 




14 




1 


1 


26 


54 


123 


139 




59 


118 


211 


204 


78 


2 


15 






1 


3 


24 


50 


62 




33 


63 


127 


193 


180 


50 


16 










2 


12 


5 




6 


22 


27 


93 


131 


141 


17 




















1 


6 


21 


44 


77 


18 






















1 




10 


18 


19 


























1 


2 


19+ 




























1 


Total number . . . 


2,171 


1,943 


1,676 


1,678 


1,468 


1,389 


760 




416 


352 


763 


606 


448 


291 


Number overage 


191 


345 


473 


512 


496 


431 


206 




98 


86 


139 


98 


48 


20 


Percent overage 


8.8 


17.8 


28.2 


30.5 


33.8 


31.0 


27.1 




23.6 


24.4 


18.2 


16.2 


10.7 


6.9 



t Age for last birthday as of September, 1945. 

* Excludes 616 in Kindergarten. 

t Excludes 3 in Kindergarten. 

° In counties on the twelve-year plan, students 
are allowed one year more before being con- 
sidered over-age. 



§ Includes pupils in special classes according 
to grade reported, but excludes pupils in 
elementary schools of State teachers 
colleges. 

a Excludes 2 post-graduates, 1 seventeen and 
1 nineteen years old. 



Age-Grade Distribution of County Boys and Girls 



29 



TABLE 18 

Agef-Grade Distribution of Maryland County Girls Enrolled Nov. 1945 



AGEt 


Elementary Grade° 


High School Year§ 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


7 


8 


I 


II 


III 


ivt 



Maryland County White Girls 



*5 and under . . . 


2,043 


5 


























6 


5,206 


1,850 


5 
























7 


764 


4,650 


1,611 


7 






















8 


96 


979 


4,139 


1,357 


15 




















9 


29 


220 


1,131 


3,919 


1,405 


23 


















10 


6 


39 


297 


1,234 


3,595 


1,409 


2 




30 












11 


4 


19 


72 


374 


1,201 


3,368 


394 


1 


831 


17 


11 








12 


1 


3 


15 


113 


418 


1,316 


1,158 


27 


2,050 


657 


644 


19 






13 


1 


3 


4 


16 


151 


480 


517 


55 


885 


1,419 


2,116 


789 


7 




14 








8 


27 


163 


206 


24 


286 


527 


1,674 


2,458 


729 


6 


15 






1 




8 


27 


71 


5 


66 


166 


530 


1,582 


2,246 


730 


16 










2 




9 


1 


5 


28 


108 


460 


1,446 


1,991 


17 


















2 


1 


17 


74 


334 


1,231 


18 




















1 


4 


6 


46 


237 


19 


























3 


26 


19+ 


























2 


6 


Total number . . . 


8,150 


7,768 


7,275 


7,028 


6,822 


6,786 


2,357 


113 


4,155 


2,816 


5,104 


5,388 


4,813 


4,227 


Numjaer over-age 


137 


284 


389 


511 


606 


670 


286 


6 


359 


196 


414 


325 


217 


173 


Percent over-age 


1.7 


3.7 


5.3 


7.3 


8.9 


9.9 


12.1 


5.3 


8.6 


7.0 


8.1 


6.0 


4.5 


4.1 



Maryland County Colored Girls 



5 and under. . . 


419 


5 


1 
























6 


19108 


325 


5 


1 






















7 


364 


907 


228 


2 






















8 


64 


360 


742 


216 


10 




















9 


24 


118 


334 


684 


236 


3 


















10 


9 


40 


137 


357 


663 


201 


7 




9 




1 








11 


1 


18 


56 


163 


356 


562 


137 




74 


5 


17 








12 


3 


8 


23 


66 


173 


313 


347 




198 


60 


143 


16 






13 


2 


3 


10 


26 


87 


155 


234 




117 


148 


390 


151 


13 




14 




1 


3 


15 


34 


78 


113 




46 


111 


220 


337 


152 


7 


16 








8 


9 


24 


30 




20 


53 


106 


224 


317 


108 


16 








2 


2 


9 


8 




5 


12 


25 


103 


185 


232 


17 






1 






1 






2 


3 


7 


21 


67 


123 


18 
























4 


11 


28 


19 
























1 




6 


19+ 




















1 






i 


2 


Total number . . . 


1,994 


1,785 


1,540 


1,540 


1.570 


1,346 


876 




471 


393 


909 


857 


746 


505 


Number over-age 


103 


188 


230 


280 


305 


267 


151 




73 


69 


108 


112 


60 


27 


Percent over-age 


5.2 


10.5 


14.9 


18.2 


19.4 


19.8 


17.2 




15.5 


17.6 


11.9 


13.1 


8.0 


5.3 



t Age for last birthday as of September, 1945 S In counties on the 12-year plan, students are 

♦ Excludes 566 in Kindergarten. allowed one more year before being consid- 

° Includes pupils in special classes according to ered over-age. 

grade reported, but excludes pupils in ele- % Excludes 8 post-graduates, 3 sixteen, 3 

mentary schools of teachers colleges. seventeen, and 2 eighteen-years old. 



30 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 19 — Number and Percent of Maryland County Elementary Pupilsf 

Over-Age Nov. 1921, 1943 and 1945 



County 



Number Over- Age 1945 


Percent of Elementary Pupils Over-age 


Boys 


Girls 


1921 


1943 


1945 


1945 


Boys 


Girls 



White 



County Average. . . . 


5,838 


2,889 


31 


6 


10 


9 


9 





11.5 


6 


2 


Allegany 


*381 


*193 


*27 


9 


*11 


1 


*6 


6 


*8.4 


*4 


7 


Anne Arundel 


414 


182 


*27 


1 


11 


2 


9 


1 


12.1 


5 


9 


Baltimore 


1,852 


1,008 


28 


9 


15 


2 


14 


9 


18.6 


10 


8 


Calvert 


46 


25 


38 


8 


12 


4 


9 


5 


11.3 


7 


3 


Caroline 


80 


30 


33 


2 


5 


1 


8 


2 


10.9 


4 


9 


Carroll 


261 


81 


33 


8 


10 


8 


9 


3 


13.5 


4 


7 


Cecil 


201 


100 


35 


6 


13 


6 


11 


4 


14.4 


8 







136 


63 


35 





16 


9 


13 





16.3 


9 





Dorchester 


119 


55 


29 


1 


10 


4 


9 


6 


12.2 


6 


6 




122 


59 


35 


7 


5 


9 


3 


1 


4.1 


2 


1 




300 


164 


46 


5 


17 





14 


7 


18.2 


10 


9 


Harford 


304 


133 


33 


5 


13 


1 


11 


8 


15.9 


7 


4 


Howard 


232 


121 


39 


6 


21 


3 


19 


3 


23.4 


14 


5 


Kent 


41 


17 


27 


9 


9 


6 


6 


3 


8.1 


4 


1 


Montgomery 


♦266 


*130 


33 


4 


*6 


2 


*4 


8 


*6.1 


*3 


3 


Prince George's 


t394 


1200 


27 


6 


t8 


4 


t5 


2 


16.5 


13 


7 


Queen Anne's 


72 


30 


27 


1 


10 


3 


9 


3 


12.6 


5 


8 


St. Mary's 


99 


28 


43 


6 


13 


4 


13 


5 


18.8 


6 


8 




89 


47 


31 


7 


12 


9 


11 





13.6 


8 


2 


Talbot 


75 


49 


30 





12 





10 


6 


12.4 


8 


7 


Washington 


*59 


*24 


*28 


2 


*6 


7 


*1 


1 


*1.5 


♦ 


6 




219 


116 


26 


9 


13 


1 


12 


6 


16.0 


9 





Worcester 


76 


34 


28 


1 


9 


8 


8 


1 


10.9 


5 


1 


11 Grade Systems . . . 


5,114 


2,533 


32 


5 


12 


1 


10 


6 


13.5 


7 


4 


*12 Grade Systems. . 


1724 


t356 


27 


9 


X8 





t4 


3 


t5.6 


t3 






Colored 



County Average. . . . 


2,654 


1,524 


65 


6 


19 


8 


19 


2 


23 


9 


14 


3 


Allegany 


*12 


*3 


56 


2 


*13 


8 


*10 


6 


*15 


2 


*4 


8 


Anne Arundel 


465 


226 


69 





27 


9 


24 


4 


30 


9 


17 





Baltimore 


419 


304 


57 


1 


28 


8 


28 


1 


33 


3 


23 


2 




168 


116 


72 


3 


27 


8 


26 


5 


30 


9 


22 





Caroline 


41 


17 


73 


1 


12 


1 


10 


9 


14 


1 


7 





Carroll 


24 


17 


72 


6 


15 


1 


16 


7 


18 


8 


14 


4 


Cecil 


21 


7 


59 


2 


7 


5 


10 


3 


14 


9 


5 


3 


Charles 


140 


96 


62 


6 


12 


3 


16 


7 


20 


3 


13 


3 


Dorchester 


71 


31 


64 


7 


10 


6 


9 


9 


13 


8 


6 





Frederick 


14 


15 


59 


5 


6 


4 


4 


6 


4 


3 


5 





Harford 


75 


31 


64 


4 


15 


3 


15 


4 


21 


4 


9 


1 


Howard 


57 


29 


71 


2 


17 


8 


16 


2 


19 


9 


11 


8 


Kent 


52 


29 


68 


9 


18 





15 


2 


20 


2 


10 


5 


Montgomery 


*175 


*72 


66 


2 


*14 


5 


*16 


8 


*23 


1 


*10 





Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


433 


244 


64 


1 


27 


4 


22 


8 


28 


8 


16 


7 


27 


22 


68 


6 


8 


5 


9 


4 


10 


8 


8 


1 


Sr. Mary's 


99 


55 


74 


5 


23 


9 


21 


2 


26 


3 


15 


7 


Somerset 


105 


57 


71 





17 


5 


17 


7 


21 


2 


13 


7 


Talbot 


89 


65 


66 


8 


16 


9 


22 


8 


25 


9 


19 


7 


Washington 


*6 


*9 


52 


8 


*8 


7 


*9 


6 


*7 


7 


*11 


4 


Wicomico 


80 


47 


58 


4 


18 


4 


13 


7 


17 


4 


10 


1 


Worcester 


71 


32 


63 


4 


12 


3 


11 


6 


15 


7 


7 


4 



t Excludes pupils in elementary schools of State teachers colleges. 
* 12-Grade System. 

t Includes one school on 12 grade system in Prince George's County. 



County Elementary School Pupils Overage; Survival of County 31 

Pupils 

TABLE 20 

Estimated Survival® of 100 Maryland County White and Colored Pupils 
Entering Grade 1 to Grade 7, 8, and High School Years: November, 1945 



White 





Eilem. 7^ 












County 


and. Jr. / 


Jr. o 


T 
1 


TT 
11 


TTT 
111 


IV 




y 1 


A 1 

41 


an 


C O 

bo 


57 


A Q 

48 


11 Grade Systems 


90 


23 


63 


72 


59 


50 




yb 




1 AA 

100 


O O 

oo 


n A 
74 


C A 

60 




4:00 




•1 AA 

100 




75 


C A 




X88 




92 


88 


72 


58 




t96 




86 


81 


65 


56 




X9A 




76 


72 


60 


55 




83 




77 


72 


69 


54 


rr^ _ 1 1 _ . 






oo 


b4 


63 


CO 

63 








QT 
O 1 


by 




Oo 




•7*7 




net 
7b 


bU 


C A 

b4 


CO 

Oil 




t89 




96 


81 


59 


52 


I rl O 1" 1 Qo 


79 








O 1 


ov 




91 




95 


84 


63 


49 




89 




82 


62 


54 


48 




87 




70 


58 


51 


46 


Garrett 


t91 




72 


55 


50 


46 


Bal timoFG 


188 




79 


62 


53 


44 


Calvert 


*82 




66 


69 


53 


44 




*90 


83 


15 


77 


61 


62 


Anne Arundel • • 


t86 


84 


11 


74 


58 


48 




J81 


75 


6 


64 


48 


37 




Jr. 7 


Jr. 8 


Jr. 9 


10 


11 


12 


12 Grade Systems ■ ■ 


92 


87 


78 


60 


51 


41 


Alle^anv . . 


t84 


84 


76 


66 


56 


47 


Washington 


tlOO 


100 


86 


63 


49 


38 


Montgomery . ■ 


80 


73 


67 


48 


46 


37 




Colored 


_ 

County 
















Elem. 7* 














and Jr. 7 


Jr. 8 


I 


II 


III 


IV 




86 


25 


57 


50 


41 


27 




85 


20 


55 


50 


41 


27 




*82 




74 


86 


61 


60 


Caroline 


*78 




100 


79 


51 


43 




84 




96 


59 


47 


41 


Dorchester 


*100 




82 


44 


60 


40 


Queen Anne's 


♦90 




87 


51 


27 


34 


Somerset 


J 73 




78 


51 


52 


34 


Carroll 


47 




55 


47 


47 


33 


riariora 


t99 




73 


65 


36 


29 


ot. Alary s 


*62 




61 


46 


39 


28 




*81 




62 


57 


60 


27 


Worcester 


85 




74 


58 


42 


27 


Charles 


t75 




63 


36 


26 


26 


Talbot 


73 




74 


52 


32 


26 


Frederick 


t91 




87 


62 


48 


25 


Howard 


J73 




68 


53 


34 


22 


Baltimore 


J72 




50 


25 


20 


13 


Calvert 


*84 




64 


43 


25 


11 


Anne Arundel 


^80 


65 




47 


42 


24 


Prince George's 


^66 


69 




28 


25 


10 




Jr. 7 


Jr. 8 


Jr. 9 


10 


11 


12 


12 Grade Systems 


91 


81 


74 


41 


39 


22 


Allegany 


75 


100 


71 


29 


79- 


33 


Washington 


78 


75 


94 


31 


41 


31 


Montgomery 


90 


75 


68 


42 


32 


18 



° Obtained by dividing enrollment in grade or year by enrollment in largest age group. 

* Elementary 7 grade only. 

t Both elementary 7 and junior 7 grades. 



32 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 21 

Estimated Survival ° of 100 Maryland County White Boys and Girls 
Entering Grade 1 to Grade 7, 8, and High School Years: November, 1945 









White 


Boys 






County 
















Elem. 7* 














and Jr. 7 


Jr. 8 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


All Counties 


89 


41 


61 


61 


46 


35 


11 Grade Systems 


89 


24 


58 


64 


49 


38 




61 




76 


56 


51 


46 


Worcester 


70 




70 


53 


53 


44 




^0 




lUU 


OO 


OO 




Carroll 


90 




80 


61 


44 


43 


Dorchester 


t93 




84 


68 


59 


42 


Caroline 


88 




88 


80 


59 


42 


Hftrford 


t89 




97 


71 


48 


41 








Q1 


1 


OO 


41 
41 


Talbot 


t84 




77 


59 


61 


41 








7Q 

<y 


/y 


1 


A 1 
41 


St. Mary's 


91 




72 


49 


41 


37 




1:81 




63 


49 


36 


36 




t96 




75 


52 


46 


35 




66 




75 


49 


37 


34 


Baltimore 


^86 




72 


55 


45 


32 


Howard 


91 




72 


54 


47 


32 


Calvert 


*60 




43 


43 


36 


28 


Wicomico 


*91 


75 


22 


70 


50 


47 


Anne Arundel 


t84 


79 


11 


64 


49 


37 


Prince George's 


tS2 


74 


6 


60 


39 


28 




Jr .7 


Jr. 8 


Jr. 9 


10 


11 


12 


12 Grade Systems 


87 


87 


70 


53 


40 


30 


Allegany 


t79 


81 


65 


54 


43 


33 


Montgomery 


78 


77 


61 


46 


33 


28 


Washington 


tlOO 


100 


83 


58 


41 


27 





White Girls 


County 


Elem. 7* 














and Jr. 7 


Jr. 8 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


All Counties 


92 


42 


71 


76 


68 


60 


11 Grade Systems 


92 


26 


67 


80 


70 


62 


Kent 


*69 




100 


77 


97 


74 


Somerset 


t87 




74 


89 


71 


74 




t80 




99 


100 


84 


73 


Frederick 


X91 




90 


80 


72 


69 


Carroll 


91 




94 


77 


81 


66 


Caroline 


86 




91 


78 


74 


66 




96 




84 


94 


86 


65 


Talbot 


J97 




89 


68 


64 


65 


Charles 


75 




85 


60 


77 


65 


Calvert 


*100 




94 


100 


73 


63 


Harford 


t86 




93 


87 


67 


61 


Howard 


83 




68 


61 


55 


60 




86 




93 


76 


69 


60 




88 




71 


60 


74 


57 




t89 




86 


70 


60 


56 


Cecil 


85 




94 


90 


69 


54 


Garrett 


t96 




78 


57 


64 


54 




*89 


91 


8 


84 


71 


77 




J82 


83 


10 


79 


64 


57 




t79 


74 


5 


69 


56 


47 




Jr. 7 


Jr. 8 


Jr. 9 


10 


11 


12 


12 Grade Systems 


93 


85 


84 


66 


62 


53 




t86 


84 


84 


76 


68 


59 


Washington 


tlOO 


97 


85 


65 


54 


47 


Montgomery 


79 


66 


72 


49 


56 


45 



° Obtained by dividing enrollment in grade or year by enrollment in largest age group. 

* Elementary 7 grade only. 

% Both elementary 7 and junior 7 grades. 



Survival of County Boys and Girls 



33 



TABLE 22 

Estimated Survival" of 100 Maryland County Colored Boys and Girls Entering 
Grade 1 to Grade 7, 8, and High School Years: November, 1945 





Colored Boys 


County 
















JJjlClll* f 














ar\A Tr 7 


Tr 8 


T 
X 


TT 
1 1 


TTT 

XXX 


TV 
X V 




82 




20 


57 


42 


31 


20 




80 


14 


56 


42 


31 


21 




*85 




75 


70 


38 


47 




♦100 




84 


51 


50 


36 


Carroll 


40 




50 


55 


60 


35 




*8'7 




70 


67 


46 


S3 




9,9 






71 




Q9 








fid 






ou 




*47 










OA. 




*82 




77 


44 


23 


23 


Kent 






Oo 


no 


Oo 






72 




77 


48 


25 


19 




tlOO 




64 


51 


31 


19 




164 




59 


32 


17 


18 




t80 




68 


39 


27 


16 




149 




60 


32 


31 


14 


Tr< 3 • 1 _ 


177 




79 


40 


25 


13 




157 




44 


12 


12 


8 




*60 




42 


19 


14 


6 




1»1 


bO 




35 


OA 
OS 


OA 




t62 


67 




23 


18 


8 ■ 




Jr. 7 


Jr. 8 


Jr. 9 


10 


11 


12 


'4 d _ J 


83 


77 


58 


35 


23 


8 




100 


80 


87 


47 


20 


20 




59 


88 


53 


18 


24 


12 




80 


69 


51 


34 


21 


6 








Colored Girls 






County 
















"Rlpm 7* 














Q n H Tr 7 


Tr 8 


I 


II 


TTT 


TV 

X V 




90 


20 


66 


57 


50 


84 


11 Grade Systems 


90 


15 


65 


58 


49 


34 




*70 




63 


89 


74 


64 




187 




86 


64 


66 


51 


Cecil 


75 




100 


38 


63 


46 




1100 




93 


86 


75 


39 




*100 




69 


32 


62 


38 








80 


48 




<17 
o f 








75 


73 


oo 


oo 








94 


60 


OO 


OD 




t79 




61 


37 


33 


33 




88 




64 


61 


53 


31 




J66 




68 


68 


42 


29 


Kent 


*70 




61 


41 


61 


28 


Carroll 


47 




53 


38 


34 


28 


St. Mary's 


*60 




64 


53 


41 


24 


Talbot 


71 




69 


40 


28 


19 




t78 




49 


35 


26 


18 




*95 




76 


61 


32 


15 


Anne Arundel 


175 


65 




54 


43 


26 


Prince George's 


t68 


68 




32 


31 


12 




Jr. 7 


Jr. 8 


Jr. 9 


10 


11 


12 




90 


77 


83 


44 


52 


35 


Washington 


62 


69 


62 


31 


100 


46 


50 


60 


85 


15 


50 


35 




93 


74 


78 


46 


40 


30 



° Obtained by dividing enrollment in grade or year by enrollment in largest age group. 

♦ Elementary 7 grade only. 

X Both elementary 7 and junior 7 grades. 



34 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 23 — Program for Education of Physically Handicapped Children in 
Maryland Financed with State Funds in 1945-1946 













Transportation 


Special 


Instruction 










Home Teaching 




To Regvilar Class 


in Hospital Schools 


Total 




vyUUN 1 I 






























Expendi- 




Expendi- 




Expendi- 




Expend 






Pupils 


Teachers 


tures 




Pupils 


tures 


Pupils 


tures 


Pupils 


tures 






118 


77 


$9,371. 


43 


31 


$2,294.72 


al20 


$ .... 


269 


$11,666. 


1 K 

X D 


A lloorQ n V 


8 


6 


683. 


30 


20 


1,334.90 


a5 




33 


2,018. 


20 


Anne Arundel . . . 


11 


10 


694 


18 






alO 




21 


694. 


1 8 

X o 




22 


6 


2 2Q4 


13 


2 


152.24 


a9 




33 


2,446 


O 4 


On] Vf^rt 














a2 




2 






^ Q I* 1 1 T\ ^1 


i 


i 


103 


32 






a3 




4 


103. 


^9 




9 


9 


708 


90 






alO 




19 


708 






2 


2 


257 


31 




:::: 


a4 

** * 




6 


257. 


OX 


/*^V|Q rloa 














a2 




2 






Dorchester 


4 


4 


386 


08 






a2 




6 


386 


08 


Frederick 


9 


9 


216 


60 


1 


Loo , vyj 


ai^ 




1 ^ 




60 


Garrett 


1 


1 


4 


40 


4 


450.97 


a4 




9 


455 


37 


Harford 














a4 










Howard 


"i 


i 


28 


50 






a4 






28 


50 


Kent 


4 


3 


335 


34 






a2 




6 


335 


34 


Montgomery. . . . 


23 


11 


1,594 


32 






a9 




32 


1,594 


32 


Prince George's . . 
Queen Anne's .... 


13 


8 


734 


05 


2 


154. il 


a5 




20 


888 


16 


1 


1 


57 


00 






a2 




3 


57 


00 


St. Mary's 














al 




1 






Somerset 


i 


i 


92 


16 






a7 




8 


92 


i6 


Talbot 


3 


2 


208 


02 






a3 




6 


208 


.02 


Washington 


3 


3 


292 


74 






a6 




9 


292 


74 


Wicomico 


7 


6 


466 


08 


2 


66! 50 


alO 




19 


532 


58 


Worcester 


2 


1 


215 


.00 






a4 




6 


215 


.00 


Baltimore City. . 


50 


5 


3,000 


00 


14 


1,498.41 


al48 


a5,400.00 


212 


9,898 

b 


.41 


Total State 


• 168 


82 


$12,371 


43 


45 


$3,793.13 


a268 


a$5,400.00 


481 


$21,564 


.56 



a The two teachers for whom reimbursement of $5,400.00 was paid, instructed 148 Baltimore City 
and 120 county children under treatment in the hospital schools ,who are shown opposite the in- 
dividual county and Baltimore City. 

b The remainder of the $35,000.00 was spent for the salary of the State Supervisor of Special Educ- 
ation ($4,950.00); testing hard-of-hearing children in county schools ($959.44); supplementing 
the Vocational Rehabilitation Program for persons under age 21 ($7,500.00); and supplies and 
equipment ($26.00). 



TABLE 24 — Special Classes for Retarded Children in Counties, 1945-46 





White 


Colored 


County 


Number 




Average 


Number 




Average 




of 


Enroll- 


Enroll- 


of 


Enroll- 


Enroll- 




Classes 


ment 


ment 


per 


Classes 


ment 


ment per 








Class 






Class 


1940-1941 


61 


1,275 


20 


.9 


3 


75 


25 





1941-1942 


63 


1,345 


21 


.3 


3 


71 


23 


7 


1942-1943 


60 


1,358 


22 


.6 


2 


51 


25 


5 


1943-1944 


64 


1,457 


22 


.7 


3 


51 


17 





1944-1945 


77 


1,787 


23 


.2 


2 


44 


22 





1945-1946 


73 


1,492 


20 


.4 


2 


36 


18 







tt*19 


364 


19 


.1 












3 


64 


21 


3 












2 


46 


23 













Carroll 


t2 


41 


20 


5 










Cecil 


2 


3/8 


19 















1 


15 


15 













Kent 


t2 


32 


16 















1 


19 


19 















1 


20 


20 













Talbot 


2 


35 


17 


5 










Washington-Elementary 


t23 


537 


23 


3 










-Junior High 


°8 


165 


20 


6 






18'. 


6 




t4 


74 


18. 


5 


t2 


36 




3 


42 


14. 














* Seven of these were in one school. % One school had two classes. ° Four schools each had two classes, 
t Four schools each had one class, three each had two classes, three each had three classes, and one 
school had four classes. 



Public Education for Handicapped Children 



35 



TABLE 25 

Baltimore City Special Classes and Highwood School for Semester 

Ending June 30, 19i6 



Kind of Class 



Number 

of 
Classes 



Net Roll 



Average 
Net Roll 



Percent 
of Attend- 
ance 



Promoted or 
Making Satisfactory 
Improvement* 



Number 



Percentt 



Physically Handicapped White Pupils 





20 


370 


363 


87 


330 


89 


2 


Orthopedic 


8 


195 


187 


86 


166 


85 


1 


Sight Conservation 


3 


49 


49 


88 


45 


91 


8 




3 


44 


44 


89 


42 


95 


5 


Deaf 


3 


27 


27 


92 


22 


81 


5 


MixedJ 


3 


55 


56 


87 


55 


100 





Physically Handicapped Colored Pupii^s 


Total and Average 


7 


129 


123 


85 


101 


78 


3 


Orthopedic 


4 


76 


74 


86 


59 


77 


6 


Sight Conservation 


2 


38 


36 


87 


33 


86 


8 


Deaf 


1 


15 


13 


82 


9 


60 






Socially Handicapped White Pupils 



Highwood School. 



67 



63 



81 



Mentally Handicapped White Pupils 





104 


2,631 


2,540 


83 


2,246 


85 


4 


Opportunity 


71 


1,848 


1,841 


84 


1,565 


84 


7 




1 


21 


21 


83 


21 


100 





Shop Center 


32 


762 


678 


81 


660 


86 


6 



Mentally Handicapped Colored Pupils 





91 


2,372 


2,278 


75 


1,777 


74 


9 




50 


1,347 


1,190 


78 


1,040 


77 


2 


Special Center 


8 


185 


185 


81 


135 


73 





Shop Center 


33 


840 


903 


67 


602 


71 


7 



* Making satisfactory improvement applies to the opportunity group, 
t Percent of net roll of classes involved. 

t Junior high class consisting of pupils with the following deficiences: orthopedic, 25; sight, 9; 
hearing, 4; cardiac, 18. 

Note: Training in lip reading was supplied during the year to 237 pupils in the regular grades in addition 
to those who were members of the classes for the deaf and hard of hearing. There were 718 pupils 
in the regular grades who received training in speech correction and 401 pupils in the regular grades 
who were members of nutrition Qla.sses, 



36 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 25A— Graduates of Maryland County High Schools by Color-Sex-Year, 
1927-1946, and by Color-Sex-County and Baltimore City for Year Ending 

June 30, 1946 



Year 


White 


Colored 




Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 



By Year 



1927 


2,887 


1,071 


1,816 


97 




34 


63 


1928 


2,993 


1,142 


1,851 


117 




42 


75 


1929 


3,395 


1,339 


2,056 


121 




50 


71 


1930 


3,785 


1,534 


2,251 


169 




63 


106 


1931 


4,204 


1,713 


2,491 


192 




77 


115 


1932 


4,397 


1,772 


2,625 


288 




124 


164 


1933 


4,921 


2,114 


2,807 


297 




117 


180 


1934 


5,122 


2,220 


2,902 


318 




128 


190 


1935 


4,839 


2,052 


2,787 


322 




142 


180 


1936 


5,322 


2,283 


3,039 


t374 




^164 


t210 


1937 


5,472 


2,361 


3,111 


t392 




•161 


t231 


1938 


5,930 


2,566 


3,364 


t5l0 




■202 


t308 


1939 


6,306 


2,750 


3,556 


t576 




■234 


t342 


1940 


6,813 


3,017 


3,796 


t673 




■245 


t428 


1941 


7,038 


3,168 


3,870 


t708 




•249 


t459 


1942 


7,176 


3,165 


4,011 


t659 




•256 


t403 


1943 


6,741 


2,886 


3,855 


t689 




•269 


t420 


1944 


6,550 


2,493 


4,057 


718 




271 


447 


1945 


6,531 


2,545 


3,986 


755 




279 


476 


1946 


6,809 


2,641 


4,168 


740 




268 


472 



By County, 1946 



Total Counties. . . . 


♦re, 809 


♦t°2,641 


t°4,168 


740 


268 




472 


Allegany 


662 


254 


408 


8 


2 




6 




463 


180 


283 


84 


33 




51 


Baltimore 


*1,140 


♦435 


705 


44 


12 




32 


Calvert 


t49 


t22 


27 


15 


5 




10 




*n39 


♦t54 


t85 


29 


14 




15 


Carroll 


315 


128 


187 


13 


5 




8 


Cecil 


197 


86 


111 


18 


8 




10 




117 


44 


73 


51 


17 




S4 




164 


61 


103 


59 


27 




32 




448 


163 


285 


20 


6 




14 


Garrett 


*203 


♦91 


112 












J290 


tll7 


173 


29 


ii 




is 




*137 


♦48 


89 


20 


8 




12 


Kent 


86 


31 


55 


21 


8 




13 


Montgomery 


*°543 


♦°219 


°324 


36 


4 




32 


Prince George's .... 


*670 


♦253 


417 


39 


13 




26 


Queen Anne's 


92 


41 


51 


25 


9 




16 


St. Mary's 


73 


31 


42 


27 


14 




13 




♦till 


*tss 


t73 


48 


■11 




37 


Talbot 


112 


45 


67 


23 


13 




10 




441 


157 


284 


8 


3 




5 


Wicomico 


233 


89 


144 


82 


30 




52 




124 


54 


70 


41 


15 




26 


Baltimore City. . . . 


1,664 


679 


985 


288 


95 




193 


Total State 


♦t°8,473 


♦J°3,320 


t°5,153 


1,028 


363 




665 



t Includes Baltimore County graduates who attended Baltimore City high schools at the expense of 
Baltimore County. 

* Includes the following veterans: Baltimore County 6; Caroline 1; Garrett 1; Howard 1; Mont- 
gomery 13; Prince George's 9; Somerset 1. 

X Includes the following third year boys and girls who were graduated: Calvert 2B; Caroline 4B, IG; 
Harford IB; Somerset IB, IG 

° Includes 23 boys and 22 girls who were graduates from the 1944 Summer School of Montgomery. 



High School Graduates and Percent Surviving to Graduation 37 



CHART 6 

Number Surviving to High School Graduation in 1946 per 100 White 
County Pupils Enrolled in 1938-39 in the Fourth Grade in 11-Year 
Systems and in the Fifth Grade in 12-Year Systems 



County 



White 
U. S. Grads. 
Boys Girls 



Percent 
Total 



Percent Boys I I Percent Girle 



Total and 


2641 




46.9 


Co. Average 




4168 


St. Mary's 


51 


42 


65.2 


Charles 


44 


75 


54.4 


Anne Arundel 


180 


285 


53.2 


Montgomery 


219 


524 


52.2 


Harford 


117 


175 


51.6 


Wlcoml CO 


89 


144 


51.5 


Pr, Qeorge' s 


255 


417 


51.3 


Talbot 


45 


67 


50.9 


Cecil 


86 


111 


50.8 


Caroline 


54 


85 


50.7 


Baltimore 


455 


705 


48.9 


Carroll 


128 


187 


48.4 


f rederl ck 


165 


285 


46.6 


Worcester 


54 


70 


46.6 


Kent 


81 


55 


46.0 


Dorchester 


61 


105 


45.4 


Queen Anne' s 


41 


51 


45.3 


Howard 


48 


89 


44.6 


Allegaqy 


254 


408 


42.8 


Somerset 


58 


75 


41.1 


Garrett 


91 


112 


39.1 


Calrert 


22 
157 


27 


38.0 


•uhington 


284 


32.9 



59 a 




The ranking by county is not dependable because of violent fluctuations in populations, 
especially during the War years. 

For number of graduates for individual high schools see Table XXII, pages 266-71. 



38 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 7 

Number Surviving to High School Graduation in 1946 per 100 Colored 
County Pupils Enrolled in 1938-39 in the Fourth Grade in 11-Year 
Systems and in the Fifth Grade in 12- Year Systems 



County 



Colored 
H. S. Grads. Percent 
Boys Girls Total 



Total and 
Co. Average 


266 


472 


22.2 


Wlcomioo 


30 


52 


42.1 


Dorchester 


27 


32 


34.9 


Cecil 


e 


10 


33.3 


Carroll 


s 


8 


32.5 


Caroline 


14 


15 


32.2 


Queen Anne's 


9 


16 


32.1 


Allegany 


2 


6 


30.8 


Washington 


3 


5 


28.6 


Somerset 


11 


37 


26.8 


Harford 


11 


1ft 
xo 


26.1 


Charles 


17 


34 


25.6 


Worcester 


15 


26 


24.8 


Kent 


8 


13 


23.1 


Anne Arundel 


33 


51 


21.9 


Howard 


8 


12 


21.7 


Talbot 


13 


10 


21.7 


St. Mary's 


14 


13 


20.6 


Frederick 


b 


14 


18.2 


Bait imoro 


12 


32 


17.2 


Montgomery 


4 


32 


14.1 


Calvert 


5 


10 


9.5 


Pr. George's 


13 


26 


9.5 



I 50 O 



139 8 



I 3^ 3 



I 371 



I ES Q 



I Zt, 9 



25 fe 



_LLa_ 



Percent Boye I I Percent Girls 






The ranking by county is not dependable because of violent fluctuations in populations, 
especially during the War years. 

For number of graduates for individual high schools see Table XXII, pages 266-71. 



County High School Graduates and Entrants to State Teachers 39 

Colleges 

TABLE 26 — Number and Percent of County High School Graduates Who 
Entered State Teachers Colleges September after Graduation 



I EAR 


White 
High 
School 
Graduates 


White Entrants to 
State Teachers Colleges 
Fall Following Graduation 


"Vha* a o 
X CiAK 


Colored 
High 
School 

Graduates 


Colored Elntrants to 
State Teachers Colleges 
Fall Following Graduation 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


1 Q'it 
IcJol . . . 


1,713 


2,491 


13 


214 


.8 


8.6 


1 Q^l 

1 C/OX . . 


77 


115 


14 


20 


18.2 


17.4 


1 0'19 
LiJtjLi . . . 


1,772 


2,625 


23 


174 


1.3 


6.6 


X C70^ . . 


124 


164 


16 


28 


12.9 


17.1 


LVOO . . . 


2,114 


2,807 


11 


74 


.5 


2.6 


X i7<j»3 . . 


117 


180 


3 


17 


2.6 


9.4 


1934. . . 


2,220 


2,902 


34 


88 


1.5 


3.0 


1934. . 


128 


190 


6 


26 


4.7 


13.7 


1935. . . 


2,052 


2,787 


58 


93 


2.8 


3.3 


1935. . 


142 


180 


2 


15 


1.4 


8.3 


1936. . . 


2,283 


3,039 


48 


131 


2.1 


4.3 


1936. . 


tl64 


t210 


8 


16 


4.9 


7.6 


1937... 


2,361 


3,111 


52 


118 


2.2 


3.8 


1937. . 


tl61 


t231 


6 


30 


3.7 


13.0 


1938. . 


2,566 


3,364 


82 


151 


3.2 


4.5 


1938. . 


t202 


t308 


18 


38 


8.9 


12.3 


1939. . . 


2,750 


3,556 


79 


179 


2.9 


4.9 


1939. . 


t234 


t342 


7 


21 


3.0 


6.1 


1940. . . 


3,017 


3,796 


61 


141 


2.0 


3.7 


1940. . 


t245 


1428 


8 


t40 


3.3 


9.3 


1941. . . 


3,168 


3,870 


36 


126 


1.1 


3.3 


1941. . 


t249 


t459 


5 


22 


2.1 


5.0 


1942 . . . 


3,165 


4,011 


37 


74 


1.2 


1.8 


1942. . 


t256 


t403 




t25 




6.2 


1943... 


2,887 


3,854 


23 


88 


.8 


2.3 


1943. . 


t270 


t418 


"s 


20 


3.0 


4.8 


1944. . . 


2,493 


4,057 


15 


72 


1.7 


1.8 


1944. . 


271 


447 


6 


32 


4.6 


7.2 


1945. . . 


2,545 


3,986 


23 


118 


.9 


3.0 


1945. . 


279 


476 


5 


37 


1.8 


7.8 


1946... 


2,641 


4,168 


53 


151 


2.0 


3.6 


1946. . 


268 


472 


8 


28 


3.0 


5.9 



t Includes residents of Baltimore County who graduated from Baltimore City high schools after 
five years work above grade 7. 

For 1946 graduates and teachers college entrants for individual high schools see Table XXII, pages 
266 to 271. 



CHART 8 

Colored Girl Graduates of County Public High Schools Entering Maryland 

Teachers Colleges the Fall Following Graduation: 1945 and 1946 



Number Perceat 

County 

1945 1946 1946 



County Average 


37 


28 


Somerset 


4 


8 


Washington 




1 


St. Mary's 


5 


2 


Carroll 




1 


Prince George's 


7 


3 


Harford 


B 


2 


Cecil 




1 


Charles 


1 


3 


Howard 




1 


Queen Anne's 


5 


1 


Wicomico 


6 


3 


Worcester 


2 


1 


Anne Arundel 


3 


1 


Caroline 


1 




Frederick 


1 




Montgomery 


1 




Dorchester 


1 






n.5 
11.1 

10.0 
S.8 




40 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 9 



White Girl Graduates of County Public High Schools Entering Maryland 
Teachers Colleges the Fall Following Graduation: 1939 and 1946 



County 

County Average 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Caroline 

Calvert 

Charles 

Somerset 

Harford 

Garrett 

Allegany 

Cecil 

Talbot 

Carroll 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Baltimore 

St. Mary's 

Queen Anne's 

Kent 

Washington 
Montgomery 
Prince George's 
Anne Arundel 
Howard 



Number Percent 
1939 1946 1946 



179 

20 
4 
7 
2 

7 
10 
4 
32 
5 
4 
3 
6 
11 
28 
1 
9 

9 
8 

6 
3 



151 

19 
8 
7 
2 
5 
5 

11 
6 

21 
5 
3 
6 
3 
8 

18 
1 
1 
1 
5 
5 
6 
4 
1 




For graduates and entrants to teachers colleges for individual high schools, see Table 
XXII, pages 266-271. 



County High School Graduates Entering State Teachers College; 41 
Continuing Education, at Home or Married 



TABLE 27 — Comparison of Number and Percent of County White High School 
Graduates Continuing Education or Staying or Working at Home 
Year Following Graduation, 1926 to 1945 



Graduates 

OP 


Total Number 
of Graduates 


Number 


Percent 


Continuing 
Education 


Staying or 
Working at 
Home, Married 


Continuing 
Education 


Staying or 
Working at 
Home, Married 


Boys 


Girls 


1 Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


1926 


1,045 


1,574 


507 


856 


88 


323 


48.8 


54.3 


8.5 


20.5 


1927 


1,071 


1,816 


472 


913 


99 


417 


44.1 


50.3 


9.3 


22.9 


1928 


1,142 


1.851 


480 


947 


118 


432 


41.8 


51.2 


10.3 


23.3 


1929 


1,339 


2,056 


527 


1,051 


125 


455 


39.3 


51.3 


9.3 


22.1 


1930 


1,534 


2,251 


542 


1,031 


223 


694 


35.3 


45.8 


21.5 


28.7 


1931 


1,713 


2,491 


574 


953 


361 


994 


33.5 


38.2 


21.2 


39.8 


1932 


1,772 


2,625 


471 


820 


495 


1,321 


26.6 


31.2 


27.9 


50.4 


1933 


2,114 


2,807 


469 


701 


447 


1,453 


22.2 


25.0 


21.1 


51.8 


1934 


2,223 


2,904 


522 


803 


473 


1,348 


23.5 


27.7 


21 .2 


46.4 


1935 


2,052 


2,787 


498 


800 


367 


1,172 


24.3 


28.7 


17.9 


42.0 


1936 


2,283 


3,039 


613 


980 


244 


1,036 


26.9 


32.3 


10.7 


34.0 


1937 


2,361 


3,111 


652 


1,078 


354 


1,081 


27.6 


34.7 


15.0 


34.7 


1938 


2,566 


3,364 


745 


1,114 


347 


1,249 


29.0 


33.1 


13.5 


37.1 


1939 


2,750 


3,556 


761 


1,118 


254 


1,133 


27.7 


31.4 


9.2 


31.9 


1940 


3,017 


3,796 


*699 


*1,107 


147 


916 


23.1 


29.1 


4.9 


24.1 


1941 


t3, 170 


J3,871 


621 


1,006 


115 


773 


19.6 


26.0 


3.6 


20.0 


1942 


3,144 


3,964 


539 


t832 


24 


540 


17.1 


21 .0 


.8 


13.6 


1943 


2,885 


3,846 


313 


953 


8 


434 


10.8 


24.8 


.3 


11.3 


1944 


2,468 


4,043 


338 


1,177 


12 


448 


13.7 


29.1 


.5 


11.1 


1945 


2,547 


3,986 


434 


1,232 


19 


587 


17.0 


30.9 


.7 


14.7 



♦Includes 10 boys and 2 girls, duplicates who are simultaneously working and continuing their 
education. 

Jlncludes 2 boys and 1 girl who received certificates, but did not graduate, 
tincludes two who are simultaneously working and continuing their education. 



42 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Occupations of County White High School Graduates 43 

TABLE 29— Distribution of White 1915 County Boy and Girl Graduates 
According to Specific Occupations Reported under Each General 

Classification in Table 28 



Classification of Workers 


Boys 


Girls 


1 otal 


Classification of Workers 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


I Professional AND Semi-pro- 









VII Domestic Service Work- 








FESSIONAL 


13 


47 


60 


ers IN Private Families. 




387 


387 


c Dancers, Showmen, Athletes 


1 


2 


3 


Cooks, Laundresses, Nurses, 










2 




2 






16 


16 


e Laboratory Technicians — 








GirlsMarried RunningTheir 








1 


3 


Homes, Not Otherwise Oc- 










1 




1 


cupied 




371 


371 




3 


4 


7 






j Radio Announcers and 








VIII Protective Service 








Broadcasters 






o 


Workers 


1358 




1358 


m Teachers 




27 


27 


a Guards and Watchmen. . . 


2 




2 


Unclassified 


2 


13 


15 


c boldiers. Sailors, Marines, 
















Coast Guard 


1341 




1341 


11 Agriculture— Farming 


219 


17 


236 


d Ushers and Doormen. ... 


1 




1 


a Managers or Owners 


14 




14 


e Merchant Marine 


14 




14 


b Foremen 


5 




5 






c Laborers (Paid) 


123 


2 


125 


IX Service W^orkers, Except 








d Laborers (Unpaid) 


77 


15 


92 


Domestic and Protective 


9 


72 


81 










a Barbers, Beauticians, Man- 








Ill Proprietors, Managers and 








icurists, Hairdressers 


1 


13 


14 


Officials, Except Farm. . . 


1 


6 


7 


b Charwomen, Janitors, Por- 








c (6) Retail Trade 




2 


2 


ters 


2 


2 


4 


Unclassified 


1 


4 


5 


e Housekeepers, Stewards, 
















Hostesses (except private 
















family) 


2 


1 


3 


IV Clerical Sales and Kindred 








g Practical Nurses 


1 


3 


4 


Workers 


182 


1645 


1827 


* TXT _ 1 X^ _ * 1 XT T * j_ 

1 Waiters, Bartenders, Wait- 








b Bookkeepers and Payroll . . 








resses, Barmaids 


1 


33 


34 


Clerks 


9 


37 


46 


Other Service Workers, 








c Cashiers 


1 


13 


14 


Except Domestic and 








d File Clerks 


15 


163 


178 


Protective 


2 


20 


22 


e Mail Clerks 


2 


2 








f Messengers and Errand 








X Laborers, Except Farm and 








Boys and Girls .except 








Mine 


15 




15 


Express 


5 


2 


7 


a Fishermen and Oystermen 


6 




6 


h Office and Calculating 








c Lumbermen, Craftsmen, 








Machines 


2 


24 


26 


Woodchoppers 


1 

8 




1 


i Shipping, Receiving and 




d Other Specified Laborers. . 




8 


Stock Clerks 


21 


20 


41 










i Stenographers, Typists, 








VI and IX Operatives andKin- 








Secretaries 


12 


548 


560 


dred Workers and Laborer? 








1 Telephone Operators 


3 


125 


128 


Not Otherwise Specified ^-y 








m Tellers rBank) 


1 


10 


11 


Industry 


71 


140 


Oil 
^11 


o Timekeepers 


1 


1 


6r-10e Manufacturing 


53 


137 


190 


p Other Clerical and Kindred 








1 . Food, Drugs, Kindred 




Workers 


63 


530 


593 


Products 


4 




4 


r Hucksters and Peddlers .... 


5 


5 


2 . uotton Manufactures 




o 



o 
o 


w Other Salesmen or Sales- 








3. Rayon Manufactures 


2 


7 


9 


women 


42 


173 


215 


5. Apparel and Other Fab- 
















ricated Products 


8 


55 


DO 


V Craftsmen, Foremen and Kin- 








6. Woodworking, Lumber, 








dred Skilled Workers 


65 


3 


68 


Furniture and Lumber 








a Carpenters 


7 




7 


Products 


2 


5 


7 


f Electricians 


2 




2 


ry 'T~\ x^ X^ 1 1 

7 . Paper, Paper Products, 








g Machinists, Millwrights, 








Printing 


3 


4 


7 


Toolmakers 


8 




8 


o . tilectrical, including Radio 


1 




1 


h Mechanics, Repairmen. . . . 


20 




20 


9. Chemicals, Petroleum and 








1 Painters, Paperhangers . . . . 


1 




1 


Coal Products 


1 


2 


3 


m Printing Craftsmen, Except 








11 . Rubber Products except 








Compositors and Type- 








Footwear 


1 


o 
6 


4 


setters 


2 




2 


14. Iron, Steel and Not Spec- 








q Other Craftsmen and Kin- 








ified Metal Industries 


8 




o 

8 


dred Workers 


25 


3 


28 


17. Aircraft and Aircraft 
















TTl • A 


4 


3 


/ 










Ordnance 


1 




1 


VI Operatives and Kindred 








Unclassified 


18 


50 


68 


Workers 


82 


39 


121 










a Apprentices, Helpers, and 








6s-10f Non-Manufacturing. . 


18 


3 


21 


Learners 


12 


1 


13 


1 . Roads 


1 




1 


b Assembly Small Parts 


9 


9 


<^ X^ * 1 1 • t 1 • X^ •! 

2. Railroads including Rail- 






c Attendants: rilling Stations, 








road Repair Shops 


4 




4 


Parking Lots, Airports. ... 


14 


1 


15 


3 . Transportation, Except 








a Chauffeurs, Bus, Taxi and 








Railroads 


2 




2 


Truck Drivers, Delivery Boys- 


16 




16 


5 . Utilities (Gas, Electricity, 








g Laundry Operators and 








Water) 






1 


Laundresses (except privatf 








6 . Wholesale, Retail Trade . . 


1 




1 


families) 




10 


10 


7 . Personal Services 


1 




1 


h Linemen and Servicemen: 




Unclassified 


9 


•> 


11 


Telephone, Telegraph, Power 






1 n 








303 










XI Unclassified 


38 


265 


1 Power Machine Sewers. . . 




4 


4 


Odd Joba 


9 


12 


21 


q Other Specified Operatives 








Staving Home 


19 


216 


235 


and Kindred Workers .... 


30 


14 


44 


Death 


3 


4 


7 










Other 


7 


33 


40 










XII Unknown . . 


60 


133 


19 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Colleges Attended by County White High School Graduates 45 



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46 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 32— Names of Out-of-State Colleges Attended During 1945-1946 By 
1945 White Graduates of Maryland County Public High Schoolsf 



State and College 



Number of 
White 1945 
Graduates 

from 
Maryland 
Counties 



Virginia 

Mary Washington College. 

Bridgewater College 

Madison College 

William and Mary College. 

Sweet Briar College 

Mary Baldwin College 

Averett College 

Lynchburg College 

Hollins College 

University of Richmond. . . 

Marion College 

Randolph-Macon College. . 

Southern Seminary 

Stratford College 

Virginia Military Institute. 
Others* 



Pennsylvania 

Wilson College 

Drexel Institute of Tech 

Temple University 

Carnegie Institute of Tech 

Gettysburg College 

University of Pennsylvania . . . . 

Juniata College 

Pennsylvania State College . . . . 

Bucknell University 

Franklin Institute 

Franklin and Marshall College 

Penn Hall 

Ursinus College 

Others* 



District of Columbia 

George Washington University 

American University 

Marjorie Webster College. ... 

Corcoran Art School 

Georgetown University 

Catholic University 

Others* 



West Virginia 

Potomac State College 

Shepehrd State Teachers CoUeg 
Davis and Elkins College. . . 
University of West Virginia. . . 
West Virginia Wesleyan College 



North Carolina 

Duke University 

University of North Carolina . 

Catawba College 

Pembroke College 

Mars Hill College 

Meredith College 

Others* 



17 
11 
6 

5 
5 
5 
4 
4 
3 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
7 



7 
5 
5 
4 
4 
4 
3 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
14 



24 
9 
5 
4 
4 
2 
4 



14 
4 

3 
3 
3 



State and College 



Number of 
White 1945 
Graduates 

from 
Maryland 
Counties 



Ohio 



Oberlin College 

Wooster College 

Antioch College 

Ohio State College 

Ohio Wesleyan University. 
Others* 



Delaware 

Wesley Junior College. . 
University of Delaware . 



New York 

Syracuse University 

Cornell University 

Edgewood Park Junior College. 

St. Lawrence University 

Others* 



Massachusetts 

Wellesley College. 
Others* 



Tennessee 

Maryville College. 
Bob Jones College. 
Others* 



Missouri 

Stephens College 

University of Missouri . 
Others* 



Florida 

Florida Southern College . . . 
John B. Stetson University. 
Others* 



Illinois 

Wheaton College. 
Others* 



California 

University of California . 
University of Redlands. 
Others* 



Indiana 

Earlham College. . 
Purdue University . 
Others* 



Georgia 

Georgia School of Technology . 
University of Georgia 



Michigan 

University of Michigan 

Mich. Coll. of Mining and Tech 

Louisiana 

Tulane University 



t For breakdown by county of graduation, see Table 31, page 45. The states listed on that table 
and not included here, are the ones to which only one student went to college. They are the following: 
Alabama, Colorado, Connecticut, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Hampshire, 
New Jersey, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Texas, Vermont, and Wisconsin, 
* Includes the colleges or universities which only one student attends. 



Out of State Colleges Attended by County White High School 47 
Graduates; Occupations of County Colored High School Graduates 



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49 



1946 Report of 



Maryland State Department of Education 



Agri- 
culture 


Boys 


IT* ' • ^ v3 •••«... ix^ 

N -Oi • (N to ■ ■ 

(N 


Language 
Arts 


Girls 


lO 05 <o 

i-l -to ■ r-t CO 

eo iM 

++ 


Boys 


cc -t- i-i 00 

eo (N 

++ 


Remedial 
Reading 


Girls 


c<i eo a5 05- -ai - cg -. 

O tH t> '-l - 0C - O- -- 

O «5 ^ rl 

1-1 


Boys 


OO 1-H Oi O • • ■ TT • . . Tl< ■ • • 

N r-l OO-M---N-- -0O -- 

O to (N 

i-< 


Art 


Girls 


00 oo«OT}«o5'-HocDCT)Cja5X«ca50«> ■oj'^o 
o 1-H <-i CO oi !£> 00 I-H X 31 iH • lo -eocoo 

't eo ^ I-H rH C~ '-I <o ^ 


Boys 


to oX'-ioc~'^coa550oco«'-HOTr -to co--ic^ ' 

X CDOT}'->DC^]'-<!£>Xt>MXOX<-ii-H ■ tC --^r-C 
Tj< CO eo t~ y-t y-t T-t i-(i-tCOCvI CO i-( 

in ^ 


Music 


Girls 


I-H oa>Tj«-«}<iMX(N-^coxoeooo'-'eoa5Tj<(MCDeoo 
OJ c--^a>c^oooa5XLOeosooi(NXTj<roi-':o-^xo 
Oi O t> OS eo ^ eo M om t-h o <-h 

1— 1 .-H .-H ( 


Boys 


Tf oacaixeot>iat>ooxcvixeoocDmTr-HOi-i 
X oo;Ot-.-i'nc73CTicOTrCMOcoiceocoxx'nrocr. 

O I-H ;0 O CO "-H CO <N O CO O 

X ^ ^ r-^ ^ 


Physical 
Education 


Girls 


t~a>i^ieooiMOJTj'oa50Tj<ioc-a>a5 ojcoutji 
o o o X 'H CO o Oi o .-H eo c^^ c~ lo CO -ox^i-h 

1-1 t- •-< C-i y-l 1-1 ?Jl-Hl-HeO .-(O-Hi-H 
X ^ I-H ^ ,-4 


Boys 


Tt t^xxc^coeO'-icoc^iw'vc^tot^Tfco ■^ai'-i^) 

O CD X "-H X eg Oi ^ (N M »-H Tj" 50 IM TJ" to • X 0> O O 

X 1-H «0 "-H C^J 1-H rHCO fgi-HMlO Ol-HrH 
X "-H I-H 1-H >— 1 


Gen. 

Home 
Eco- 
nomicsS 


Girls 


t~ .^}"t:~a>incacocooyCi-ct> ccc^O'-'L.'^ejx^oji 

CO U5 t- I-H CO I-H CO I-H lO CT> ' " 1-H C I-H I-H 


Indus- 
trial 
Arts§ 


Boys 


CO ocooc^js-^ oiojotji i-Hcoaia^iOTfm-rfct 
X L.ooi.-xj5a; i-noeiM m^oTrcMcoxcjOf 

O Lf5 t- ^ CJ I-H cox C5 r^H 

o 

in 


Mathe- 
matics 


Girls 


CO 'tXTrio.-HocM'^-»rxoi~inin;oi— i^rojot^o; 

X i-H^DOli-HO'^iTlOascOCOrCCJXXCO'-^O^^^ 

in I-HC^Oli-HCOi-H I-HCO I-Hi-Hi-H.»J« ,_|X<-Hi-H 
X ^ ^ -H 


Boys 


X i-HtocT>c^eoco»ntoc^i-'". oait-o; ^oa5lnTfTrTr^4 
CO eowo-H^i;Da5i-'t~'^inHt«OTf5ocjcoxMoo 

t- I-H O I-H ?3 ^ I-H to I-H 1-H CVJ in X ^ -H 
X I-H I-H -H I-H 


Science 


Girls 


in Tra5c-inc^joc^Ti< x t^i-Htoco-HTfc^i-Hc^oi 
CJ I-H CJ I-H o It 35 o -CO • eo ^ CO X CO m o I-H I-H 

'rf I-H to 131 I-H eo I-H I-H I-H I-H rH O I-H I-H 
to I-H I-H 1-H 


Boya 


X ^ 3; CJ en ro o to ^ CO ex. •<* co Oi m tt cj 

CO co-^'*-H31tC3i -htT'sO ■^^CDtOCJCOXt-OO 

to i-HCOCTli-HCJi-H I-H i-HCJi-H Oi-Hi-H 
to I-H I-H — 1 


Social 
Studies 


Girls 


o coocoinoiOCJ'^ -x t^o -co ■ ^ 
05 i-H'»i"i-H-Ht~^a5X -co -coi-H -00 -inot^-H 

to I-H I-H CJ I— 1 1-H 1-H ,_( O I-H 

in I-H ^ _i 


Boys 


Tt ^c^^cj35co'-':t~ in oiCJ co ic^c^Tf 

to C0CJCJ^t>tO3JCTJ TfO CO coxt^o • 

X 1-H C~ 1-H CJ 1-H i-HCJ O 1-H 
lO ^ ^ I-H 


Total Enrollment * 


Subject 


Girls 


CO o CO in X o CJ 00 c^in to Trcj-Ht~ 
o ^ Tf ^ I-H t- Tf 05 X -eo cocj 00 -moo^ • 

t~ 1-H t- I-H CJ 1-H rH I-H I-H O I-H 
in I-H I-H r_ 


Boys 


o ^x-H^oicomt^ -in oic- cc uo rr t- ■ 
X eoc]cj^t^'.oc205 -T}" -rrto -co toxt-o ■ 

X 1-H IH CJ I-l l-tCJ O rH 

in 1-H ^ ^ 


Core 


Girls 


X -XrH .Tfrji cxeoo • -in ox - x oi 
^ cjx cj'-o cjcjcjco • -00 -c-eo- i-h 

CO CJ CJ I-H 

eo ^ 


Boys 


X OJOO ■ Tf C- OlrtXX ■ OS mx t- CJ 

in -oix -eom i-tcrncj • • ojco cj o 
CJ CJ t> CJ m ^ 

CO 



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White Junior High and Colored High School Enrollment by Subject 



to 



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uc- 


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3,424 


eg 

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2,607 


-"t eg 
eg eg «o 

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52 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department op Education 



TABLE 38— Enrollment* in Each Year of Maryland County High Schools for 

White Pupils by Year, 1927-46 



Year 


I 


Q 

o 


T 
1 


TT 
11 


TTT 
111 


TV 
1 V 


Jr OSt- 
Lrraa- 
uates 


1 otai 










IT 










■1 AOT 






*7 QT 1 


O , oOo 


o , 80D 


Q nf;7 
o , un ( 




9n 1 c;7 


1 nOQ 






, 48 t 


O , Don 


4 , ^0 < 


Q 178 
O , 1 ( 8 




91 c:rQ 
Z 1 , DOS 


1 fion 






o , 08 i 


fi 1 nn 

O , lUU 


A RQ/1 

4 , oy4 






99 QQQ 

, y y o 


1 Q o n 






Q no Q 

y , Uo8 


fi 9Q9 

o , 


nan 


Q Q81 

o , y o 1 


9ft 


9/1 yl 1 7 
Z4 , 41 1 


1 QO 1 






y , 1 1 1 


D , y oy 


, 4y w 


4 , aoo 


91 


9 ft f^QCi 

, oy D 


1 QOO 






y , oD^ 


7 RQfi ■' 
1 , DoD 


fi n7n 


4 , 04D 


1 t^Q 
lOo 


98 1 ft7 
^8 , lO I 


1 OOQ 






in ^AQ 
ly) , o48 


7 fi(;8 ' 

1 , DDo ^ 




907 


1 ftQ 

loy 


Qn Qn9 


1 do A 






1 n aoQ 


o , UiO 


C Q ft 1 
D , o81 


/I C\A 
, 4U4 


Q 1 

y 1 


qn c;9l 
oU , 0^1 


1935 






11,072 


8,162 


6,731 


5,110 


153 


31,228 


1936 






11 267 


8,749 


6,927 


5 , 526 


127 


32, 596 


1937 






11^267 


8,907 


7, '456 


5,675 


93 


33,398 


1938 






11,256 


8,883 


7,586 


6,080 


113 


33.918 


1939 






12,064 


9,332 


8,062 


6,478 


198 


36.134 


1940 






12,206 


10,073 


8,352 


7,041 


186 


37,858 


1941 






12,554 


10,342 


8,848 


7,323 


158 


39,225 


1942 






12,496 


10.440 


8.804 


7,515 


61 


39.316 


1943 






12,543 


10,087 


8,579 


7,161 


24 


38,394 


1944 






12.124 


9,764 


8,065 


6,833 


11 


36,797 


1945 






12,314 


9,842 


8,201 


6,783 


14 


37 154 


1946 


10^745 


6;397 


9.305 


10,090 


8,393 


6,967 


25 


51,922 



* Excludes withdrawals for removal, transfer and death. 

For enrollment of individual high schools, see Table XXIIIA-B, pages 272 to 282. 
t Includes pupils taking Core as .shown by school in Table XXIII-B, pages 278 to 282. 



TABLE 39 — White Pupils Enrolled in Various English Courses in 
Maryland County High Schools for the Year 1945-46 



County 


Enclish 


Jour- 
nal- 
ism 


Public 
Speaking 
and 
Other° 


7 


8 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


Total 1944-45 






12,345 


10,088 


8.326 


6,846 


78 


400 


307 


1945-46 


tlo!745 


t6!389 


9,528 


10,241 


8,658 


7, 107 


66 


385 


°833 


Allegany 


990 


1,169 


1,120 


997 


864 


666 




62 


27 


Anne Arundel 


516 


836 


148 


758 


634 


513 


19 


31 




Baltimore 


1,812 




2.065 


1 , 652 


1,458 


1,208 




88 


38 


Calvert 






82 


85 


72 


52 








Caroline 


218 




226 


196 


159 


160 








Carroll 


565 


' 25 


550 


400 


396 


323 




' 78 


'°95 


Cecil 


375 




428 


858 


245 


223 








Charles 


169 




184 


147 


145 


121 








Dorchester 


214 




292 


259 


212 


170 








Frederick 


642 


721 


26 


649 


551 


460 








Garrett 


119 




326 


253 


223 


210 




' 20 




Harford 


392 




544 


474 


357 


307 








Howard 


V72 




225 


196 


159 


142 








Kent 






160 


112 


86 


118 










1 . 133 


\.Q21 


966 


741 


638 


522 




' 45 


°623 


Prince George's 


I ,413 


1.381 


157 


1,216 


937 


704 






°20 


Queen Anne's . . 


142 




140 


105 


118 


96 








St. Mary's 


143 




121 


99 


90 


75 










189 




164 


135 


134 


107 








Talbot 


183 




185 


145 


137 


120 








Washington 


1.049 


1^013 


1,044 


770 


(i05 


455 






' °36 


Wicomico 




217 


180 


304 


257 


232 


34 






Worcester 


209 




195 


190 


ISl 


123 









* Exclusive of withdrawals for '•emoval, transfer, death, o- commiiment to an institution. 

Includes 145 in total taking Dramatics; Carroll, 95; Prmcf G.^o- ge's. 20; Washington, 30(Radi 
and 480 taking Basic Language in Montgomery. 



County White High School Enrollment in English and Social Studies 



53 




54 



1946 Report of Maryland 



State Department of Education 



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County White High School Enrollment in Science and Mathematics 55 



3 

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and 
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matics 


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t^Tfcooooc^oooio-^to 


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metic 
Review 


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56 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 43 — White Pupils Enrolled in the Foreign Languages in the Maryland 
County High Schools for Years Ending June 30, 1927 to 1946 



Year 


Latin 


French 


Spanish 


German 


Ending 


















June 


















30 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


1927 


2,335 


3,535 


1,379 


2.532 


24 


17 






1928 


2,494 


3,510 


1,420 


2,690 


19 


10 






1929 


2,271 


3,475 


1,656 


2,751 


34 


26 






1 Q'^n 


2.338 


3,446 


1,567 


2,713 


46 


57 






1931 


2,534 


3.684 


1,598 


2,786 


22 


13 






1932 


2,559 


3,683 


1,762 


2,967 


53 


26 






1933 


2.421 


3,713 


1 ,989 


3.237 


46 


26 






1934 


2,460 


3,746 


1,850 


3,149 


30 


28 






1935 


2,272 


3,409 


1,601 


2,966 


36 


52 






1936 


2,106 


3,208 


1,604 


2,872 


36 


48 






1937 


2.141 


3,218 


1,589 


2,617 


36 


29 


10 


3 


1938 


2,115 


3,155 


1,545 


2,664 


34 


20 


27 


10 


1939. . . . 


2,249 


3,276 


1.547 


2.663 


25 


29 


17 


6 


1940 


2,115 


3,328 


1,468 


2.594 


33 


48 


5 


6 


1941 


1.965 


3,325 


1,409 


2.457 


58 


59 






1942 


1,856 


3,032 


1.168 


2,197 


163 


194 






1943 .... 


1,755 


2,845 


875 


1,852 


296 


460 






1944 .... 


1,767 


2,927 


719 


1,652 


384 


736 






1945 ... 


1,825 


2,986 


877 


1.645 


452 


762 






1946t. . . 


1,721 


2,629 


915 


1,738 


446 


743 







TABLE 41 — White Pupils Enrolled* in Industrial Work, Agriculture, and 
Home I'cononiics in >Iar>land County High Schools for Years Ending 

June 30, 1927 to 1946 



Year Ending 
June 30 


Industrial 


Agriculture 


Home Economics 
« 


Arts 


Education 


Boys 


General 


Vocational 


1927 


4,905 


31 


922 


7.304 


618 


1928 


5,341 


39 


948 


7,797 


587 


1929 


5.528 


69 


929 


8.079 


516 


1930 


5.549 


201 


931 


7,609 


543 


1931 


6. 107 


368 


1,100 


7.7.53 


566 


1932 


6.041 


418 


1,264 


7.461 


770 


1933 


6.380 


520 


1,260 


7.823 


720 


1934 


6 . 536 


410 


1,278 


7.908 


780 


1935 


6.873 


403 


1,389 


8.065 


1,040 


1936 


6.928 


772 


1,482 


7,259 


1,330 


1937 


7.489 


521 


1,644 


8.184 


1,324 


1938 


7.844 


578 


1.833 


8.105 


1,793 


1939 


8,318 


842 


2.049 


8.333 


2,613 


1940 


9.415 


892 


2,344 


8.903 


2 , 920 


1941 


10, 196 


992 


2.355 


9.389 


3,287 


1942 


10.522 


1. 100 


2,291 


9.850 


3,603 


1943 


10.731 


1 .244 


2,192 


9.674 


3,518 


1944 


8.904 


1.083 


2,014 


9,776 


2,888 


1945 


8.813 


1 ,072 


1 ,511 


9,689 


2,841 


1946t 


12,964 


1.134 


1.779 


14,093 


2,664 



* Excluding duplicates and withdrawals for removal, transfer, death, or commitment to an institution 
and including enrollment from junior high school classes (7, 8, 7-8) in addition to last four years 
as previously reported. 

Forl946 enrollment in individual high schools see Table XXIII, pages 272 to 282. 

tl946 figures include duplicates. 



County 



White High School Enrollment in Foreign Languages, 
Practical Arts and Business Subjects 



57 



Distribu- 
tive Ed- 
ucation 


6 


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6 


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Social 
Practice 


6 


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t-xtoaic-xictouotoin 



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— icoco Tfc^-moc-c-i-iinc-egcocoOTfxinxco — 
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58 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 46 — White Pupils ?]nrolled' in Music, Art and Physical Education in 
Maryland County High Schools for Years Ending June 30, 1933 to 1946 



Year ENoiNr; 
June 30 


Music 


Art 


Physical Education 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


1933 


7,714 


9,128 


741 


737 


4,722 


4,387 


1934 


7,465 


8,865 


529 


541 


4,601 


4,572 


1935 


7,461 


8,840 


537 


538 


4,813 


4,699 


1936 


7,526 


9. 134 


418 


571 


5.413 


5, 1«2 


1937 


7 . 579 


9,422 


535 


594 


5,483 


5,276 


1938 


7,333 


9,519 


910 


1,159 


5,793 


5,917 


1939 


7,840 


9,967 


1.534 


1,984 


6,935 


6,934 


1940 


7,978 


10.585 


1 . 836 


2,254 


8,216 


8,168 


1941 


8,635 


1 1 . 524 


2. 105 


2,472 


9,226 


9,322 


1942 


8.652 


12.064 


2 . 536 


3,072 


10.534 


11,016 




8,011 


11 .335 


1.919 


2,407 


12.063 


13,277 


1944 


7.743 


11 .362 


1,888 


2,298 


12.501 


14,695 




7,654 


11.217 


1 .782 


2,199 


12.507 


14,457 


1946t 


15.304 


18,981 


7, 104 


7.564 


20.211 


21,212 



* Excludf's dupliratcs and withdrawals for removal, tran-sfcr, doath, or commitment to an institution 
t 1946 l.gures include duplicates and grades 7, 8, 7-8 in addition to last four years of high school. 
For 1946 enrollment in individual high schools see Table XXIII, pages 272 to 282. 



County White High School Enrollment in Music, Art and 

Physical Education 



59 



CO 

U 
a 

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1,479 


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Failing 
Following 

Number 
of Subjects 


1 T-ICM 1-1 U5 

1 


ec 


• • i-H i-H 


CM 


1/3 to 

f— 1 ^ 


>H 


O CM CM tT 
■<i" CM 
OS X CM CM 


1 otal 
Number 
Failing 


11.2 
10.6 

300 
291 



CO 
2 W 

a M 
> a 
a a 

O 



73 
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o 
m 
a 

Q 
< 

O 

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Z 



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73 

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CC CM 



tc.B ^ . 



00 



05 X 



«5 «D 



CM 



C^J o 



o 

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CM 



X X 
<T. CO 



— It* 



CM Tf 



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CM 



O lO 
CM X 

X ;o 



c a) ^ 



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CM CM 



lO CM 
O -< 



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CM CM 



OI 

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in ^ 
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X 

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ifi X 

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CM CO 
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CM -I 

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CM O 

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50 



— 5m 



■«r eo 



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CM CM 



Oi o 
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Failing 
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Number 
of Subjects 


•«r 


05 

CM 


eo 


OJ 

Ol 

CM 


CM 


■ t- X 

• X 

Cvl 




o> 

■ CM 

to CM 


Total 
Number 
Failing 


15.2 
496 


Failing 
Following 
Number 
of Subjects 




t-. vo 

, (XI 

-o — 


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• eo in 

■ CM 

CM — 


CM 


■ \n ■ 

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CM 




• »H ■ irt 
CM 
CM 


— t M 
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CM to 



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2 
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3 










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■« 


3 




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o 


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■ o eo 



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to ^ X CM to to 
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■ to liJ CM 



lo OS o Tj< 



lo Oi to eo to 

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• CM <-! 



CM CO 



CO t> ■ o Tji in CO CM lO 
—I eo 



OiC;i-(tOTi<ococou3 



■CM 



■ CM iH 



to X • »-i i-i CM ■ CO --I ■ CM • t> m 



1 1- to X Oi • eo to 1-1 eo <-« Oi CM -H .-( CO CM 
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•tCOOl !-(••-(.-<.— iCMi-i -CMtO i-(i-irH 



■^i-OCOCO — OCMCMOJ-'CM-Hi.O-Ht^.-iOC-^OtOOi'O 
tOtOTC -hCMco <-iCM«-iCO'-< -^©"M ,-(,-(cg^,-< 



TjiL.0 ■TT'^cM-^inineot^'-iCMCMCM-H -l-l -uieo 



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05 



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^ O i-HCM«-i CM ^ eo Tf o eo <-< 



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t^OitO COCOeO ML.O'-itOCM tot- <-i tOCM^-i 



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CM t~ CM CM eo to «^ ko -eoeo^ • «-! cm eo cm M cm o> cm eo 
>-< eo y-* • 1-1 • 



m Oi -H rH o ^CM o> CMcoto •^•^CM'* -^otoejeo 

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X <-< to X to X eo • o M Ok a> o Oi to ^ X eo « — 

Tf-^CM ^ CM ^ CM ■ CM Tf eo ^i-" 



CM t~ X Ol X O CM • lO CM X t- lO 1-1 eo CM to eo Oi 
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t— 
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CM ■ CM 



Oi Tji o • eo to X o 1-1 
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County White High School Boys and Girls Failing 1 to 4 Subjects 



Twelfth Grade Girls 


Failing 
Following 

Number 
of Subjects 


1 1-1 1-1 CO 
Tf 1 • • 

1 


CO 


1-1 rH CO ec 




CO 't CT) 
• • C^l ^ 




CO CO CO lO 
OC Oi 

^ Tj< I— ( 1— I 


Total 
Number 
Failing 


CM Oi 
CM ^ 
lO lO CM CM 


Eleventh Grade Girls 


Failing 
Following 

Number 
of Subjects 




00 lO O ''3* 

CM 




CM O CO OI 

-H ^ 




Oi 1-1 Oi 
CM 00 1-1—1 




in 00 00 

O CM 

<xoo -^-^ 


Total 
Number 
Failing 


13.4 
13.4 

645 
649 


Tenth Grade Girls 


Failing 
Following 
Number 
of Subjects 




^ CM 

ec 


CO 


t- 00 OS ^ 

ec 




iH T}< ec X 

i-iCM 
CM CM 1-H ^ 


i-t 


t> Tf CO ec 
CO o 
cot^ ect 


Total 
Number 
1 Failing 


10. ] 
11.0 

554 
594 


Ninth Grade Girls 


Failing 
Following 
Number 
of Subjects 




•^X XOl 

X ec 

tH 


m 


1-1 O it CO 

iH rH 


(N 


o ec It CM 

CM 

CM CM iH ^ 


1-1 


■<J< CM X O 

• • o in 
CO m CM 


Total 
Number 
Failing 


10.9 
9.3 

694 
447 


EioaTH Grade Girls* 


Failing 
Following 
Number 
ot Subjects 


Tt< 


• ec -CM 

. Tt 

1 -H 


CO 


. C- . rH 
•CM 




■ CO • o 
• • 




1-1 


■ CO -CM 

• c~ 

1 CM 


Total 
Number 
Failing 


.OS • m 

• in 


Seventh GradeGirls* 


Failing 
Following 
Number 
of Subjects 




• eo .CM 

■J o 


ec 


• X -ec 




.CO • X 

rH 


1— ( 


• Oi ■ eo 

. m 

CM rH 


Total 
Number 
j Failing 


• ec -co 
• ec 

■ CO -co 


o 

U 


County Average 1945. . 

1946. . 

Total Number 1945 . 

1946 . 



CO 

I 

in 

Oi 



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Oiii'Xi-iiHCMi-iTrcoc^'^-»rci xec — ■ co^aeccM 

mm ■ c-i ■ 



o»Hmi-<i-iT}ii-iTjiect--T)'TfC'J oit- ih co cm m oj 

iH CO CO • CM • • 




• -i-ItHIO -MfHrHiH -eOOO • • • -CMCM 


ec CM 

rH 


-<^c-4 CMi-cec ■ irco^ — i — cjcj 


Tji cc m 

^ CM CM 


■'teccc ■ecmi-i'<rcMccxi-ii-icMcc-«rc-)t~rH 
ec 


m m 
■<a< m Oi 


oo:-^ t^-^rcoMmcj—iirmmcot^t^t^aj 

■ iH rH • rH CM CM CO 1H 


CM 05 CM 
«J X CO 

1-H 


• lO-^omocooioxmco-^c-t-ocMccxo 

• rHiHCM i-iCM ec ec O i-c ri cm i-< rn 

1H 


•CM W 


•^rH • eo • >-l •CM'Hi-l -CO^ "-H 


CM CM in 


• 1-1 1-1 -^f • ■ • CM iH r-i 1-1 m X 1-1 CM CM cc 


m X CO iH 1-1 cj • iH c~ iH CO iH c Oi cc co 

,-1 rH . C^J . . . . 


coTjicDxxmcocM-^t^'^ccx •>i'c^i-icomcoiT''}"m 

■"trnX IHIHCM CMin rH 



cococMoi'^xcMmmmt-cMrHCMOit-ccxmiH'^'^cM 

mt~r-^ rH r-l r-IC^l COrH COOi rHCO r- 



•^CMCO CM CMCO • CO-'t iHCM • • i-H rH i-( • r-l 



CO CM X ■rlCC'tl-l • ■■'tlH ■ CO CM rH rH CM 



C~ cc CM cc CM CO rH m ■ CM X rH 
rH 


• X rH • ■ rH rH ec rH ec 


oscMmcMCMCMi-'cot-rHOi'^mi-ioiinrHmmcDt-rHm 

CM rH O rH rH CM i-l 


ccocM-^fXt-ecTtcMrHi-iococMCMcoeccoxxrHcco 

m CM Tjl rH CM rH rH CM CC CC ^ rH 
rH 


in rH • 
rH • 




• CM eo ■ • ■ • OiO) • 

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■ . rH • . . CM • • • 


• • CM -H • ■ 


rj" it . 


■ ■ CM ■ • • CM ■ • ■ 


■ CM -"t ■ • • rH rH ■ 


m CM • 

rHCM ■ 


■ . rH . ■ CM ■ ■ ■ 


• CO O ■ • ■ ■ Oi 

CM 


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• t~ OS • • • • o ec • 

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m X o 

rH CM 


• rH rH rH rH • • CO US CM 


• • • rH rH CO 


CM -t 
CM 


• . IJI rH . . . CC 


■ CM CM ■ ■ -^Jl 


■t rH C5 

CO 


■ -« CTl rH rH • ■ . rH 


■ m CO 


X -"t X 
X 


• I— 1 CO rH i3< CM ■ CO m 


CO It CM CM 

rH • ■ • 


Oi ec rH 
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County White High School Boys Withdrawn and Not Promoted 63 
BY Subject; County High School Teachers by Subject 

TABLE 51 



Number of County White Teachers Distributed by Subjects Taught in Junior, 
Junior-Senior, Senior, and Regular High Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1946 



Subjects 


Number of Teachers 
on Full-time Basis Distributed 
by Time Devoted to Different 
Subjects 


Number 
of High 
Schorls 
Offering 

Each 
Subject 

or 
Service 

19461 


Number of Cases 
Where Teachers 
Instruct In More 
Than One High School 
Each Week or Term 


Number 
of Dif- 
ferent 
Indi- 
viduals 
Teaching 

Each 
Subject 
1946 


1944* 


1945* 


1946 


Teachers 


Schools 


English 


235. 





238. 


2 


314.1 


161 








607 


Social Studies 


207. 


9 


207. 


4 


268.2 


155 








567 




160. 


4 


159. 





241.3 


170 








517 


Science 


180. 


8 


179. 


9 


222.3 


164 








491 


Coret 










113.2 


58 








165 


Latin 


34 


5 


34. 


5 


33. 1 


73 








86 


French 


26 


4 


27 


3 


27.8 


75 








84 




8 


8 


9 


7 


10.8 












Physical Education . . 


81 


2 


81. 


1 


152.2 


143 




8 


20 


334 


Home Economics. . . 


116 


4 


116 


1 


140.9 


127 




4 


9 


174 


Business and Dis- 






















tributive Educ. . . 


135 


3 


133 


8 


131.9 


81 




1 


2 


196 


Industrial Work. . . . 


89 


4 


92 


3 


116.9 


97 




9 


20 


151 


Music 


51 


8 


53 





89.5 


146 




10 


27 


184 


Art 


21 


2 


18 


1 


49.4 


92 




3 


6 


112 


Agriculture 


27 


2 


21. 


3 


22.7 


43 




5 


14 


40 


Administration and 






















Supervision. . . . 


80. 


6 


87. 


3 


103.7 


135 








198 


Library 


42. 


4 


47. 


4 


60.6 


127 








181 


Guidance 


24. 


1 


25. 


9 


42.2 


97 








144 


Total 


1,523. 


4 


1.532. 


3 


2,140.8 


170 











* 1944 and 1945 figures include last four years of high school only, while 1946 includes grade 7 or 

grades 7 and 8 in junior high schools, 
t Core includes English and Social Studies; and, in some schools, Science and Art or Music. See Table 

XXIII B, pages 278 to 282 for this detail. 
X Includes 19 Elementary Schools in Baltimore County offering Junior High Curriculum in 7th Grade 



TABLE 52 



Number of County Colored Teachers in Junior. Junior-Senior, and Regular 
High Schools Distributed by Subjects Taught, Year Ending June 30, 1946 





Number of 






Number of 






Teachers 


on FuU- 






Teachers 


on Full- 






time Basis Dis- 


Number 




time BasLs Dis- 


Number 


Academic 


tributed by Time 


of High 




tributed bv Time 


of High 


Devoted to Dif- 


Schools 


Special 


Devotee 


to Dif- 


Schools 


Subjects 


ferent Subjects 


Offering 


Subjects 


ferent Subjects 


Offering 








Each 








Each 








Subject 








Subject 




1945* 


1946 


1946 




1945* 


1946 


1946 


English 


29.2 


36.0 


31 


Home Economics 


27.9 


32.4 


30 


Science 


26.8 


32. 5 


31 


Physical Education 


13.8 


20.3 


29 


Social Studies. . . 


27.7 


31.1 


31 


Industrial Work 


13. 1 


14.4 


18 


Mathematics 


24.8 


30. 1 


32 


Agriculture 


10.4 


12.9 


17 


Coret 




12.1 


11 


M usic 


9.3 


11.8 


27 






1.3 


5 


Art 


. 1 


1.2 


7 


French 


.2 


2 


1 






Administration and 








Total Academic and 








Supervision .... 


8.7 


11.8 


27 


Special Subjects 


200.2 


261.1 


32 


Guidance 


4.1 


7.9 


25 








Library 


3.5 


5 1 


19 











* 1945 ^gures include last four years of high school only. 

t Core includes F^nglish and Social Studies; and, in some schools, Science and .\rt or Music. See 
Table XXIII B. pages 278 to 282 for this detail. 



64 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 53 



Number of Clerks Employed in County Schools, 1945-46 



County 


Number 
1944-45 


of Clerks 
1945-46 


Total 
Salaries 


Average 

Annual 

Salary 


Total and Average 


48.6 


50.0 


$61,660.17 


$1,233.20 




11.9 


11.5 


20,463.63 


1,779.45 




12.0 


10.3 


14,388.00 


1,396.89 


Allegany 


8.0 


8.0 


9,069.00 


1 ,133.63 


Prince Ger rge's 


5.0 


7.2 


6,845.99 


950.83 


Wicomico 


1.7 


3.5 


1,971.81 


563.37 




3.0 


3.0 


4,060.00 


1,353.33 


Frederick 


2.0 


3.0 


2.150.00 


716.67 


Carroll 


1.0 


1.0 


1,200.00 


1.200.00 




1.0 


1.0 


576.00 


576.00 


St. Mary's 




1.0 


524.24 


524.24 


Kent 




.3 


188.00 


626.67 




2.0 


.2 


223 . 50 


1,117.50 


Garrett 


1.0 

















TABLE 54 

Number of Certificates Issuedf bv Marvland State Department of Education 

in 1942-43, 1943- 14,' 1914-15, 1945-46 



Grade of Certificate 



Administration and Supervision: 

Administration and Supervision 

Elementary Supervision 

Supervision of Special Subjects (High School) 

Supervision of Special Subjects (Elementary School) 

Attendance Officer 

Helping Teacher 



Number of Certificates Issued 



1942-43 



High School: 
Principal . . 
Academic. 
Special ... 
Vocational . 
Nonpublic . 



Elementary: 

Principal 

Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education 

Bachelor of Science in Special Subjects 

Advanced First Grade 

First Grade 

Second Grade 

Nonpublic Bachelor of Science 

Nonpublic Advanced First Grade 

Nonpublic First Grade 



War Emergency Certificates: 
Degree: 

High School Teaching 

Elementary School Teaching. 

N on- Degree: 

High School Teaching 

Elementary School Teaching. 
Attendance Officer 



Provisional Certificates. 



Substitute Teachers' Certificates: 

Degn'ee 

Non-Degfree 



5 

212 
103 
49 
51 



15 
442 
4 

144 
18 



17 



87 
31 



18 
66 



11 



1943-44 



6 

156 
72 
37 
34 



12 
395 
3 

83 
1 
1 
2 

24 
8 



144 

62 



20 
114 

2 

8 



1944-45 



7 

137 
64 
27 
41 



9 

234 
2 
10 
1 
1 

15 
3 



140 
48 



48 
166 



To white and colored teachers 



Clerks in County Schools; Certificates Issued; Certification 65 
County White Elementary School Teachers 



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Causes for Withdrawal of County Teachers 69 



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70 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 60 — Withdrawals* of County Teachers by Subject and Sex, 1945-1946 





1 LI 1 A ij 


White Teachers 


Colored Teachers 


Total 


Men 


Women 


Total 


Men 


Women 


AtT. WtOH SflHOOT. STTRJP!r*T<? 


700 


627 


109 




518 


73 


26 


47 


T^.n cri lah 




54 


5 


49 


2 


1 


1 






42 




42 


7 


5 


2 




21 


20 




20 


1 




1 




90 

^ \J 


14 




14 


6 


1 


5 


TP ncrliaH ^o/^inl ^fiiHi oo .Q i ^ Ti f*ci 


1 1 

1 1 


11 


i 


10 








T** n ctI 1 a m ii n H Vi 9 f n o m q f i 


1 


9 


1 


8 


1 




1 


Ti'ncrliqVi nnn IjiHrarv 


Q 


8 




8 


1 




1 


XT. n rrliQrl 5inH ^r^ion f*^ 


7 


5 




5 


2 


i 


1 


TP n rr 1 i a n \T ti t n o m q f i f*a Qr\/*ia1 Q^ii/li Ml 
Hill^ilall) d Lllt'IIld LI LSy OULlal OCUUI^rO 


*} 
o 


1 




1 


2 




2 


r\(7lian Jinri I^nv'ai/*^il IP /iiii^o ♦ ion 


Q 
o 


1 




1 


2 




2 


English and Home Economics 


1 


1 




1 








English and Business Subjects 


1 
1 


1 




1 








Mathematics 


41 


33 


7 


26 


8 


1 


7 


Mathematics and Science 


27 


27 


7 


20 








Mathematics and Social Studies 


11 


11 


3 


8 








Mathematics and Physical Educ. . . . 


5 


5 


1 


4 








Social Studies 


58 


51 


8 


43 


7 


3 


4 




5 


4 


2 


2 


1 




1 


Social Studies and Langiiages 


4 


4 




4 








Social Studies and Science 


3 


3 




3 








Social Studies and Music 


3 


2 




2 


1 


1 




Science 


45 


40 


9 


31 


5 


3 


2 


Science and Home Economics 


9 


7 




7 


2 




2 




9 


9 




9 








Home Economics 


49 


45 




45 


4 




4 


Agriculture 


9 


8 


8 




1 


1 




Industrial Arta 


34 


29 


28 


1 


5 


5 




Business Subjects, Distributive Educ. 


35 


35 


1 


34 








Music 


29 


28 


6 


22 


1 




i 


Art 


12 


12 




12 








Physical Education 


42 


38 


11 


27 


4 




4 


Library Work 


6 


6 




6 








Administration and Supervision 


4 


4 


4 










Guidance .* 


3 


2 


1 


1 


1 




1 


Core 


12 


12 




12 








All Other Combinations 


54 


45 


6 


39 


9 


4 


5 


All Elementary Subjects 


897 


765 


12 


753 


132 


5 


127 



♦Includes permanent withdrawals, transfers from one county to another, and transfers to another 
type of school in the same county. 



Withdrawal of County Teachers by Subject and Sex; 
Teachers New to County Schools 



71 



TABLE 61 — Number and Percent of Teachers New to the Maryland County 

Schools 



Year 



New to Counties 








Change 






in 






Number 






of 






Teaching 


Number 


Percent 


Positions 






October 






to 






October 



Number New to County Who Were 



Inexper- 
ienced 



Substi- 
tutes 



Experienced 









From 




In 




Other 


But 


Counties 


From 


Type 


New 


But Not 


An- 


School 


to 


Teaching 


other 


In 


State 


Preced- 


Coun- 


Same 




ing Year 


ty* 


Coun- 








ty* 



Othert 



White Elementary School Teachers 



1935-36 


163 


6 





—6 


115 


8 


7 


33 


10 


3 




1936-37 


201 


7 


3 


+ 17 


141 


6 


19 


35 


10 


3 




1937-38 


203 


7 


4 


—18 


82 


29 


40 


52 


40 


4 




1938-39 


195 


7 


2 


—20 


107 


25 


22 


41 


18 


7 




1939-40 


199 


7 


4 


—17 


106 


26 


18 


49 


18 


4 




1940-41 


205 


7 


6 


— 5 


127 


20 


29 


29 


19 


10 




1941-42 


355 


13 


4 


—38 


142 


67 


63 


83 


31 


4 




1942-43 


565 


21 


3 


+ 8 


272 




169 


124 


54 


5 




1943-44 


521 


19 


4 


+ 42 


165 


10 


215 


131 


49 


5 


47 


1944-45 


553 


20 


1 


+ 67 


176 


88 


190 


99 


46 


10 


29 


1945-46 


°621 


22 


7 


—52 


159 


85 


219 


157 


°50 


12 


47 



White High School Teachers 



1935-36 


197 


13 


6 


+ 57 


149 


11 


17 


20 


16 


8 




1936-37 


191 


12 


8 


+ 48 


123 


6 


36 


26 


13 


8 




1937-38 


231 


14 


5 


+ 92 


129 


15 


66 


21 


25 


10 




1938-39 


220 


13 


2 


+ 82 


144 


23 


37 


16 


25 


13 




1939-40 


242 


13 


9 


+ 72 


156 


31 


38 


17 


19 


13 




1940-41 


262 


14 


7 


+ 45 


173 


12 


44 


33 


20 


7 




1941-42 


421 


22 


6 


+ 73 


233 


26 


111 


51 


25 


30 




1942-43 


587 


32 


2 


—19 


270 




237 


80 


61 


21 




1943-44 


517 


28 


7 


—55 


196 


6 


241 


74 


58 


27 


10 


1944-45 


525 


29 





+ 14 


178 


71 


210 


66 


46 


24 


15 


1945-46 


°779 


37 





+ 286 


240 


51 


302 


186 


°50 


116 


22 



Colored Elementary School Teachers 



1935-36 


70 


9 


9 


— 4 


57 


2 


2 


9 


24 






1936-37 


57 


8 


2 


— 9 


39 


1 


5 


12 


22 






1937-38 


47 


7 





—23 


35 


4 


1 


7 


21 






1938-39 


50 


7 


6 


—18 


40 


1 


4 


5 


25 






1939-40 


57 


8 


9 


—17 


42 


1 


3 


11 


22 






1940-41 


41 


6 


5 


—14 


30 


2 


2 


7 


7 






1941-42 


59 


9 


8 


—24 


37 


8 


5 


9 


5 


1 




1942-43 


87 


14 


7 


— 9 


65 




9 


13 


9 






1943-44 


120 


20 


3 


— 6 


81 


6 


18 


15 


9 




5 


1944-45 


132 


22 


3 


+ 14 


84 


17 


16 


15 


21 




3 


1945-46 


°108 


18 


2 


—10 


48 


13 


20 


27 


18 


i 


4 



Colored H'gh School Teachers 



1935-36 


25 


23 


1 


+ 6 


15 


5 


4 


1 


8 






1936-37 


28 


23 


9 


+ 9 


21 


1 


6 




11 






1937-38 


38 


28 


4 


+ 17 


30 




8 




8 






1938-39 


35 


23 


6 


+ 14 


27 


i 


5 


2 


8 






1939-40 


35 


20 


8 


+ 20 


29 


2 


3 


1 


10 


"a 




1940-41 


42 


24 


1 


+ 12 


32 


2 


7 


1 


6 






1941-42 


38 


19 


9 


+ 11 


27 




7 


4 


3 


4 




1942-43 


65 


32 


8 


+ 5 


49 




10 


6 


11 


2 




1943-44 


79 


37 


4 


+ 15 


52 


5 


19 


3 


4 


1 




1944-45 


90 


43 


1 


+ 7 


49 


9 


28 


4 


11 






1945-46 


°96 


37 





+ 43 


59 


7 


15 


14 


°12 


ii 





* Omitted from total number and percent new to counties. 

t Withdrawals during year who returned during the same year omitted from total number and percent, 
° Includes one transfer from Baltimore City to a Maryland County. 



72 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 62 

Number and Percent of White Elementary School Teachers* New to the 
Schools of Each Individual County During the School Year, 1945-46 



County 



Total and Average . . . 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Queen Anne's 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Washington 

Frederick 

Talbot 

Allegany 

Kent 

Worcester 

Dorchester 

Howard 

Harford 

Garrett 

Baltimore 

Caroline 

Calvert 

Prince George's 

Anne Arundel 

Montgomery 

Charles 

Saint Mary's 

Baltimore City 

Elementary and 
Occupational 

Entire State 



New to County 



0) 

£ 



't621 

9 
14 

5 

5 
11 
33 
22 

6 
44 

7 

9 
13 
11 
25 
24 
112 
10 

7 

101 
62 
99 
19 
22 



t284 
°t886 



c 
u 

<D 



't22.7 

11.7 
13.0 
13.5 
13.5 
14.3 
14.9 
15.2 
16.2 
17.5 
19.4 
20.5 
21.0 
21.2 
22.7 
23.1 
26.4 
27.0 
31.8 
33.2 
34.1 
35.0 
46.3 
66.7 



t23.8 
°t22.6 



Change 
in 

Number 
of 

Teachjng 
Positions 

October 
to 

October 



Number New to County Who Were 



-51.8 



—8 
—3 


—3 

+ 6 
—9 
— 1 
+ 6 
+ 1 
— 1 
—2 
—4 

—19 
+ 2 

+ 13 
—3 


—21 
— 11 
+ 12 
—4 
—3 



125.0 
176.8 



t3 

a; 
w 

a 

0) 

o 
a 

K 

0) 

C 



159 

2 
8 
2 

i 

5 
3 
4 
6 



2 
2 
6 
56 
1 

14 

29 
12 
4 
1 



106 

265 



3 



85 



2 
2 

12 
1 



2 
5 

30 
1 
4 
1 
2 
3 
5 

12 



85 



n 



219 

3 
2 



2 

10 
7 
1 
4 

3 
3 
2 
7 
15 
5 
2 
2 
1 

60 
22 
61 
4 
3 



58 
277 



Experienced 



*^ J, 

O O £ u 

s 



157 

2 
2 
2 
1 
3 

15 
7 
1 

14 
2 
5 
8 
2 
6 
7 

24 
6 
2 

18 
7 

15 
5 
4 



102 

259 



0) 

O 

O o 

[X4 



'50 

1 
2 
1 
3 
5 
1 
3 

8 
§1 



18 

°67 



^ ° 2 



tl2 



1 

tl3 



♦Teachers in grades 7 and 8 of junior or junior-senior high schools are excluded from this table. They 
are included in Table 63, page 73. 

"Teachers who transferred from one county to another are excluded from total for counties as a group 
and total for State in columns one and two, but transfers from county to city and vice versa are includ- 
ed in totals . 

fTransfers from other type of school in same county or city are excluded from all totals and from all 
percentages. 

t Withdrawals during year who returned before close of the year are excluded from all totals in columns 
one and two. 

§Transfer from Baltimore City. 

Note: In counties which are reorganizing from a 7-4 to a 6-3-3 system, teachers who taught grades 7 
and 8 in elementary school in previous years are now considered as part of the junior or junior- 
senior high school. This change in designation accounts for 116 of the decrease in the number of 
elementary school teaching positions. The appointment of additional teachers to take care of small- 
er classes partly offset this decrease. See also column of transfers within county on Table 63. 



White Teachers Nev/ to Maryland Schools 



73 



TABLE 63 

Number and Percent of White Regular, Senior High, Junior High, and 
Junior-Senior High School Teachers New to the Schools of Each 
Individual County During the School Year, 1945-46 



County 



Total and Average . 



Kent 

Allegany 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltinvore 

Garrett 

Washington .... 

Carroll 

Caroline 

Frederick 

Dorchester 

Queen Anne's. . 

Cecil 

Montgomery . . . 
Anne Arundel . . 
Prince George's . 

Talbot 

Somerset 

Calvert 

Harford 

Howard 

Charles 

Saint Mary's . . . 



Baltimore City 
Junior High . 
Senior High . , 
Vocational . . . 



New to County 



a; 

s 



Entire State. 



't779 

2 
44 
11 
9 
61 
14 
67 
39 
17 
43 
21 
13 
30 

115 
62 

116 
16 
14 
7 
47 
26 
26 
29 



tl20 
49 
23 

't967 



0) 

u 

t-, 



't37.0 

8.7 
19.9 
20.8 
22.0 
28.3 
29.2 
36.2 
36.8 
38.0 
39.1 
42.0 
44.2 
44.4 
45.3 
46.6 
46.8 
48.5 
48.6 
51.1 
53.4 
57.8 
67.5 
123.9 



t2l.3 
11.1 
23.2 

't30.1 



Change 
in 

Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 

October 
to 

October 



Number New to County Who Were 



+ 286.2 



0. 

+ 2 
+ 3. 
+ 7 
+ 14 
+ 2 
+ 17 
+ 13 
+ 6 
+ 17 
+ 9 
+ 5 
+ 13 
+ 21 
+ 27 
+ 76 
+ 3 
+ 8 
+ 
+ 16 
+ 10 
+ 9 
+ 3 



—28.0 
—19.0 
—7.0 

+ 232.2 



0) 

o 
C 
di 
'u 

0) 

a 
c 



240 



14 
2 
4 
22 
4 
17 
22 
7 
13 
6 
3 
14 
11 
16 
48 
6 
2 
1 
12 
6 
7 
3 



36 
5 
7 

288 



CO 
0) 
4-> 
3 

.!-> 

CO 

S3 

3 

73 



51 



1 

5 
1 

2 
2 
3 
2 
2 
4 
2 
3 
1 
3 
14 



51 



Experienced 



But New 
to State 


In Counties or 
City but Not 

Teaching Pre- 
ceding Year 


From Another 
County 


From Other 
Type School 
inSame('oun- 
ty or City 


u 

i) 

o 


302 




186 


"50 


tll6 




22 






1 


1 




1 






11 




15 


4 








5 


6 




2 


1 




1 




1 






3 


2 




6 






9 




22 


2 




2 






3 




6 


1 




3 






23 




22 


5 




1 




2 


5 




10 


2 




3 






7 




2 






4 




i 


11 




11 


3 




19 






7 




6 


1 




4 






4 




3 


3 




2 






8 




6 






5 




1 


64 




30 


8 




1 




5 


33 




10 






11 




3 


51 




9 


6 




27 




1 


4 




4 












4 




2 


2 




3 




i 


3 




1 












20 




10 


2 




11 






10 




6 


3 




6 






11 




4 


1 




5 






8 




1 


3 




1 




2 


28 




53 


3 




2 






7 




36 


1 










4 




12 












341 




287 


°54 


tll8 




22 



"Teachers who transferred from one county to another are excluded from total for counties as a group 
and total for State in columns one and two. 

fTransfers from one type of school to another within the same county or city are excluded from all 

totals and from all percentages. 
^Withdrawals during year who returned before close of the year are excluded from all totals in columns 

one and two. 

Note: In counties which are reorganizing from a 7-4 to a 6-3-3 system, teachers who taught grades 7 
and 8 in elementary school in previous years are now considered as part of the junior or junior- 
senior high school. This change in designation accounts for 116 positions of the increase in the num- 
ber of county high school teaching positions. 



74 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 
TABLE 64 — Number and Percent of Colored Teachers New to the Schools 
of Each Individual County During the School Year 1945-46 





New to 


County 


Change 
in 

Number 


Nximber New to County Who Were 












Experienced 


County 


E 


c 

a> 
u 

Cu 


of 

Teaching 
PosiHc Ds 

October 
to 

October 


Inexperienced 


a 

0) 

*^ 
3 
*j 

'S 

09 

Xi 
3 


3 O 


o O £ I, 

•5 - ''^^ 
3-X 

=> >> =J .£ 
t— 1 


From Another 
County 


From Other 
Type School 
in Same 
County or City 


++ 

u 

9) 

O 



Colored Elementary School Teachers 



Total and Average . . . . 


*tl08 


'*tl8.2 


—10.0 


48 


13 


20 


27 


*18 


tl 


4 


Allegany 





0.0 


0.0 
















Cecil 





0.0 


0.0 
















Kent 





0.0 


0.0 





















0.0 


0.0 
















Wicomico 


2 


6.7 


—1.0 








1 


1 






Montgomery 


4 


9.3 


—2.0 


1 




2 


1 








Harford 


3 


13.0 


—1.0 


1 






2 










11 


13.3 


—3.0 


4 


2 


2 


2 


1 




2 




3 


13.6 


+ 2.0 








2 


1 






Talbot 


3 


14.3 


—1.0 


2 








1 






Howard 


3 


20.0 


—1.0 


1 


2 














18 


20.5 


—1.0 


11 




1 


2 


4 




1 




5 


21.7 


—1.0 


1 






3 


1 






Carroll 


2 


25.0 


0.0 


2 














Queen Anne's 


4 


25.0 


0.0 


1 


1 




1 


1 




1 




12 


26.1 


0.0 


3 


5 


1 


3 








Dorchester 


8 


29.6 


0.0 


1 




3 


2 


2 






Caroline 


5 


33.3 


+ 1.0 


3 




1 


1 










13 


35.1 


+ 4.0 


3 




4 


3 


3 






Frederick 


6 


35.3 


—2.0 


4 




1 


1 








Calvert 


12 


48.0 


—1.0 


2 


3 


3 


1 


3 






Somerset 


12 


50.0 


—3.0 


8 




2 


2 








Baltimore City 






















Elementary and 






















Occupational 


131 


20.0 


—25.0 


39 




14 


71 


7 






Entire State 


*t232 


*tl8.6 


—35.0 


87 


13 


34 


98 


♦25 


tl 


4 


Colored High School Teachers 


Total and Average. . . . 


♦°t96 


*''t37.0 


+ 43.3 


59 


7 


15 


14 


♦•'12 


til 




Allegany . . 


1 


16.7 


0.0 


1 














Washington 


1 


20.0 


0.0 








i 










2 


28.6 


+ .4 


2 
















4 


28.6 


+ 3.0 


1 




1 


i 




i 




Harford 


3 


28.8 


+ 2.4 


2 






1 




3 






5 


31.3 


0.0 


3 






2 








Anne Arundel 


9 


33.3 


+ 2.5 


4 


1 


2 




on 


i 




Kent 


2 


33.3 


0.0 


2 
















3 


37.5 


+ 1.0 


2 




1 










Frederick 


3 


37.5 


+ 1.0 


2 






i 




i 






9 


37.5 


+ 5.0 


5 




2 


1 


1 






Somerset 


6 


37.5 


+ 4.0 


3 






1 


2 


2 




Montgomery 


7 


41.2 


+ 4.0 


4 


1 


2 










Howard 


3 


42.9 


+ 2.0 




1 


1 




1 


1 




Queen Anne's 


3 


42.9 


+ 2.0 


2 








1 


1 




Dorchester 


6 


46.2 


+ 1.0 


2 




2 


i 


1 








3 


50.0 


+ 1.0 






1 




2 






Cecil 


3 


50.0 


+ 1.0 


i 




1 


i 








Charles 


7 


50.0 


+ 2.0 


6 








1 






Baltimore 


12 


54.5 


+ 7.0 


6 


3 


1 


2 




1 




Calvert 


6 


75.0 


+ 2.0 


4 




1 


1 








Talbot 


9 


75.0 


+ 2.0 


7 


1 




1 








Baltimore City 






















Junior High 


16 




+ 15.0 


3 




2 


11 








Senior High 


2 


1 7.7 


—16.0 


1 






1 








Vocational 


5 


1 


+ 8.0 


1 




2 


2 








Entire State 


*tll8 


*t2l.l 


+ 50.0 


64 


7 


19 


28 


*11 


tn 





fTransfers from other type of school in same county are excluded from all totals and from all percentages 
^Withdrawals during year who returned before close of the year are excluded from all totals in columns, 
one and two. 

♦Transfers from one county to another are excluded from totals for counties as a group and total for 
State in columns one and two, but transfers from county to city and vice versa are included in totals. 
"Includes one transfer from Baltimore City. 



Colored Teachers New to Maryland Schools; College Graduates 75 
Certified for Teaching; Sex of County Teachers 



TABLE 65 

Maryland Students Who Completed in June 1945, at Colleges Indicated, the 
Education Courses Necessary for Certification Compared With the Number of 
Graduates Who Took Positions in the County High Schools in the Fall of 1945* 



College 



Western Maryland College 
University of Maryland . . 

St. Joseph's College 

Hood College 

Washington College 

Goucher College 

Johns Hopkins University . 
College of Notre Dame. . . 



Number of Graduates 



Who Met Requirements for 
Certification from 



Maryland 
Counties 



29 
11 
5 
3 
4 
1 

1 



Baltimore 
City 



6 
9 
1 


5 
2 
10 



Who Received 
Maryland County 
High School 
Positions* 



84 

7 
6 
4 
2 






* According to reports from colleges 



TABLE 66 

Number and Percent of Men Teachers in Maryland Counties 





White 


Colored 


Year 


Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 


Ending June 30 




















Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


1941 


232 


8.6 


719 


40.5 


74 


11.9 


83 


47.8 


1942 


190 


7.1 


670 


36.2 


66 


10.9 


89 


46.4 


1943 


139 


5.2 


538 


29.7 


58 


9.7 


81 


42.0 


1944 


108 


4.0 


488 


27.3 


44 


7.5 


72 


34.8 


1945 


104 


3.7 


465 


25.8 


43 


7.1 


78 


36.8 


1946 


107 


3.9 


629 


29.4 


45 


7.5 


88 


33.7 



See Table X, pages 253 to 254. 



76 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 67 — County Teachers in Service October, 1945, Who Attended Summer 
School and State Teachers Colleges Planning Conferences, Summer 1945 





Teachers Employed Oct. 
1945 who Attended Sum- 
mer School in 1945 




Number on 
County 
Staff 


County 


Number 


Perceat 


Summer School Attended 




Elem. 


High 


Elem. 


High 




Elem. 


High 



White County Teachers 



Total White.. . 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel. , 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . . 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's . . 
St. Mary's. . . . 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington. . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



1257 


a247 


9 


4 


11 


7 


*18 


*27 


7 


1 


12 


2 


*15 


°20 


8 


2 


15 





*19 


**oi7 


4 


5 


7 


8 


6 


4 


27 


3 


29 


2 


3 


2 


8 


1 


4 


5 


12 


14 


11 


1 


13 


2 


*14 


5 


18 


2 


7 


4 


1 


4 


2 


4 


10 


4 


*2 


♦4 


3 


2 


8 




**10 


9 


6 


9 


8 


2 


**20 


7 


19 


2 


14 


6 


**8 


°7 


7 


3 


8 





12 


8 


23 


1 


17 


8 


*0 


3 






13 





***42 


*41 


14 


8 


16 


1 


*25 


*°20 


8 


2 


8 


1 




1 








3 


t*4 


1 


12 


1 




4 


7 


*3 


18 


9 


8 


6 


1 


3 


2 


7 


9 


1 


***33 


♦36 


14 


9 


19 


5 


*3 


*6 


3 


9 


11 


3 


*2 


5 


4 


5 


12 


2 



Total 

University of Maryland 

Columbia University 

Johns Hopkins University 

Frostburg State Teachers College 

Frostburg Conference 

Western Maryland College 

Salisbury State Teachers College. 
Towson State Teachers College. . 

Towson Conference 

George Washington University. . . 
Shepherd State Teachers College. 

Duke University 

Cornell University 

University of West Virginia 

Pennsylvania State College 

University of Chicago 

Catholic University 

New York University 

Madison College 

University of Mexico 

Forty-four Others 



280 


260 


t65 


36 


***23 


32 


31 


14 


24 


2 


*11 


1 


11 


9 


15 




12 


3 


bl7 


a60 


5 


9 


8 


3 


3 


4 


2 


5 




6 




6 


*3 


2 




5 




5 


3 


1 


1 


2 


**23 


42 



Colored County Teachers 



Total Colored. . 

Allegany 

Aane Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . . 

Frederick 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's . . 
St. Mary's. . . . 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington. . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



132 


c75 


22 


2 


28 






3 






50 





22 


16 


26 


5 


59 


8 


9 


4 


19 


6 


18 


2 


8 


*1 


32 





12 


5 


1 


6 


6 


7 


62 


? 


2 


*1 


25 





16 




2 


2 


22 


2 


33 


3 


6 


4 


16 


2 


28 


6 


5 


♦2 


18 


5 


16 


4 


7 


2 


41 


2 


25 





9 


1 


39 


1 


9 


6 


3 


1 


20 





14 


3 


4 


3 


28 


6 


50 





13 


*4 


30 


2 


23 


5 


7 


*11 


8 





45 


8 


5 


1 


31 


3 


14 


3 


4 


*0 


18 


2 






6 


5 


25 





31 


.8 


6 


♦1 


28 


6 


8 


3 




2 






40 


.0 


6 


♦3 


20 





18 


8 


7 


3 


30 


4 


21 


4 



Morgan State College 

Hampton Institute 

Temple University 

Howard University 

Columbia University 

University of Pennsylvania 

Catholic University 

New York University 

Bowie State Teachers College. . . . 

Bowie Planning Conference 

Virginia State College 

West Chester State Teachers Coll 

Pennsylvania State College 

Fourteen Others 



132 


83 


57 


3 


24 


3 


8 


9 


9 


4 


6 


7 


8 


5 


1 


6 


2 


4 


1 


3 


3 


cl6 


1 


4 


2 


1 


1 


2 


9 


8 



* Excludes one supervisor. 

t Excludes one attendance officer. 

X Excludes 22 supervisors and one attendance officer. 

° Excludes one assistant superintendent. 

a Excludes 9 supervisors and 4 assistant superintendents. 

b Excludes 15 supervisors. 

c Excludes 8 supervisors. 



a 
S 



a 

X 

u 
< 

a 

PL, 

c 
z 

c 
z 
o 

a 
m 

a 
e 

a 
c 
■< 
« 

> 
< 



z 
•a; 



Summer School Attendance of County Teiachers; 
Number of Pupils Bf:LONGiNG per Teacher 



,2 
"o 

o 

J3 
u 
O) 

T3 

O 



3 
c 

6 



o "i* ^ ~j ai :r. eo « ^ ir: x ^ o t~ x ^-'^ 



J3 



o 
o 



C4 



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St 5^ 

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Q, J3 
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N i-( 1-1 i-t i-ioaw ,-1 1-1 ,-. 1-1 -H c^j 



t> C 1-1 CC CC to X 1-1 05 ■ U3 



12 M O 



eomiH050o«oco»-icjNa50vneoc<it-o-^t>x->i<^c>! 

TH.-lr-l M 1-1 — -^M<N ^ — — 



77 



< 

o 
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Z 
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z 

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z 



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o 

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U 



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o 

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c 
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s 

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15 



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coco •^COOJOOOC005i-'».OOJCgoX05Cvl05i-'OOJ'^i— ii-i 
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eg . Tji o 



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o , 

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78 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 10 

Average Number of White Pupils Belonging per Teacher and Principal 
in Public Elementary Schools (Grades 1-6, 1-7 or 8): 1944, 1945, 1946 



County 


1944 


1945 


County Arerage 


36,5 


36 


.0 




29.7 


29 


.1 


St. Mary's 


£8.4 


27 


.8 


Dorcheator 


32.1 


31 


.8 


Queen Anne's 


31.6 


31 


.8 


Oerrett 


31.7 


31 


.6 


Worcester 


32.4 


32 


.9 


Talbot 


33.0 


33 


.1 


MoDtgonery 


32.5 


30 


.7 


Carroll 


36.0 


35 


.8 


Washington 


55.1 


34 


1 


Soaerset 


35.0 


34 


8 


CalTert 


35.3 


34 





Cecil 


96.6 


36 


3 


Wlcotilco* 


35.2 


34 


2 


Harfonl 


33.3 


32 


7 


Allegany* 


33.2 


33. 


1 


Howard 


36.6 


37. 


1 


Anne Arundel 


96.7 


37. 


3 


Caroline 


96.9 


35. 


7 


Charles 


37.6 


36. 


3 


Frederick 


se.2 


38. 


1 


Prince George's 


36.2 


39. 





Baltimore* 


46.9 


45. 


9 


BeJto. City- 


96. ft 


33. 


2 


state Arerage 


55.9 


35. 


2 




• Excludes elementary schools at State Teachers Colleges. 
NOTE: The 1946 average number of white pupils belonging per elementary teacher should 
read: Baltimore City, 35.1; State Average, 35.2. 
For basic data by county see Table XVIII, page 262. 



Pupils Belonging per White Elementary and High School Teacher 79 



CHART 11 

Average Number of White Pupils Belonging per Teacher and Principal 
in Public Junior, Junior-Senior, Senior, and Regular High Schools: 

1944, 1945, 1946 



County 


1944 


1945 


County ATorego 


2e.9 


23.1 


Kent 


19.4 


18.0 


MoDtgooery 


19.3 


19.6 


Chftrlea 


19.6 


20.1 


Queen Anne' a 


18.1 


18.8 


Calrert 


23.0 


20.5 


Caroline 


19.6 


18.1 


Sonereet 


* 17.7 


19.1 


Carroll 


19.7 


19.1 


Hoimrd 


20.0 


19.3 


St. Mary's 


19.8 


19.4 


Worcester 


19.3 


19.4 


Dorchester 


20.1 


21.2 


Wlccnloo 


20.7 


21.9 


Harford 


20.3 


21.3 


Garrett 


21.9 


20.8 


Talbot 


20.8 


20.1 


Prlnoe George's 


22.1 


22.9 


Cecil 


21.3 


22.7 


Anne Arundel 


23.8 


24.1 


Washington 


23.8 


24.3 


Allegany 


23.8 


24.1 


Trederick 


25.1 


24.1 


BaltlJBore 


32.8 


S2.6 


Baltlaore City 


22.7 


a. 4 


State Arera^ 


22.8 


22.7 




For basic data by county see Tabje XIX, page 263. 



80 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 12 

Average Number of Colored Pupils Belonging per Teacher and Principal 
in Public Elementary Schools (Grades 1-6, 1-7 ): 1944, 1945, 1946 



County 



1944 



1945 1946 



County Ayerag* 


36 


,1 


36 


1 1 


Cecil 


35 


.2 


39 


4 1 


Harford 


01 


. o 


Ol 


d 1 


^oen Anne's 


30 


.4 


31 


2 1 


Carroll 


26 


.4 


27 


a 1 


Talbot 


37 


.0 


1 n 


8 1 


St. Mary's 


30 


.9 


33 


2 1 


Prince George's* 


33 


.8 


?4 


7 1 


Howard 


36 




M 


4 1 


Anne Arundel* 


35 


.1 


1 n 


8 1 


Frederick 


33 


.7 


33 


3 1 


Wicomico 


^3 


.4 


33 


2 1 


Montgoaery 


34 


.5 


33. 


3 1 


Allegany 


29 


,7 


30. 


5 1 


Caroline 


37 


.6 


38. 


7 1 


Kent 


37 


.1 


39 


4 1 


Somerset 


37 


.1 


36. 


1 


Dorchester 


37 


.7 


37. 


7 1 


Worcester 


40 


.8 


40. 


3 1 


Washington 


33 


2 


3-4. 


8 1 


Charles 


41 


2 


41. 


2 1 


CalTert 


39 


8 


40. 


1 


Baltimore 


46 


3 


45. 


9 1 


Baltimore City 


36 


9 


3:. 


4 1 


State Average 


36 


5 


34. 


7 1 




• Excludes elementary school at Bowie State Teachers College. 
For basic data by county see Table XX, page 264. 



Pupils Belonging per Colored Elementary and High School Teacher 81 



CHART 13 

Average Number of Colored Pupils Belonging per Teacher and Principal 
in Public Junior, Junior-Senior, and Regular High Schools: 

1944, 1945, 1946 



County 

County Average 

Allegany 

Washington 

Carroll 

St. Mary's 

Charles 

Queen Anne's 

Talbot 

Wicomico 

Cecil 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Somerset 

Dorchester 

Howard 

Kent 

Prince George's 

Baltimore 

Harford 

Montgomery 

Anne Arundel 

Frederick 

Worcester 

Baltimore City 
State Average 




For basic data by county see Table XXI, page 265. 



82 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 69 — Average Number of Pupils Belonging Per County Teacher and 

Principal 1923-1946 





Year 


Average Number Belonging Per 
County White Teacher and 
Principal in 


Average Number Belonging Per 
County Colored Teacher and 
Principal in 


Elementary 
Schools* 


High 
Schools 


Elementary 
Schools* 


High 
Schools 


1923 


31 


7 


20. 





38 


3 


15.2 


1924 


31 


5 


19. 


8 


35 


9 


14.8 


1925 


Q9 


1 
1 




1 
1 






16.8 


1926 


32 





20. 


3 


34 


6 


19.0 


1927 


32 


3 


20 


4 


34 





19.9 


1928 


32 


8 


21 





33 


7 


21.5 


1929 


32 


9 


21 


5 


33 


3 




1930 


33 


6 


21 


6 


33 





25.0 


1931 


34 





21 


9 


33 


3 


25.2 


1932 


34 


9 


22 


3 


34 





25.0 


1933 


36 


2 


24 


4 


34 


9 


26.7 


1934 


36 


1 


24 


8 


35 





26.3 


1935 


36 


.1 


24 


7 


34 





26.5 


1936 


35 


8 


25 


1 


33 


2 


29.8 


1937 


35 


4 


24 


9 


33 


3 


30.7 


1938 


35 


2 


24 





33 


7 


29.6 


1939 


35 


6 


24 


2 


34 


9 


28.0 


1940 


35 


.5 


24 


5 


35 


3 


27.5 


1941 


35 


8 


24 


1 


35 


8 


27.2 


1942 


36 


.0 


23 


3 


36 


.3 


25.5 


1943 


36 


8 


23 





36 


3 


25.4 


1944 


36 


.5 


22 


9 


36 


.1 


24.7 


1945 


36 


.0 


23 


1 


36 


.1 


24.3 


1946 


35 


2 


28 


5 


35 


.7 


25.5 



* Excludes pupils in elementary schools cf State Teachers Colleges. 



TABLE 70 — Average Annual Salary Per County Teacher and Principal 

1923-1916 





Average Salary Per County 


Average Salary Per County 




White Teacher and 


Colored Teacher and 




Principal in 


Principal in 


Year 












Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 




Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


1923 


$ 990 


$1,436 


$513 


$906 


1924 


1.030 


1.477 


.532 


835 


1925 


1.057 


1 .485 


546 


808 


1926 


1,103 


1,517 


.563 


891 


1927 


1.126 


1 , .534 


586 


908 


1928 


1,155 


1.544 


602 


897 


1929 


1.184 


1 , 557 


621 


879 


1930 


1.199 


1 ,5.50 


635 


874 


1931 


1.217 


1 , 5.59 


643 


882 


1932 


1.230 


1.571 


6.53 


856 


1933 


1.231 


1.532 


657 


837 


1934 


1.122 


1,394 


595 


784 


1935 


1,135 


1.398 


602 


790 


1936 


1.202 


1,469 


636 


817 


1937 


1.220 


1.488 


6.53 


821 


1938 


1,295 


1.587 


745 


905 


1939 


1,314 


1.595 


846 


997 


1940 


1,360 


1 . 605 


906 


1.018 


1941 


1,387 


1.618 


993 


1,103 


1942 


1,427 


1.639 


1,124 


1,290 


1943 


tl.539 


tl.735 


tl,291 


tl,450 


1944 


J1.805 


tl,997 


tl,551 


Jl,705 


1945 


*1.862 


*2 , 042 


*1,599 


*1,719 


1946 


2.027 


2,183 


1.737 


1,845 



t Salaries for 1943 include county bonus paid in 12 counties. 

X Salaries for 1944 includes county bonus in 22 Counties and State bonus in all counties. 
♦ Salaries for 1945 include County and State bonus in all Counties. 



Number Belonging and Average Salary per County Teacher 83 



CHART 14 

Average Salary per County White and Colored Public 
Elementary and High School Teacher and Principal: 1925-1946 



2»10O 

2.000 
1,900 

1,800 
l.TOO 
1.600 
1,500 
1.4 00 
1.500 

;£oo 

1,100 
1.000 
300 

800 
TOO 
600 
500 



































































1 

1 




















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/ / 


1 




















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1925 1^27 1929 1931 1933 1935 1337 1339 1941 1943 1945 1947 



84 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Average Salary per Teacher 



85 



In 1945-46 Maryland with ?2,262 ranked ninth among the 
states in average salary per supervisor, principal and teacher. 
Maryland's average salary was exceeded by the amount paid 
in California, New York, New Jersey, Washington, Massachu- 
setts, Connecticut, Illinois and Michigan. Figures in Tables 70 
and 71 do not include supervisors. 

CHART 15 

Average Salary per Public School Teacher and Principal: 1944, 1945, 1946 



County 
County Average 

Washington 

Montgomery 

Baltimore 

Allogaoy 

Wicomico 

Prince George's 

Trederick 

Carroll 

Queen Anne's 

Anne Arundel 

Kent 

Harford 

Howard 

Cecil 

Garrett 

Carolina 

Dorchester 

Talbot 

Worcester 

Sonerset 

CalTert 

Charles 

St. Mary's 

Baltimore City 

State Average 



1944 
11828 



1945 
$1878 



1946 



62048 




NOTE: The 1946 average salary per principal and teacher should read: Baltimore City, 
$2540 ; State Average, $2233. 



86 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 16 

Average Salary per White Public Elementary School Principal and 

Teacher: 1944, 1945, 1946 



County 


1944 


1945 


County Average 


$1605 


|1862 


Weshlngton 


1834 


1931 


Montgomery 


2068 


2090 


Prince George's 


1817 


1910 




1818 


1870 


Wicomico 


1715 


1664 


Frederick 


1823 


1803 


Beltlaore 


1818 


1999 


Queen Anne's 


1741 


1791 


Cnrroll 


1805 


1756 


Kent 


1697 


1777 


Talbot 


1704 


1746 


Somerset 


1662 


1738 


C»»lTert 


1701 


1710 


Worcester 


1692 


165r 


Harford 


1679 


1678 


Howard 


1758 


1736 


Caroline 


1598 


1760 


Cecil 


1775 


1730 


Dorchester 


1679 


1641 


Anne Arundel 


1771 


1721 


Charles 


1624 


1740 


St. Mary's 


1559 


1775 


Cerrett 


1579 


1683 


Baltimore City 


2173 


2166 


State Average 


1924 


1959 



1946 



•2027 



2235 



2213 



2115 



2099 



2061 



2044 



2001 



1993 



1976 



1970 



1941 



1930 



1927 



1905 



1905 



1901 \ 



1889 



1879 



1876 



1845 



i83(> 



1822 



1787 . 



2555 



2189 



NOTE: The 1946 average salary per white elementary school principal and teacher should 
read: Baltimore City, $2377 ; State Average, $2140. 
For basic data by county Kee Table XVIII, page 262. 



Average Salary per White Elementary and High School Teacher 87 



CHART 17 

Average Salary per White Public High School Principal and Teacher: 1946 



County 
Co. Av. 

Balto. 

Wash. 

Kent. 

Wic. 

AU. 

Q. A. 

A. A. 

P. G. 

How. 

Fred. 

Calv, 

Kent 

Carr. 

Oarr. 

Harf. 

Som. 

Wor. 

Dor. 

Cecil 

Chaa. 

Talb. 

Caro. 

St. U. 

Balto. 
City 

State 
Arera^e 



19U6 Average Salary Per 

Prln- Teach- Prin. and 
cipal er Teacher 

$3272 »2106 




3li3U 2355 



For basic data by county see Table XIX, page 263. 



88 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 18 

Average Salary per Colored Public Elementary School Principal and 

Teacher: 1944, 1945, 1946 



County 1944 1945 1946 

County Average |1551 |1599 Ulf*t.1»l 

Allegany 1750 1872 Wrir^lr^ 

Montgomery 1939 1950 

Washington 1678 1767 ^■OMt:'! 

Baltimore 1601 1898 P'./«Mtl 

Anne Arundel 1684 1685 

Wicomico 1416 14C1 

Harford 1603 1582 

Prince George's 1553 1585 

Caroline 1499 1575 

Cecil 1617 1696 

Queen Anne's 1515 1582 

Kent 1415 1494 

Frederick 1476 1477 pf^M 

Calvert 1453 1479 h*.tsl^ 

Carroll 1414 1503 KKl^I*! 

Hovrerd 1567 1558 ■MiKl 

Talbot 1397 1474 ■t.llKl 

Dorchester 1414 1336 BMiM 

Somerset 1415 1465 WI»'tJT^ 

Charles 1428 1463 pK^V-l 

St. Uary'6 1356 1460 M^ltiYA 

Worcester 1363 1366 

Baltimore City 2236 2033 

State Average 1908 1835 Wfl^Pli^iW 




For basic data by county see Table XX, page 264. 



Average Salary per Colored Elementary and High School Tela.cher 



89 



CHART 19 

Average Salary per Colored Public High School Principal and Teacher: 1946 



1946 Average Salary Per 



County 

Co. At. 

Wash. 

All. 

Balto. 

Uont. 

A. A, 

Carr. 

Wlo. 

Q. A. 

Harf . 

?red. 

Cecil 

Caro. 

Dor. 

P. 0. 

Kent 

St. U. 

How. 

Wor. 

Chas. 

Talb. 

Son. 

CalT. 



Bait. 
City 

ftate 
Terage 



Prin- 
cipal 



5693 
2821 



Teach- Prin. and 
er Teacher 



♦2569 11751 




2562 
2206 



2595 



For basic data by county see Table XXI, page 265. 



90 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 72 

Number of County Elementary Schools Giving Instruction in Grades 1-6 or 1-7 
(8) Having Following Number of Teachers and Principals, School Year 1945-46 





















































Number 






c 


























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q 






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AND 




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u 


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£ 






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u 




c 


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'i 


u 

3. 

CO 
0) 


Principals 


Total 


tc 
< 


Anne 


■ iltii 


> 


Carol 


L-. 

U 


-cil 


Char! 


Dorc 


■o 


i-1 
u 

o 




$ 



MH 


c 


Mont 


I'rinc 


3 


2: 
'2 


E 


o 
"H 


Wash 


Wicoi 


Wore 



County Elementary Schooi^ for White Pupils 



All Schools. 


x5l6 


37 


27 


x42 


6 


9 


18 


18 


7 


27 


29 


48 


30 


10 


12 


36 


46 


15 


13 


11 


9 


41 


15 


10 


1.0- 1.4. 


111 


°6 








*1 


*°3 


*6 


♦1 


*16 


1 


29 


7 


2 


°3 


°5 


°te 


°7 


5 


4 


°2 


°5 


2 




1.5- 2 .4 


85 


3 


2 


t2 


2 


2 


1 


4 




4 


7 


7 


9 


1 


5 


2 


3 


3 


7 


2 


O 


10 


3 


t4 


2.5- 3 4 


39 


1 


5 


4 


1 


1 




1 




1 


4 


4 




1 


2 


4 


1 


1 




1 


1 


3 


1 


2 


3.5- 4.4. 


55 


3 


4 


4 


2 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


4 


4 


3 






4 


4 


3 




1 


1 


8 


3 


1 


4.5- 5.4 


35 


2 


2 


3 




2 


2 




4 


2 


3 


1 


4 


1 






5 








2 


1 


1 




5.5- 6.4. 


41 


6 


4 


4 




1 


3 


2 




1 


2 




3 


3 


1 


1 


4 






1 




4 


1 




6.5- 7.4. 


32 


5 


1 


5 






2 






1 


4 


1 


2 


1 




2 


6 






1 








1 


7.5- 8.4.. 


19 


1 




1 


1 




1 


1 




1 


1 


1 


1 






1 


4 






1 




3 




1 


8.5- 9.4 


21 


3 


2 


4 




1 


1 


1 






1 










3 


3 


1 








1 






9.5-10.4 


13 




2 


2 






2 








1 










3 


1 










1 






10.5-11.4 


16 


1 


3 


4 






















1 


1 


1 










1 






11.5-12.4 


8 


1 




1 








1 








1 








2 


2 
















12.5-13.4 


6 


1 






















1 






2 


1 










1 






13.5-14.4. 


9 


1 


1 


1 














1 










1 


2 




1 












14.5-15.4. 


3 






























1 


2 
















15.5-16.4.. 


f) 


1 












1 












1 




1 


1 
















16.5-17.4. 


2 












1 




1 
































17.5-18.4 


2 






























1 












1 






18.5-19.4 


2 






























2 


















19. 5-20.4 


3 


1 


1 






































1 






20. 5 or more 


9 


1 




7 




































1 







County Elementary Schools for Colored Pupils 



AH Schools . . 


269 


2 


36 


16 


16 


4 


5 


5 


19 


12 


8 




12 


H 


6 


19 


36 


12 


14 


8 


10 


1 


11 


9 


1.0- 1.4 


104 


1 


*12 


3 


9 




3 


2 


9 


♦18 


3 




6 


2 


3 


5 


8 


10 


8 








4 


1 


1.5- 2 .4 


97 




tl4 


8 


5 




t2 


2 


8 


1 


4 




4 


4 


1 


8 


18 




4 


5 






4 


5 


2.5- 3.4 


31 


1 


f) 




1 


2 




1 




1 








■> 


1 


4 


.") 


1 


2 


1 






2 




3.5- 4.4 


15 




•> 


2 


1 


1 














1 






1 


■> 


1 








1 




3 


4.5- 5.4.. 


12 




2 


1 




1 






■> 


1 






1 








2 






1 


1 








5.5- 6.4.. 


4 




















1 








1 


1 








1 










7.5- 8.4.. 


1 






1 










































8.5- 9.4... 


1 


















1 






























9.5-10.4. 


2 




1 


1 










































11.5-12.4.. . 


1 












































1 




12.5-13.4.. . 


1 
































1 

















X Includes nineteen seventh grades which are housed in elementary schools but offer a junior high 

school curriculum. 
* Includes one school having a two-teacher organization. 
° Includes two schools having a two-teacher organization, 
t Includes one school having a graded organization. 
X Includes two schools having a graded organization. 



Size of Teaching Staff in County Elementary Schools; 91 

One-Teacher Schools 
TABLE 73 

Decrease in Teachers Employed in County One-Teaclier Schools,* 1920-1946 



School Year 
Ending 
June 30 


County Whitk Elementaky Teachers* 


Colored 


Ei^mentary 


Teachers* 


Total 


In One-Teacher Schools 


Total 


In One-Teacher Schools 


XT i_ 

Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


1920 




1 1 1 

1,1/1 


.jy.i 


bo3 


422 


61.8 




3,037 


1 ,149 


3 / .8 


694 


408 


58.8 




3,054 


1,1^4 


36.8 


70H 


406 


57.3 




3,006 


1,093 


35.7 




403 


56.6 


1924 


3,0o5 


1,055 


34.4 


728 


395 


54.4 


1925 


3,047 


1,005 


o.t.O 


721 


397 


55.1 


1926 


3,067 


95d 


61. i 


728 


394 


54.1 


1927 


3,088 


o9o 


00 1 

^y.i 


725 


382 


52.7 


1928 


3,070 


823 


26.8 


734 


378 


51.5 


1929 


3,078 


739 


24.0 


734 


372 


50.7 


1930 


3,050 


663 


21.7 


733 


363 


49.5 


1931 


3,049 


586 


19.2 


739 


353 


47.7 


1932 


3,022 


489 


16.2 


727 


344 


47.3 


1933 


2,954 


407 


13.8 


718 


334 


46.5 


1934 


2,947 


377 


12.8 


708 


331 


46.7 


1935 


2,941 


365 


12.4 


714 


318 


44.5 


1936 


2,949 


342 


11.6 


709 


309 


43.6 


1937 


2,972 


324 


10.9 


697 


293 


42.0 


1938 


2,965 


289 


9.7 


677 


271 


40.0 


1939 


2,946 


260 


8.8 


658 


232 


35.3 


1940 


2,944 


209 


7.1 


644 


198 


30.7 


1941 


2,921 


184 


6.3 


627 


181 


28.9 


1942 


2,935 


160 


5.5 


611 


146 


24.0 


1943 


2,929 


143 


4.9 


601 


132 


22.0 


1944 


2,979 


118 


4.0 


602 


121 


20.2 


1945 


3,050 


106 


3.5 


611 


112 


18.3 


1946 


2,719 


88 


3.2 


597 


98 


16.4 



TABLE 74 — Number and Percent of Teachers and Pupils in One-Teachert 
Elementary Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending June 30, 1946 



County 



Total and Average . . . 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Charles 

Talbot 

Worcester 

Prince George's 

Frederick 

Montgomery 

Washington 

Allegany 

Wicomico 

Kent 

Howard 

Cecil 

Harford 

Somerset 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Dorchester 

Garrett 



Schools For White Pupils 



Teachers in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 



Num- 


Per- 


Num- 


Per- 


ber 


cent 


ber 


cent 


87.8 


3.2 


1,910 


2.0 


2.0 


.6 


47 


.4 


1.0 


.7 


20 


.4 


3.1 


1.1 


75 


.8 


3.0 


1.3 


86 


1.1 


4.0 


1.6 


79 


.9 


2.0 


2.6 


51 


1.9 


1.0 


2.8 


12 


1.3 


2.0 


3.8 


54 


3.0 


5.0 


6.4 


117 


4.5 


7.0 


6.4 


189 


5.0 


3.7 


10.2 


84 


6.9 


5.0 


13.5 


90 


8.2 


5.0 


14.3 


145 


15.1 


15.0 


24.2 


307 


17.0 


29.0 


28.1 


554 


17.6 



Pupils in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 



County 



Total and Average 

Caroline 

Somerset 

Washington 

Worcester 

Baltimore 

Prince George's. . . 

Montgomery 

Howard 

Wicomico 

Anno Arundel 

Frederick 

Talbot 

Kent 

Cecil 

Dorchester 

.\llegany 

Charles 

Harfcrd 

Calvert 

St. Mary's 

Carroll 

Queen Anne's 



Schools For Colored Pupils 



Teachers in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 



Num- 


Per- 


Num- 


Per- 


ber 


cent 


ber 


cent 


98.0 


16.4 


3,033 


14.2 


1.0 


4.3 


24 


2.7 


3.0 


6.1 


133 


5.6 


8.0 


9.0 


228 


7.7 


5.0 


11.7 


195 


13.3 


2.0 


12.8 


63 


12.0 


4.0 


13.3 


101 


9.9 


11.0 


13.3 


338 


12.1 


3.0 


17.8 


83 


14.5 


4.0 


19.0 


105 


16.0 


3.0 


21.4 


100 


19.1 


2.0 


22.2 


49 


18.7 


6.0 


22.2 


196 


19.1 


1.0 


24.4 


29 


20.4 


9.0 


25.7 


326 


23.7 


6.0 


26.7 


158 


23.8 


9.0 


35.4 


325 


30.8 


8.0 


36.4 


228 


31.9 


3.0 


38.0 


59 


24.6 


10.0 


59.5 


293 


58.1 



Pupils in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 



* Prior to 1946, teachers of grades 7 and 8 were included with the elementary schools. In 1946 they 

were includoci with the junior cr junior-senior high schools, 
t Schools having a ono-teacher organization, i.e. grades one to five, six, seven, or eight. 



92 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 
TABLE 75 — Size of Teaching Staff in Maryland County Junior-Senior, Senior, 
and Regular High Schools and in Junior High Schools for White Pupils, 

Year Ending June 30, 1946 



Number 

Of 
Teachers 


All 
1 Schools 


Allegany | 


! Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 


Calvert 


0/ 

c 

o 

U 


Carroll 


Cecil 


_a; 

-C 

U 


Dorchester 


a: 
? 


' Garrett 


Harford || 


Howard 


c 


Montgomery 


Prince George's 


Queen Anne's 


72 
2 


£ 
o 

73 

5 


3 


1 Washington 


c 
u 

1 

o 
6 


1 "'^ 1 Worcester | 


Grand Total 


*151 


10 


9 


*9 


1 


5 


9 


8 


5 


7 


8 


5 


8 


4 


4 


12 


14 


4 




County 


Junior-Senior, Regular, 


AND Senior 


High Schools 








Total 


122 


8 


4 




1 


5 


8 


7 


4 


6 


6 


5 


8 


4 


4 


7 


10 


4 


2 


4 


3 


b 


6 


4 


2 


4 


















1 










1 






1 










1 




3 


6 


















2 




















1 


1 




2 




4 


6 


















1 






1 




1 










1 






2 




5 


6 










1 




1 


2 












1 


















1 


6 


8 


1 












2 






1 


3 


1 






















7 


8 


2 


1 






1 


1 








1 




1 










1 














8 


7 




I 










1 








1 


1 










1 














9 


6 












3 


1 


































10 


5 






1 




1 


1 












1 
























11 


7 










1 


1 


1 






















1 






1 




1 


12 


8 










1 






1 




2 














1 








1 




2 


13 


12 








1 




1 




1 








1 


1 


1 




•> 






•) 




1 






14 


4 


























1 




1 


2 
















15 


1 
































1 
















16 


2 
































1 










1 






17 


1 




















1 




























18 


3 


1 






















1 






1 


















19 


2 






1 








1 


































20 


2 


1 






































1 








21 


1 










































1 






22 


1 






















1 


























23 


1 


















1 






























25 


3 
























1 






1 


1 
















31 


2 


1 






























1 
















32 


9 






I 






1 




































33 


1 
































1 
















34 


2 
































1 












1 




35 


1 






























1 


















40 


2 






•> 










































41 


2 




1 


























1 


















43 


1 




1 












































44 


1 










































1 






AR 


1 






1 










































48 


1 




















1 






























1 


1 














































60 


1 


1 
























































County 


Junior Hk;h Schools 














Total 


*29 


2 


f) 


*3 






1 


1 


1 


1 


•> 










f) 


4 






1 




3 






1 


1 






































1 










2 


1 














1 


































3 


2 
2 
5 

3 
3 
1 

2 

1 
2 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 

1 


1 

1 


1 

1 

1 
1 

1 


1 
1 

1 






1 




1 


1 


1 
1 










1 


1 

1 
1 
1 
















4 

5 

7 

8 

9 

10 

15 








16 












17 
















1 






18 










































19 








































28 

29 






































1 
1 














46 
















1 

























































* Excludes nineteen seventh grades which are housed in elementary school buildings but offer a jun- 
ior high school curriculum. 

For teaching staff in individual high schools, see Table XXII, pages 266 to 271. 



Size of White Teaching Staff and Enrollment in County High Schools 93 
TAHLI'] 76 — Size of Knrollinent in Maryland County Junior-Senior, Senior, 



and Regular High Schools and in Junior High Schools for White Pupils, 
Year Ending June 30, 1946 



Average 
Belon<;in<; 


Total Number 
Schools 


Allegany | 


u 

Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 


^ j Calvert 


1 Caroline 
ai 1 


Carroll 


Cecil 1 


Charles || 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Garrett 


Harford 


Howard 


4-> 

c 

a, 


Montgomery 


Prince George's i 


Queen Anne's 


St. Mary's || 


1 Somerset || 


1 Talbot II 


c 
o 

OS 

c 


1 Wicomico || 


1 Worcester II 


Total 


*170 


10 


9 


*28 


9 


8 


5 


7 


8 


5 


8 


4 


4 


12 


14 


4 


2 


5 


3 


9 


6 


4 




Junior-Senioh, Rh:(;uLAK, and Senior High Schools 


26- 40 
41- 50 
51- 75 
76-100 
101-125 


3 
3 
6 

10 
5 
6 

10 
9 
5 
7 

10 
7 
6 
2 
1 
2 
2 

4 

2 
3 

1 
1 

1 

1 

3 

2 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

2 

1 
1 

1 










1 




1 
1 

2 


2 


1 
2 
1 




2 
1 


1 
1 

1 

2 




1 
1 
1 






1 

1 
1 




2 


1 




1 
1 
1 

2 


i 


126-150 
151-175 


2 
1 


1 

1 






1 


1 

2 
1 
2 

1 




1 


2 






















176-200 






1 

1 
1 


2 

1 
1 


1 


2 
1 
















201-225 
226-250 
251-275 






1 


2 


1 






1 


1 
2 
1 

2 

1 


1 


1 
1 


1 
1 


1 


1 




1 
1 


276-300 
301-325 






1 


1 




2 




1 




1 
1 




1 


326-350 




























351-375 
376-400 
401-425 

476-500 
501-525 
526-550 


1 
1 




1 








1 




1 


1 


1 


1 






1 

1 
1 








1 


1 
1 






576-600 
601-625 






















1 




















fi7fi-70n 






























1 

I 
















701-725 






























1 
















751-775 

801-825 

951-975 

1,001-1,025. . 
1,026-1,050. . 

1,076-1,100 . . 

1,176-1,200 . . 

1,276-1,300 . . 

1,326-1.350. 
1,351-1,375. 

1,526-1,550 . . 


1 

1 
1 


1 
1 


1 

2 
1 






1 








1 










2 










1 


1 





Junior High Schools 



8 


1 

5 
9 
1 
5 
4 
4 
2 
2 
2 
2 

1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 

1 
1 

1 






































1 










26- 40 




1 


4 
H 










1 


























41- 50 








1 




























51- 75 








































76-100 








1 








1 
























101-125 


1 
1 


1 


2 






















1 
















126-150 








































151-175 


1 
2 


1 












1 












1 


















176-200 




































201-225 .. . 
226-250 

276-300 


























1 

I 
1 








































1 
1 














































326-350 
351-375 




















1 
























376-400 






























1 
















401-425 








































1 

1 
1 






551-575 
726-750 






1 
































751-775 




































901-925 






























1 











































Includes nineteen seventh grades which are housed in elementary school buildings but offer a junior 
high school curriculum. 



94 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 77 



Size of Teaching Staff and Size of Enrollment of Maryland County Junior, 
Junior-Senior, and Regular High Schools for Colored Pupils, Year Ending 

June 30, 1946 



No. OF 

Teachers 


ools 




c 
3 
























>> 


93 

tic 

u 


ne's 








c 

o 






Average 
No. 
Belonging 


_ j= 

be 


c 

CS 

tc 


< 

c 
c 


c 
£ 

"a 


> 


c 


c 

U 

CS 


h 




r. 

o 




■a 

u 
u 


-c 

u 

o 


c 


E 
tc 
c 


r N 

z 

c 


c 
< 
c 

5 




E 
o 




b£ 
c 

Ic 

r. 


p 

E 

o 


u 

3; 

K 

0; 
u 

o 




X 


< 


< 


a 


u 


U 


r ^ 


6 


U 


a 






-T" 








O" 














All Schools . . 


32 


1 


1 


3 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


3 


1 


2 


2 


1 


1 


1 


3 



Nu.mber of Schools Distributed by Size of Teaching Staff 



**2 
1 

6 
*7 
3 
3 
2 
1 
1 
2 
1 

1 
1 



*1 
1 



Number of Schools Distribu'tkd By Size of P^nroi.lment 



*2 
*2 
6 
*4 
3 
3 
2 
1 
2 
2 



*1 
1 



* Each asterisk represents one junior high school. 
For 'ndividual high schools, see Table XXII. pages 266 to 271. 



Size of Colored Teaching Staff and Enrollment in County High 95 
Schools; Number of Public High Schools 



TABLE 78 



Number of Public High Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1946 



County 




Public 


High Schools For 






White Pupils 


Colored Pupils 






Junior- 






Junior- 








Senior, 






Senior, 








Senior, or 






Senior, or 






Total 


Regular 


Junior 


Total 


Regular 


Junior 


Total Counties. . . . 


*151 


122 


*29 


32 


29 


3 


Allegany 


10 


8 


2 


1 


1 




Anne Arundel 


9 


4 


5 


1 


1 




Baltimore 


*9 


6 


♦3 


3 


3 




Calvert 


1 


I 




1 


1 




Caroline 


5 


5 




1 


1 




Carroll 


9 


8 


' 1 


1 


1 




Cecil 


8 


7 


1 


1 


1 




Charles 


5 


4 


1 


2 


2 




Dorchester 


7 


6 


i 


1 


1 




Frederick 


8 


6 


2 


1 


1 




Garrett 


5 


5 










Harford 


8 


8 




2 


2 




Howard 


4 


4 










Kent 


4 


4 










Montgomery 


12 


7 


5 




\ 




Prince George's .... 


14 


10 


4 








Queen Anne's 


4 


4 










St. Mary's 


2 


2 




2 


2 




Somerset 


5 


4 


i 


2 


2 




Talbot 


3 


3 






1 




Washington 


9 


6 


-3 


1 


1 




Wicomico 


6 


6 




1 


1 






4 


4 




8 


1 


2 


Baltimore City. . . . 


28 


14 


14 


6 


4 


2 


Total State 


*179 


136 


*43 


38 


33 


5 



* Excludes nineteen seventh grades which are housed in elementary school buildings but ofifer a jun- 
ior high school curriculum. 



96 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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11 



Adult Education Program in Counties and City 



97 



TABLE 80— Descriptive Titles of Courses Offered in Maryland County Adult 
Education Program under Classifications of Aj^riculture, Home Economics, 
Trades and Industries, Business Education, and General, 1945-46 



Title of Course 



Agriculture 

Farm Mechanics 

Farm Machinery 

Home Gardening 

Community Canning 

°Food Preservation 

♦Canning and Processing 

*Food Production, Swine and 

Gardening 

♦Agriculture 

Home Economics 

Clothing Construction 

Clothing Conservation 

°°°Sewing 

°Needlecraft 

Knitting and Crocheting 

Knitting 

Slip Covers and Re-upholstering. . . 

Interior Decorating 

°°°°Food Preservation 

♦Nutrition, Clothing, Canning, and 

Home Improvement 

♦Home Making 

Trades and Industries 

Elementary Aeronautics 

Advanced Aeronautics 

Amateur Radio 

Basic Radio 

Intermediate Radio 

Advanced Radio Mathematics 

Cabinet Making 

"Woodwork 

Shop 

Wood and Metal Crafts 

°Home Mechanics Shop 

Machine Shop 

Mathematics for Machinists 

Machine Shop Blue Print Reading. 

Drafting 

Electric and Acetylene Arc Welding 



Number 

of 
Classes 



Title of Course 



7 
12 

2 

4 
10 

2 

2 
4 



Business Education 

"Typing 

Typing and Shorthand. . . 
Typing and Bookkeeping. 

Shorthand 

Retail Selling 



General 

Spanish 

Conversational Spanish 

English Review 

° "English 

English for Veterans 

Journalism 

Public Speaking 

♦Reading and Writing 

Mathematics and English 

"Mathematics and Science 

Mathematics Review 

General Math, for Veterans 

Mathematics 

Plane Geometry for Veterans 

History and English for Veterans 

Counseling Veterans 

"Physical Education 

Health Training 

"Recreation Training 

Child Study 

Art 

Fine Arts 

Creative Art 

Arts and Crafts 

Ceramics 

"Music Appreciation 

Folk Songs 

♦Community Music 

♦Dramatics 

♦Government 

Chemistry for Nurses 



Number 

of 
Classes 



♦ OfiFered for colored adults. 

° Each ° indicates one class for colored adults. 



TABLE 81— Baltimore City Adult Education 



Type of Work 



Americanization 

Academic: 

Elementary 

Secondary ♦♦ 

Commercial 

Vocational :♦ 

Industrial 

Home Economics 
Parent Education . . . 
Industrial Trainingf. 
Informal Program . . . . 



Enrollment 





White 






Colored 




Nights 














in 














Session 


1946 


1945 


1944 


1946 


1945 


1944 


1945-46 


532 


569 


807 








96 


99 


71 


41 


740 


861 


835 


95 


1.740 


1,204 


1,158 


607 


474 


472 


** 


633 


848 


672 


366 


350 


217 


95 


581 


245 


396 


300 


124 


90 


64 


112 


432 


119 


761 


419 


346 


64 


1.901 


1,545 


1.288 


373 


391 


405 


47 


302 


70 


275 










585 


471 


527 








47 



♦Vocational courses are reimbursed from Federal vocational Smith-Hughes or George-Deen funds. 

Persons taking them are employed at work related to the field in which the course is given. 
tCourses in industrial work not reimbursed from Federal funds. The students may be unemployed 
or working in fields other than industrial work. 
♦♦The junior high school academic classes met 95 nights while the senior high school academic classea 
met 127 nights. 



98 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 82 — Vocational Rehabilitation Services Rendered During the Year 

Ending June 30, 1946 





Total 




Being 




Being 


Surveyed 


Closed 




Number 


Reha- 


Followed 


Training 


Prepared 


Under 


other 




Cases 


bilitated 


on Jobs 


Completed 


for Jobs 


Advisement 


Services 


1 otal uonnties 


997 


171 


14 


A O 

48 


195 


463 


106 


Allegany 


135 


20 


1 


4 


16 


75 


19 


Anne Arundel 


56 


12 


o 


5 


10 


19 


o 

8 


Baltimore 


162 


33 


2 


14 


40 


61 


12 


Calvert 


11 








2 


7 


2 




20 


5 






6 


7 




Carroll 


33 


5 




1 


7 


13 


5 


Cecil 


23 


6 




1 


7 


7 


2 


Charles 


16 








6 


9 


1 


Dorchester 


32 


6 




i 


4 


17 


3 


Frederick 


50 


14 




1 


7 


21 


7 


Garrett 


29 


3 






7 


18 


1 


Mnrf nrd 


19 






1 




15 


8 




23 


i 




4 


3 


14 


1 


Kent 


15 


4 




2 


2 


7 




Montgomery 


49 


2 


i 




12 


32 


2 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


89 


14 


2 


2 


12 


48 


11 


10 


1 






2 


7 




St. Mary's 


19 


3 




i 


3 


9 


3 


Somerset 


24 


5 


' 1 


1 


7 


10 




Talbot 


18 


3 


1 


1 


6 


7 




Washington 


89 


22 


1 


3 


13 


36 


14 


Wicomico 


48 


8 




6 


14 


17 


8 




27 


4 






9 


7 


7 


Baltimore City 


1,037 


218 


23 


37 


181 


392 


186 


Total State 


2,034 


389 


37 


85 


876 


855 


292 



Personal Characteristics of Clients Served Durini; Year Endinff June 30, 1946 



Reha- 
bilitated 



AOE 

Under 21 
21-30.. . . 
81-40 .. . . 
41-50.. . 
51-up ... 



Bducation 

None 

1-3 

4-6 

7-9 

10-11 

H.S. Graduate 

13-15 

College 



Dhpendents 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

More than 6 



93 
98 
78 
73 
47 



389 



4 

22 
64 
132 
67 
81 
10 
9 

389 



226 
60 
42 
29 
15 
5 
12 

389 



Other 



587 
387 
292 
205 
174 



1,645 



23 
79 
278 
554 
326 
282 
74 
29 

1.645 



Total 




1,645 



680 
485 
370 
278 
221 



2,034 



27 
101 
342 
686 
393 
363 
84 
38 

2.034 



1,261 
289 
197 
123 
66 
37 
61 

2,034 





Reha- 








bilitated 


Other 


Total 


Race 








White 


336 


1.310 


1.646 


Colored 


53 


332 


385 


Other 




8 


8 




889 


1,645 


2,034 


Sex 








Male 


284 


1,146 


1,430 


Fnmale 


105 


499 


604 




389 


1,645 


2,034 


Marital Status 








Single 


205 


968 


1,173 


Married 


148 


547 


695 


Other 


36 


130 


166 




389 


1,645 


2,034 


Employment 








History 








(at survey) 








Employed 


105 


241 


346 


Unemployed . . 






1,688 


Never worked . 


75 


469 




Worked at 








some time . . 


209 


935 






389 


1,645 


2,084 


Number on 








Welfare 








(at survey) 


28 


136 


164 



See also pages 147 to 148 



Vocational Rehabilitation Program 



99 



It was in October 1943 that legislation by the Congress made available 
Federal funds to take over 100 percent of all operating, administrative and 
guidance costs. Prior to that time the Federal government had matched 
funds by the State government for these purposes. In addition, Federal 
funds are available to match State funds for case services to disabled 
civilians. By this recent Federal legislation, the rehabilitation service has 
been extended to the blind, tuberculous, cardiac, and other groups of handi- 
capped individuals not previously considered eligible. 

Although vocational rehabilitation services are not limited to vocational 
training such training is a very important phase of the program. Other 
services rendered are: The provision of artificial limbs, braces, hearing 
aids, and other prosthetic devices needed by disabled persons in preparing 
for or engaging in a vocation; medical and surgical treatments required to 
make the handicapped person employable; living maintenance, transportation, 
and training supplies while learning a vocation; assistance in finding em- 
ployment and supervision for a limited time while getting established in 
employment. 

Any disabled person over sixteen years of age who is not satisfactorily 
employed or who is unemployed is eligible for any of the services listed. The 
number of disabled who can be reached by this service will be in direct 
proportion to the State funds provided for case service. 



TABLE 83— Cost of Vocational Hehabilitation Case Services 
Rendered Year Ending June 30, 1916 





Number 


Average 


Total 


Type of Service 


of Clients 


Cost 


Expenditure 


Examinations (Diagnosis) 








Medical 


617 


$7.15 


$4,411.41 


Psychiatric 


25 


11.60 


290.00 


Treatment 










6 


30.67 


184.00 




7 


40.00 


280 . 00 




19 


71.84 


1,365.00 


Dental 


2 


24.00 


48.00 


Other 


2 


18.23 


36.46 


Prosthetic Appliances 










24 


146.31 


3.511.35 


Braces 


21 


34.18 


717.77 




16 


80.26 


1,284.14 




17 


7.96 


135.35 




5 


21.51 


107.55 


Hospitalization 


19 


144.93 


2 , 753 . 63 


Physical and Occupational Therapy 


13 


12.55 


163.20 


Transportation 










29 


9.04 


262.22 


Maintenance 










13 


2.35 


30.60 


Training 








Educational institution 


328 


70.17 


23.016.81 


Employroent 


50 


52.78 


2,638.75 


Correspondence 


37 


14.57 


539.10 


Tutorial 


28 


20.11 


563 . 00 




173 


13.37 


2.413.09 




98 


12.70 


1.244.14 


Maintenance 


231. 


92.76 


21,426.68 


Occupational Licenses 


1 


16.60 


16.60 


Total 


*2.034 


$33.16 


$67,438.75 



•Includ<'s 253 who received gruidance counseling, and other services from the staflf paid frotn 
Federal funds. Cost of this st^ifT not included above. See page 239. 



141569 



100 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 84— Baltimore City Summer Schools, 1945 







Total Enrollment 


Net Roll at End of Term 


















No. of 


Type of School 


No. of 












Principala 




Schools 








Taking 


and 
















Teachem 






Boys 




Total 


Review 


Advanced 












worK 


worK 






White Schools 
















Secondary 








1.747 








Senior 


2 


1,125 


808 


1 . OO 1 


lou 


29 


.Til n 1 nr 


1 


398 


255 


556 


556 




q 


Elementary 


4 


423 


305 


546 


546 




19 




1 


Co 


148 


^Uo 




205 


18 


To^al WhitP 


g 


2,029 


1,516 


3,054 • 


2,689 


365 


70 


Colored Schools 
















Secondary 
















Senior 




123 


192 


298 


213 


85 




Junior 




186 


301 


438 


438 






Elementary 


3 


787 


1,053 


1,712 


1,712 




28 


Demonstration 


1 


88 


190 


248 




248 


12 


Tofil Colored 


6 


1,184 


1,736 


2,696 


2.363 


333 


68 


All Schools 








5 . 750 






tr ■• 


1945 


13 


3,213 


3,252 


5.052 


698 


123 


1944 


16 


3.458 


3,416 


5,976 


5,108 


868 


143 


1943 


14 


3,156 


3.201 


5,483 


4.648 


935 


130 


1942 


15 


3 , 597 


3,397 


6,154 


4.819 


1.335 


147 


1941 


14 


3.261 


3.233 


6.728 


4.987 


741 


120 


1940 


14 


3,641 


3.347 


6.136 


6.370 


765 


127 


1989 


14 


3.644 


3.359 


6.208 


5,505 


703 


121 


1938 


14 


3.299 


3.350 


5.822 


4.917 


905 


128 


1937 


14 


2.905 


2.948 


6.142 


4,290 


852 


121 


1936 


14 


3.400 


3 , 028 


5 . 544 


4.963 


581 


122 


1935 


14 


4.150 


3.929 


7,015 


6,304 


711 


128 


1934 


15 


3,728 


3.472 


6.139 


5,324 


815 


120 


1982 


12 


3,644 


3,263 


6.081 


5.393 


688 


107 


1931 


16 


4,399 


4.088 


7,192 


6.354 


838 


164 



Baltimore City Summer Schools; Growth in Current Expenses 101 

AND State Aid 

CHART 20 

Total School Current Expenses and Total State Aid 
in 23 Counties and Baltimore City:* 1920-1946 




1920 1922 1924 1926 1928 1930 1932 1934 1936 1938 1940 1942 1944 194€ 

* Includes expenditures from City funds for training teachers in City training 8chool(8; 
but excludes amounts appropriated by City and State for the Retirement Fund. 



i02 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 85 

School Current Expenses from State, Federal, and Local Funds and Capital 
Outlay by Boards of Education in the Counties and Baltimore City, 1920-1946 





Current Expense Disbursements 




Year 










Capital 


Ending 




From State 


From Federal 


From Local 


Outlay 


July 31 


Total 


Funds 


Funds 


Funds 





Total Counties 



1920 


$3,703,153 


$1,181,156 


$5,037 


$2,516,960 


$485,601 


1922 


5,291,124 


1,527,627 


t33.853 


3 , 729 , 644 


1. 121.554 


1925 


6,743,015 


2, 130,518 


t43,252 


4,569,245 


2,527,823 


1927 


7, 517,729 


2,291,235 


t48.965 


5, 177,529 


1.023.362 


1929 


8, 164,657 


xa2.279,589 


t54.425 


5,830,643 


1,773,070 


1930 


8,456,414 


x2, 299, 380 


t69.779 


6,087,255 


2,450,144 


1931 


8,852,073 


2,323,767 


t78.755 


6,449,551 


2, 172,088 


1933 


8,485. 146 


2,531,668 


t78,343 


5,875, 135 


688,497 


1935 


8,189.909 


3,665,763 


t75.727 


4.448,419 


1,590,879 


1937 


9,082.523 


3, 583.329 


t92 , 553 


5,406,641 


2,531.071 


1939 


10,216, 150 


4.300.033 


tl66.016 


5,750,101 


2.845,537 


1940 


10,752,978 


4,415.744 


tl66.215 


6. 171,019 


2,773,778 


1941 


til. 108.701 


4.406.610 


ttl67.417 


6.534.674 


1,116,817 


1942 


til. 687, 272 


4.828,593 


ttl85.069 


6.673.610 


1.483,259 


1943 


tl2. 185,970 


4.830.993 


ttl88,549 


7, 166,428 


816,813 


1944 


tl4, 164.717 


6.376.332 


:tl83.768 


7,604,617 


423,538 


1945 


tl5.038.389 


6,240,694 


:t214.274 


8,583,421 


703,839 


1946 


17,176,530 


7.816.534 


tl89,548 


9. 170,448 


1.592,508 



♦Baltimore City 



1920 


$3,706,642 


$706,758 


$6,529 


$2,993,355 


$60,741 


1922 


6.594, 168 


1.015.034 


11.939 


5.567. 195 


1.417.569 


1925 


7.237,993 


1.024. 179 


18.301 


6, 195,513 


3.224.734 


1927 


7,878.719 


1.066,385 


20.112 


6.792,222 


4.200.038 


1929 


8.767.395 


xl.017, 153 


20.338 


7.729,904 


633,632 


1930 


9, 193,068 


X976.083 


18,980 


8. 198,005 


1,508,678 


1931 


9,666,385 


932.251 


13,773 


8.720,361 


3.658,046 




8,388, 125 


1.072,738 


10,663 


7.304,724 


1,268,159 


1935 


8.502.074 


954.383 


25,913 


7,521.778 


642.191 


1937 


9,031.032 


943.073 


22,536 


8,065.423 


1.156,748 


1939 


9,747,952 


950.005 


55.923 


8,742.024 


30,785 


1940 


9,845,208 


953.033 


56 . 690 


8.835,485 


13,032 


1941 


110,238,979 


937.901 


t57,256 


9.243,822 


145,492 


1942 


tl0,301.657 


930. 151 


t55,978 


9.315,528 


238.119 


1943 


19.741.713 


921.520 


164,354 


8.755.839 


17.989 


1944 


111,012.413 


1.662.672 


145,953 


9.303,788 


8.721 


1945 


tl 1.398. 134 


1.342, 119 


t75,627 


9.980,388 


113,214 


1946 


12,056.034 


1.451 .523 


77,328 


10,527, 183 


605.127 



♦Entire State 



1920 


$7,409,795 


$1,887,914 


$11,566 


$5,510,315 


$546,342 


1922 


11.885.292 


2.542.661 


45. 792 


9,296.839 


2,539,123 


1926 


13,981,008 


3.154,697 


61,5.'')3 


10,764.758 


5.752,557 


1927 


15.396.448 


3.357.620 


69.077 


11.969,751 


5,233,400 


1929 


16.932.052 


x3. 296, 742 


74.763 


13,560,547 


2,406,702 


1930 


17.649.482 


x3. 275, 463 


88.759 


14.285.260 


3,958,822 


1931 


18.518.458 


3.256.018 


92. 528 


15. 169,912 


5.830, 134 


1933 


16.873,271 


3.604.406 


89 . 006 


13, 179.859 


1.956,656 


1935 


16.691.983 


4,620. 146 


101.640 


11 .970. 197 


2,233,070 


1937 


18. 113. 555 


4.526,402 


115.089 


13,472.064 


3,687,819 


1939 


19.964,102 


5,250.038 


t221.939 


14.492. 125 


2,876.322 


1940 


20.598, 186 


5.368. 777 


t222,905 


15.006,504 


2.786.810 


1941 


t21,347,680 


5,344.511 


tt224.673 


15.778.496 


1.262,309 


1942 


t21.988,929 


5.758.744 


tt241.047 


15.989. 138 


1.721.378 


1943 


t21.927.683 


5.752.513 


tt252,903 


15.922.267 


834,802 


1944 


125. 177, 130 


8.039.004 


tt229.721 


16.908,405 


432,259 


1945 


t26.436,523 


7,582,813 


tt289.901 


18,563,809 


817,053 


1946 


29,232. 564 


9,268,057 


t266.876 


19,697,631 


2,197,635 



♦ Includes expenditures from City funds for training of teachers in City training school (s), but excludes 

amounts appropriated by City and State for the retirement fund, 
t Includes amounts received from the Federal Government toward salaries and expenses at Indian 

Head, also, Frank Knox School in St. Mary's, beginning 1945. 
X Excludes receipts from liquidation of Free School Fund. 

a Excludes $6,500 to be used by Charles County for school building purposes. 
X Excludes expenditures for Vocational Training for War Production Workers. 



Current School Expenses; Capital Outlay; State, Federal 103 

AND Local Aid 



TABLE 86 

Percent of Current Expense Disbursements Received by County Boards of 
Education from State' and Federal' Funds for Year Ending June 30, 1946 



County 


1 

Total 
Disburse- 
ments 

for 
Current 
Expenses! 


Amount Received for Current 
Expenses from 


Percent of Current Expense 
Disbursements Receivea from 


oiaie 

Alu^ J 


r euerai 


_ 

County 
Levy and 
vjtner 

County 
Sourcest 


State Aid Excluding 

Ecjualization Fund 


State Equalization 
Fund 


Total State Aid 


Federal Aid 


County Levy and 
Other Sources 


Total Counties 


$17,176,530 




$189,548 




25.1 


20.4 


45. 


5 


1.1 


53.4 


St. Mary's 


266,627 


181, 165 


a25,220 


60,242 


28.0 


39.9 


67 


9 


9.5 


22.6 




454,480 


340,607 


7, 101 


106,772 


24. 1 


50.8 


74 


9 


1.6 


23.5 


Charles 


404,572 


263,901 


b44,656 


96,015 


25.5 


39.7 


65 


2 


11.0 


23.8 


Somerset 


310, 573 


230,662 


1,844 


78,067 


30.4 


43.9 


74 


3 


.6 


25. 1 


Calvert 


214,213 


156,733 


3,285 


54,195 


25.9 


47.3 


73 


2 


1.5 


25.3 




-s97, boo 


202, 484 


1,859 


93,312 


29.0 


39.0 


68 





.6 


31.4 




452,231 


275,563 


3,146 


173,522 


26.9 


34.0 


60 


9 


. 7 


38.4 


Worcester 


356 , 061 


. 211,736 


1,891 


142,434 


27.7 


31.8 


59 


5 


.5 


40.0 


Carroll 


684,872 


402,806 


2,590 


279,476 


25.0 


33.8 


58 


8 


.4 


40.8 


Howard 


350,702 


202,953 


4,425 


143,324 


26.7 


31.2 


57 


9 


1.2 


40.9 


Queen Anne's 


272,448 


156,343 


3,254 


112,851 


26.2 


31.2 


57 


4 


1.2 


41.4 


Anne Arundel 


1,186,610 


666,897 


5,929 


513,784 


25.2 


31.0 


56 


2 


.5 


43.3 


Wicomico 


540,772 


284,677 


1,242 


254,853 


25.6 


27.1 


52 


7 


.2 


47.1 


Allegany 


1,521,257 


784,589 


13,485 


723, 183 


23.1 


28.5 


51 


6 


.9 


47.5 


Talbot 


288,885 


145,129 


2,906 


140,850 


27.8 


22.4 


50 


2 


1.0 


48.8 


Kent 


244, 196 


122,997 


1,353 


119,846 


26.9 


23.5 


50 


4 


.5 


49.1 


Frederick 


838,779 


398,493 


6,143 


434,143 


26.9 


20.6 


47 


5 


.7 


51.8 


Prince George's 


1,927,899 


829,827 


7,565 


1,090,507 


24.3 


18.7 


43 





.4 


56.6 


Washington 


1,277,541 


552, 582 


14,343 


710,616 


23.6 


19.7 


43 


3 


1.1 


55.6 




639,860 


210,404 


6,976 


422,480 


27.7 


5.2 


32 


9 


1.1 


66.0 




2, 190,371 


612, 128 


8,366 


1,569,877 


27.9 




27 


9 


.4 


71.7 


Cecil 


445,777 


130,847 


314,930 


29.4 




29 


4 




70.6 


Montgomery 


2,030,149 


c453,011 


21,969 


cl, 535, 169 


19.3 


c3 . 2 


22 


5 


1^1 


c76 . 4 


Baltimore City 


dl2;023,178 


dl, 451, 523 


77,328 


10,494,327 


12.1 




12 


1 


.6 


87.3 


Total State 


$29,199,708 


$9,268,057 


$266,876 


$19,664,775 


19.7 


12.0 


31 


.7 


.9 


67.4 



* Includes State and Federal aid for 1945-46, received after June 30, 1946. 

t Excludes estimated State, Federal and County funds for school lunch program, child care program 
and for public school health services expended by County and City health offices. See Tables 
124 and 142, pages 186 and 233. 

a Includes $21,895 expended by Federal Government toward salaries and expenses at Frank Knox 
School. 

b Includes $40,709 expended by Federal government toward salaries and expenses at Indian Head 
School. 

c Although Montgomery County was eligible to share in the Equalization Fund to the extent of 

$64,117, and although these funds were not received until March 1947, they have been included 

above and county funds have been decreased correspondingly, 
d Excludes $1,025,459 for teachers in Baltimore City Retirement System of which $724,531 came 

from State funds and $300,928 from local funds; and $32,856 for Coppin Teachers College, toward 

which there was no State aid.« 
For detailed data see Tables XI-XIII, pages 255 to 257. 



In 1945-46 in percent of income from taxation and appropria- 
tion which came from State funds, Maryhmd with 30.3 ranked 
twenty-ninth among the states. The corresponding average for 
continental United States was 35.5 percent. The basis used by 
the Office of Education inckides interest with current expense 
which explains why table 86 shows a different percentage from 
30.3 included above in this paragraph. 



104 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 21 



County 



Percent of Current Expenditures for Year Xndin^ June 30, 1946 

m State, Szcludln^ Squalization Fond 
I I Iquallzatlon TUHd 
Federal Aid 

County Levy and Other County Sources 



Received from 




Total 

St. Mary's 

Oerrett 

Charles 

Somerset 

CalTert 

Caroline 

Dorchester 

Worcester 

Carroll 

Howard 

Queen Anne's 

Anne Arundel 

Wicomico 

Allegany 

Talbot 

Kent 

Trederlck 

Washington 

Prince George's 

Harford 

Cecil 

Baltimore 

Montgomeiy* 

Baltimore City 

Total State 



* Although the Equalization Fund was due Montgomery County it was not received 
until March, 1947. 

For basic data see Table 8G, page 103, and Tables XI-XIII, pages 255-257. 



Source of Support for School Current Expense; How School 105 
Current Expense Tax Dollar Was Used 



CHART 22 

How Tax Dollar for School Current Expenses Was Used 
in 1945-16 in the Maryland Counties 



XNCLODING TRANSPORTATION 




EXCLUDING TRAN3POHTAnON 




* Fixed charges and payments to adjoining counties. 

X The upper circle includes cost of transportation with auxiliary agencies (11.5 eta.), 
while the lower circle excludes cost of transportation from auxiliary agencies, which includes 

library and health expenditures by Hoards of Education ( .t? cts.). Expenditures by Health 
Officers in counties for services rendered to school children are excluded from both circles. 



106 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 87 — Percent Distribution of School Expenditures by County School 

Boards for Year Ending June 30, 1946 





Percent of Total 


Current 


Expense 


Funds Used for 


1 
























County 


General Contro 1 


Supervision 


Salaries of Teachers 


Books, Materials and 
Other Costs of 
Instruction 


Operation 


a> 
u 
c 
cd 

c 

o 

c 


Auxiliary Agencies* 


Fixed Charges and 
Payments to Ad- 
joining Counties 


Percent of Expenditures 
for Current Expenses 
and Capitol Outlay Use^ 
for Capitol Outlay 



Including Cost of Transportation* 



County Average. 


2 


6 


1 


6 


68 


2 


3 


6 


7 


7 


3 


9 


11 


5 


.9 


8 


6 


Allegany 


2 


1 


1 


6 


68 


1 


3 


8 


9 


9 


4 


1 


9 


2 


.6 




1 


Anne Arundel . . . 


3 


1 


1 


6 


69 


1 


3 


6 


7 


8 


2 


8 


11 


1 


.9 


7 


2 


Baltimore 


2 


1 


1 


2 


70 


7 


4 


3 


7 


6 


3 


9 


9 


5 


. 7 


23 


9 


Calvert 


4 


9 


2 


9 


57 


5 


2 


3 


5 


8 


3 


4 


22 


5 


.7 


3 


3 


Caroline 


4 


2 


1 


3 


65 


3 


2 


6 


6 


5 


1 


7 


17 


7 


.7 




1 


Carroll 


2 


7 


1 


8 


67 





2 


5 


5 


8 


3 


1 


15 


6 


1.5 


1 


5 


Cecil 


2 


7 


1 


3 


68 





3 


4 


7 


5 


2 


3 


13 


8 


1.0 


1 


1 


Charles 


2 


8 


1 


6 


57 


2 


1 


2 


8 


6 


8 


1 


18 





2.5 


3 


9 


Dorchester 


3 


1 


1 


7 


62 


2 


2 


7 


7 


6 


5 


2 


16 


1 


1.4 




2 


Frederick 


2 


2 


1 





67 


6 


4 


9 


6 


9 


1 


7 


14 


7 


1.0 


1 


2 


Garrett 


3 


6 


1 


f) 


62 


1 


2 


•) 


5 





2 


2 


21 


6 


1.8 


1 


9 


Harford 


2 


7 


1 


7 


70 


2 


2 


8 


7 


4 


4 





10 


3 


.9 


1 


5 




3 


1 


1 


4 


65 


3 


3 





6 


7 


2 


3 


16 


6 


1.6 


5 


3 


Kent 


4 


5 


1 


6 


63 





3 





6 


1 


6 


4 


15 


1 


.3 


1 





Montgomery. . . 


2 


4 


1 


6 


68 


5 


5 


2 


10 


1 


3 


1 


8 


5 


.6 


11 





Prince George's . 


2 


1 


1 


6 


71 


3 


3 


7 


8 


4 


6 


1 


6 


1 


.7 


11 





Queen Anne's . 


3 


7 


1 


9 


64 


5 


2 


8 


5 


4 


3 


5 


17 





1.2 


1 


8 


St. Mary's 


4 


2 


2 


O 


57 


6 


4 


8 


5 


2 


4 


6 


20 


8 


.6 




1 


Somerset 


3 


3 


2 





64 


8 


3 


1 


6 


4 


3 


8 


16 


1 


. 5 


1 


S 


Talbot 


3 


7 


I 


8 


65 


5 


2 


5 


6 


5 


3 


9 


15 


4 


.7 


1 





Washington 


2 





2 





76 


7 


3 





6 


3 


2 


9 


6 


5 


.6 


11 


6 


Wicomico 


2 


9 


I 


8 


66 


3 


2 


9 


7 





4 


3 


13 


9 


.9 


8 


8 


Worcester 


3 


1 


1 


.") 


62 


4 


2 




8 


1 


3 


8 


17 


7 


.9 




2 


Baltimore City 


3 


1 


1 


8 


72 


8 


3 


5 


11 


8 


3 


6 


3 


1 


t.3 


4 


8 


State Average . . . 


2 


8 


1 


.7 


70 


1 


3 


6 


9 


4 


3 


8 


8 





.6 


7 


.0 



ExcLUDiNc Cost of Transportation* 



County Average , 


2. 


9 


1 . 


8 


76. 


6 


4 1 


s 


7 


4 


3 


.6 


1.0 


9 


4 


Allegany 


2. 


3 


1 


7 


73. 


6 


4 1 


10 


7 


5 


1 


1.9 


.6 




1 


Anne Arundel . . . 


3 


5 


1 


7 


1 i 


3 


4 1 


8 


7 


3 


1 


.6 


1.0 


8 





Baltimore 


2 


3 


1 


3 


77 


9 


4.7 


8 


4 


4 


3 


.3 


.8 


25 


7 


Calvert 


6 


3 


3. 


7 


74. 


2 


3.0 


7 


5 


4 


4 




.9 


4 


2 




5 





1 


6 


78 


9 


3.2 


7 


8 


2 


1 


.6 


.8 




1 


Carroll 


3 


2 


2 


1 


79 





2.9 


6 


8 


3 


7 


. 5 


1.8 


1 


7 


Cecil 


3 


2 


1 


5 


78 


6 


4.0 


8 


6 


2 


7 


.3 


1.1 


1 


3 




3 


5 


1 


9 


69 


7 


1.4 


10 


5 


9 




. 1 


3.0 


4 


7 


Dorchester 


3 




1 


9 


74 





3.2 


9 





6 


2 


.3 


1.7 




3 




2 


6 


1 


2 


78 


9 


5.7 


8 


1 


2 





.4 


1.1 


1 


4 


Garrett 


4 


5 


1 


9 


78 


9 


2.8 


6 


4 


2 


7 


. 5 


2.3 


2 


4 




3 





1 


8 


77 


6 


3.1 


8 


1 


4 


5 


.9 


1.0 


1 


7 




3 


rr 
( 


1 


7 


78 


2 


3.6 


8 





2 


7 


.2 


1.9 


6 


2 


Kent 


5 


2 


1 


9 


73 


7 


3.4 


7 


2 


7 


5 


.7 


. 4 


1 


1 


Montgomery. . . 


2 


6 


1 


7 


74 


2 


5.6 


11 





3 


3 


.9 


.7 


11 


8 


Prince George's . . 


2 


2 


1 


7 


75 


6 


4.0 


8 


9 


6 


4 


.4 


.8 


11 


6 


Queen Anne's . . . 


4 


5 


2 


2 


77 


5 


3.4 


6 


5 


4 


2 


.3 


1.4 


2 


1 


St. Mary's 


5 


2 


2 


8 


72 


4 


6.1 


6 


6 


5 


8 


.4 


.7 


1 


2 




4 





2 


4 


77 


1 


3.7 


7 


6 


4 


5 


.2 


.5 


6 


Talbot 


4 


3 


2 


1 


77 


1 


3.0 


7 


6 


4 


5 


.5 


.9 


1 


2 


Washington 


2 


.2 


2 


2 


81 


7 


3.1 


6 


7 


3 


1 


.4 


.6 


12 


2 


Wicomico 


3 


4 


2 


1 


76 


5 


3.4 


8 





4 


9 


.6 


1.1 


10 


1 


Worcester 


3 


8 


1 


8 


75 


7 


3.0 


9 


9 


4 


6 


. 1 


1.1 




3 


Baltimore City. . 


3 


.1 


1 


8 


73 


1 


3.5 


11 


9 


3 


6 


2.7 


t.3 


4 


8 


State Average. . . 


3 





1 


.8 


75 


.1 


3.8 


10 


1 


4 





1.5 


.7 


7 


5 



* Auxiliary agencies exclude estimated expenditures by health offices in counties and Baltimore City 
for services rendered to school children. For these costs see Table 142, page 233. The upper 
table includes cost of transportation in auxiliary agencies and the lower table excludes coat of 
transportation. 

t Baltimore City expenditxires for the Retirement System are excluded. 



Distribution of Current Expenses by Purpose; Cost per Pupil 107 
FOR General Control and Current Expense 



TABLE 88 

Cost Per Maryland Pupil BelonRinp for General Control 



County 



County Average. 

Kent 

St. Mary's 

Calvert 

Queen Anne's . . . 

Caroline 

Garrett 

Talbot 

Dorchester 

Somerset 

Worcester 

Howard 

Wicomico 



1942 



$1.90 

3.56 
4.02 
3.87 
3.51 
3.10 
3.03 
3. 12 
2.24 
2.40 
2.31 
2.28 
2.36 



1945 



$2.27 

4.07 
4.63 
3.83 
4.38 
3.88 
3.68 
3.64 
2.84 
3.03 
2.31 
2.87 
3.10 



1946 

$2.60 

5.20 
4.75 
4.63 
4.33 
4. 19 
3.85 
3.75 
3.35 
3.22 
3.16 
3. 13 
3.08 



County 



Carroll 

Montgomery . . . 

Charles 

Anne Arundel . 

Cecil 

Harford 

Allegany 

Washington . . . . 

Frederick 

Prince George's 
Baltimore 

Baltimore City 

State Average . . 



1942 


1945 


1946 


$2.02 


$2 


35 


$3.02 


1 .66 


2 


80 


3.00 


1 .99 


2 


45 


2 89 


1.98 


2 


53 


2.78 


1 .98 


2 


46 


2.65 


1.63 


2 


02 


2.56 


1.48 


1 


92 


2.23 


1.30 


1 


85 


2,08 


1.81 


1 


94 


2.08 


1 .47 


1 


41 


1.99 


1.41 


1 


41 


1.63 


3.14 


3 


32 


3.61 


$2.38 


$2 


67 


$2.98 



For basic data, See Table XIV, page 258. 



TABLE 89 

Average Current Expense Costf Per Maryland County White and Colored 
Elementary and High School Pupil Belonging, 1923-1916 



Elementary 
Schools 



White 



$39 . 84 
43.06 
43.66 
46.02 
47.26 
47.81 
49.49 
49.78 
50.17 
49.27 
46.82 
44.36 



Colored 



$17.08 
19.33 
19.98 
21.29 
22.41 
22.97 
24.31 
25.02 
25.09 
24.97 
24.12 
22.58 



HioH Schools 



White 



$91.12 
96.44 
95. 16 
97.20 
98.43 
95.82 
96.00 
97.60 
98.54 
94.78 
82.35 
76.21 



Colored 



$77.38 
73.66 
58.71 
59.67 
57.37 
52.13 
49.13 
45.86 
47.31 
48. 58 
44.34 
44.80 



Year 



1935. 
1936. 
1937. 
1938. 
1939. 
1940. 
1941. 
1942. 
1943. 
1944. 
1945x 
1946x 



Elementary 

Schools 



White 



$45.16 
47.90 
49.72 
53.41 
53.50 
56.07 
56.95 
58.75 
60.70 
*71 . 16 
*74.83 
°83.15 



Colored 



$24.19 
25.64 
26.86 
30. 10 
32.91 
35.77 
38.69 
43.40 
48.34 
*58 . 43 
*60 . 23 
°67 46 



Hiru Schools 



White 



$77. 58 
80.48 
82.47 
90.87 
89.94 
91 .45 
93.49 
97.86 
102.57 
♦118.20 
♦123.04 
°127.02 



Colored 

$46.10 
51 .62 
51.57 
58.54 
65.68 
64.32 
68.45 
78.57 
84.23 
♦100.45 
♦105.18 
°107.44 



t Excluding general control and fixed charges and health services rendered by county and State 

Health Departments. 
♦ Includes State and County bonus. 

° Prior to 1946 pupils in grade 7 or grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools were considered elemen- 
tary and not high school pupils. 

X Includes transportation charges to Baltimore County and Montgomery pupils in 1945 and 1946 
and Harford pupils also in 1945: $0.02 white elementary and $2.17 white high and $3.17 colored 
high in 1945 and $0.55 white high and $0.61 colored high in 1946. 

For basic data for 1946, see Tables XVIII. XIX, XX XXI, pages 262 to 265. 

In 1945-46 Maryland with a current expense per pupil in 
average daily attendance of $126.19 ranked thirty-first among the 
states. The average for continental United States was $136.41. 
Average daily attendance differs from average number belong- 
ing used in obtaining the per pupil cost figures in Tables 88 to 95, 
inclusive. 



108 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Cost per Pupil Belonging by Types of School 



109 



TABLE 91 

Cost Per Pupil Belonging in Maryland County White One-Teacher, Two- 
Teacher and Graded Schools, Exclusive of Expenditures for General 
Control, Supervision and Fixed Charges, for the Year Ending June 30, 1946 



County 



County Average 

1945 

1946 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 

Dorchester 

Allegany 

Queen Anne's. . 
Prince George's . 
Washington. . . . 

Garrett 

St. Mary's 

Frederick 

Cecil 

Harford 

Howard 

Wicomico 

Somerset 



One- 
Teacher 
Schools 





Cost 




Per 


No. 


Pupil 


106 


$92.44 


88 


105.35 


1 


181.64 


3 


130.25 


15 


129.44 


4 


124.17 


5 


123.76 


2 


120.70 


3 


103.80 


29 


103.05 


5 


101.96 


1 


96.83 


5 


89.90 


7 


82.07 


2 


80.86 


2 


79.42 


4 


68.22 



County 



County Average 

1945 

1946 

Kent 

Worcester 

Howard 

Somerset 

Dorchester .... 

St. Mary's 

Montgomery . . . 

Talbot 

Calvert 

Carroll 

Wicomico 

Queen Anne's. . 
Prince George's . 
Anne Arundel . . 

Charles 

Frederick 

Baltimore 

Washington. . . . 

Caroline 

Harford 

Allegany 

Garrett 

Cecil 



Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 



No. 



Cost 
Per 
Pupil 



105 


$86 


03 


104 


98 


66 


7 


144 


20 


3 


143 


81 


1 


138 


54 


2 


121 


81 


5 


115 


43 


7 


113 


04 


4 


111 


68 


4 


107 


34 


2 


107 


06 


4 


106 


67 


3 


106 


15 


5 


104 


63 


5 


101 


19 


2 


98 


46 


1 


96 


52 


7 


95 


17 


1 


94 


92 


12 


88 


46 


3 


87 


63 


9 


87 


26 


5 


84 


17 


7 


75 


45 


5 


69 


06 



County 



County Average 

1945 

1946 

Calvert 

St. Mary's 

Kent 

Charles 

Montgomery . . 
Queen Anne's. . . 

Worcester 

Talbot 

Dorchester. . . . 

Somerset 

Carroll 

Allegany 

Wicomico 

Garrett 

Washington. . . . 

Howard 

Frederick 

Prince George's . 

Caroline 

Cecil 

.\nne Arundel . . 

Harford 

Baltimore 



Graded 
Schools 



No. 



Cost 
Per 
Pupil 



321 


$72 


10 


324 


79 


88 


4 


103 


09 


1 


tlOO 


20 


4 


97 


27 


6 


t96 


20 


29 


94 


31 


5 


93 


22 


7 


91 


53 


5 


91 


39 


7 


87 


56 


5 


87 


54 


14 


87 


13 


28 


86 


48 


10 


86 


08 


12 


84 


63 


26 


81 


64 


7 


80 


79 


21 


78 


42 


39 


77 


58 


6 


77 


53 


8 


77 


01 


25 


73 


99 


14 


72 


42 


41 


64 


66 



Excludes estimated expenditures for health services rendered public school children by County 
and State health departmervts. See Table 142, page 233. 
tincludes expenditures of Federal government for Frank Knox School in St. Mary's County and 
Indian Head School in Charles County. 



110 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 23 

Cost per White Public Elementary School Pupil Belonging for 
Current Expenses Excluding General Control: 1944, 1945, 1946 



County 1944 1945 1946 

County Average i 71 f 75 

Kent 91 94 HQ 

St. Mary's 93 122 BLU 

Calvert 91 99 KCTl 

Queen Anne's 86 89 g^QQ 

Dorchester 81 80 

Worcester 86 8r 

Charles 78 84 |^^] 

Montgomery 89 96 ^^^Q 

Talbot 79 61 

Sonerset 76 76 

Carroll 74 75 ^^^] 

Allegany* 80 61 H^Si 

Garrett 76 82 

Wicomico* 74 78 

Washington 67 74 ^^j^ 

Hownrd 75 72 HQQ 

Caroline 71 75 

rrederlck 69 69 HEQ 

Prince George's 67 70 ^|^J 

Cecil 69 66 IBHI 

Harford 68 72 HQ] 

Anne Arundel 66 69 

Baltimore* 53 60 f^Eu 

Baltimore City 60 65 |E£ 

State Average 74 78 H|B 



* Excludes pupils attending elementary school at State Teachers College(s). 

Excludes health expenditures by County and City health departments. See Table 142, 

page 233 for these expenditures in 1945-46. 

For basic data by county see Table XVIII, page 262. 



Cost per White Elementary School Pupil Belonging 



111 



TABLE 92 

Cost Per Pupil in Maryland White Elementary Schools, Grades 1-6, 1-7 (8), 
for the Main Subdivisions of Expenditures, Exclusive of General Control 
and Fixed Charges for the Year End'ng June 30, 1946 



r!nT7NTY 

V_/ \J w IN 1 1 


Super- 
vision 


Salaries 


Textbooks 
and 
Other 
Costs of 
Instruction 


Operation 


Main- 
tenance 


Auxiliary 
Agencies* 


Total 
Current 
Expenses 


Capital 
Outlay 


County Average: 


































1945 


$ 1. 


47 


$51. 


67 


$ 1. 


98 


$ 7 


06 


$ 2 


79 


$ 9, 


86 


$74 


83 


$ 3 


74 


1946 


1. 


76 


57. 


57 


2 


48 


7 


25 


3. 


68 


10 


41 


83 


15 


3 


13 


Allegany 


2 


14 


61. 


24 


3 


15 


8 


64 


5 


06 


t8 


66 


88 


89 




17 


Anne Arundel .... 


1 


65 


51. 


65 


1 


82 


6 


84 


3 


02 


10 


98 


75 


96 




51 






58 


46 


17 


2 


95 


5 


76 


2 


67 


7 


13 


65 


26 


2 


75 


Calvert 


4 


02 


56. 


96 


1 


30 


8 


45 


4 


99 


32 


01 


107 


73 


1 


35 




2 


56 


52 


62 


1 


56 


5 


39 


1 


30 


17 


79 


81 


22 




07 


Carroll 


1 


81 


59 


73 


1 


54 


5 


76 


3 


04 


117 


67 


89 


55 


1 


55 


Cecil 


1 


60 


55 


55 


2 


52 


5 


46 


1 


60 


11 


59 


78 


32 




68 


Charles 


1 


87 


x51. 


12 




88 


xll 


27 


xll 


57 


21 


39 


x98 


10 




56 


Dorchester 


1 


88 


64 


63 


2 


05 


8 


75 


5 


18 


17 


35 


99 


84 






Frederick 


1 


36 


56 


04 


2 


65 


6 


37 


1 


32 


13 


37 


81 


11 


1 


io 


Garrett 


2 


20 


58 


67 


1 


47 


4 


78 


2 


02 


19 


59 


88 


73 


1 


29 


Harford 


1 


80 


55 


76 


1 


42 


6 


87 


2 


75 


7 


98 


76 


58 




30 


Howard 


1 


83 


54 


89 


2 


27 


7 


43 


1 


63 


15 


75 


83 


80 


8 


53 


Kent 


3 


45 


74 


12 


2 


15 


8 


24 


10 


26 


15 


85 


114 


07 




90 


Montgomery 


1 


88 


67 


83 


3 


73 


11 


44 


3 


71 


8 


20 


96 


79 


9 


76 


Prince George's . . 
Queen Anne's. . . . 


1 


87 


57 


97 


2 


15 


7 


82 


5 


86 


°4 


37 


80 


04 


8 


50 


3 


11 


67 


05 


2 


76 


5 


30 


3 


68 


19 


08 


100 


98 




14 


St. Mary's 


3 


.53 


x66 


49 


5 


53 


x2 


87 


x6 


33 


24 


06 


xl08 


81 




35 


Somerset 


3 


47 


57 


16 


3 


-59 


6 


62 


4 


.34 


17 


50 


92 


68 


2 


79 


Talbot 


2 


90 


61 


95 


1 


70 


7 


78 


6 


18 


15 


82 


96 


33 




55 


Washington 


2 


44 


66 


37 


1 


88 


5 


79 


2 


98 


5 


51 


84 


97 




96 


Wicomico 


1 


29 


61 


05 


2 


07 


7 


53 


2 


90 


13 


78 


88 


62 


3 


66 


Worcester 


2 


.18 


61 


46 


1 


87 


9 


20 


3 


.41 


20 


48 


98 


60 




22 


Baltimore City. . . 


2 


14 


67 


77 


2 


66 


13 


10 


3 


71 


1 


34 


90 


72 


1 


15 


State Average ... 


$ 1 


88 


$60 


85 


$ 2 


54 


$ 9 


13 


$ 3 


69 


$ 7 


49 


$85 


58 


$ 2 


49 



* Excludes estimated expenditures for health service rendered public school children by County, 

City and State health departments. See Table 142, page 233. 
t Includes 25 cents for payment by Garrett County for per pupil cost of transporting 33 pupils 

to an Allegany County elementary school. 
X Includes 23 cents for payment by Frederick County for per pupil cost of transporting 19 pupils 

to a Carroll County elementary school. 
° Includes 14 cents for payment by Anne Arundel County for per pupil cost of transporting 90 

pupils to a Prince George's County elementary school, 
x Includes expenditures by Federal government at Indian Head School in Charles County and 

Frank Knox School in St. Mary's County. 

For basic data, see Table XVIII, page 262. 



112 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 24 

Cost per White Public High School Pupil Belonging for 
Current Expenses Excluding General Control: 1944, 1945, 1946 



Count/ 
County Arerage 

Montgoaery 
CalTert 
St. Mary's 
Charles 
Kent 

Queen Anne' s 

Wl cool CO 

Worcester 

Howard 

Somereet 

Dorchester 

Carroll 

Oerrett 

Caroline 

Prince George's 

Wasblagton 

Harford 

Talbot 

Allegany 

Anna Arundel 

Cecil 

rrederlclt 

Baltlaore 

Baltimore City 

State ATerage 




Excludes payment of $20 and $15 by parents for each high school pupil transported a 
full school year in Baltimore County and M(jntKomery County, respectively. 
For basic data by county, see Table XIX, page 263. 



Cost per White High School Pupil Belonging 



113 



TABLE 93 

Cost per Pupil in White Junior, Junior-Senior, Senior and Regular High 
Schools for the Main Subdivisions of Expenditures, Exclusive of General 
Control and Fixed Charges for the Year Ending June 30, 1946 



County 


Super- 
vision 


Salaries 


Textbooks 
and 
Other 
Cost of 
Instruction 


• 

Operation 


Main- 
tenance 


Auxiliary 
Agencies 


Total 
Current 
Expenses 


Capital 
Outlay 


County Average: 


































1945 


$ 1 


24 


$88 


42 


$ 5 


55 


$10 


19 


$ 4 


98 


$12 


.68 


$123 


.04 


$ 3 


.95 


1946 


1 


20 


92 


91 


6 


16 


9 


86 


4 


67 


12 


22 


127 


.02 


21 


15 


Allegany 


1 


06 


86 


85 


5 


38 


13 


10 


4 


61 


a9 


02 


120 


02 




10 


Anne Arundel .... 




60 


88 


52 


6 


60 


8 


70 


2 


31 


12 


51 


119 


24 


10 


.94 




2 


07 


76 


93 


4 


48 


6 


57 


3 


97 


y8 


16 


yl02 


.18 


78 


.11 


Calvert 




47 


101 


40 


6 


77 


8 


42 


6 


76 


42 


34 


166 


16 


3 


18 








93 


55 


4 


36 


8 


65 


2 


63 


19 


54 


128 


73 




08 


Carroll 


2 


42 


99 


51 


4 


45 


7 


55 


3 


88 


bl6 


71 


134 


52 


2 


11 


Cecil 






84 


04 


4 


59 


10 


11 


3 


56 


12 


58 


114 


88 


2 


10 






41 


xlOO 


26 


2 


00 


xl4 


95 


xl7 


57 


24 


47 


xl59 


66 


2 


01 


Dorchester 


1 


29 


91 


54 


5 


08 


12 


32 


7 


28 


19 


28 


136 


79 




06 


Frederick 




13 


81 


13 


8 


90 


7 


27 


1 


71 


cl4 


07 


113 


21 


1 


58 


Garrett 






91 


41 


5 


03 


7 


30 


3 


68 


26 


00 


133 


42 




28 


Harford 


i 


23 


90 


62 


5 


28 


7 


99 


5 


52 


11 


58 


122 


22 




71 


Howard 






99 


82 


5 


44 


9 


00 


4 


04 


21 


08 


139 


38 


2 


96 


Kent 






110 


01 


7 


02 


8 


53 


10 


80 


21 


60 


157 


96 


1 


45 


Montgomery 


2 


11 


124 


65 


12 


16 


16 


74 


4 


22 


y8 


44 


yl68 


32 


29 


53 


Prince George's . . 




99 


92 


92 


6 


57 


9 


64 


6 


49 


d7 


32 


123 


93 


14 


06 


Queen Anne's. . . . 






108 


12 


4 


57 


11 


82 


4 


27 


24 


09 


152 


87 


5 


03 


St. Mary's 






83 


98 


10 


43 


17 


33 


7 


68 


41 


11 


160 


53 






Somerset 






97 


65 


3 


77 


10 


50 


6 


06 


20 


82 


138 


80 






Talbot 






87 


94 


4 


37 


8 


36 


3 


32 


17 


59 


121 


58 




74 


Washington. . . . , 


1 


.60 


97 


69 


5 


26 


7 


48 


3 


22 


6 


99 


122 


24 


28 


87 


Wicomico 


2 


76 


101 


43 


5 


47 


9 


51 


10 


51 


17 


67 


147 


35 


26 


08 


Worcester 






93 


61 


3 


85 


11 


45 


7 


87 


22 


81 


139 


59 




46 


Baltimore City . . . 


2 


.47 


129 


02 


6 


76 


19 


15 


4 


85 


2 


27 


164 


52 


9 


16 


Junior High. . . 


3 


05 


107 


59 


5 


97 


16 


.98 


3 


73 


1 


87 


139 


19 


3 


96 


Senior High ... 


1 


32 


151 


23 


7 


15 


20 


.30 


5 


50 


2 


63 


188 


13 




88 


Vocational 


4 


46 


185 


43 


11 


74 


31 


.92 


11 


.20 


3 


56 


248 


31 


111 


99 


State Average ... 


$ 1 


63 


$105 


06 


$ 6 


.37 


$12 


.98 


$ 4 


.73 


$ 8 


.87 


$139 


.64 


$17 


.12 



a Includes 85 cents for payment by Garrett County for per pupil cost of transporting 71 pupilg 

to an Allegany County high school, 
b Includes 32 cents for payment by Frederick County for per pupil cost of transporting 15 pupils 

to a Carroll County high school, 
c Includes 33 cents for payment by Washington County for per pupil cost cf transporting 35 pupils 

to a Frederick County high school 
d Includes 9 cents for payment by Anne Arundel County for per pupil cost of transporting 28 pupils 

to a Prince George's County high school. 
X Includes expenditures by Federal government at Indian Head School. 

y Includes transportation charges to high school pupils: Baltimore County $2.12 and Montgomery 
$2.23. 

For basic data, see Table XIX. page 263, 



114 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 25 



Cost per Colored Public Elementary School Pupil Belonging for 
Current Expenses Excluding General Control: 1944, 1945, 1946 



County 1944 

County Average | 58 

Cecil 72 

Montgomery 79 

Allegany 62 

Queen Anne's 75 

Harford 64 

Carroll 77 

Wicomico 59 

Talbot 57 

Frederick 61 

Caroline 63 

Prince George's* 57 

St. Mary's 61 

Dorchester 56 

Kent 66 

Anne Arundel* 56 

Howard 59 

Washington 69 

Somerset 63 

Worcester 49 

Baltimore 46 

Charles 48 

Calvert 46 

Baltimore City 75 

State Average 67 




* Excludes pupils attending elementary school at Bowie State Teachers College. 

Excludes health expenditures by County and City health departments. See Table 142, 
page 233 for these expenditures in 1945-46. 

For basic data by county see Table XX, page 264. 



Cost per Colored Elementary School Pupil Belonging 



115 



TABLE 94 

Cost Per Pupil in Maryland Colored Elementary Schools, Grades 1-6, 1-7 (8), 
for the Main Subdivisions of Expenditures, Exclusive of General Control 
and Fixed Charges, for the Year Ending June 30, 1946 



County 


Super- 
vision 


Salaries 


Textbooks 
and 
Other 
Costs of 
Instruction 


Operation 


Main- 
tenance 


Auxiliary 

Agencies* 


Total 
Current 
Expenses 


Capital 
Outlay 


County Average: 
































1945 


$ 1 


43 


$44 


23 


$ 1 


56 


$ 3 


91 


$ 1 


70 


$ 7 


40 


$60 


23 


$ 3.51 


1946 


1 


88 


48 


74 


1 


65 


4 


39 


2 


36 


8 


44 


67 


46 


4.24 


Allegany 






64 


73 


1 


06 


10 


74 


7 


50 




82 


84 


85 


.07 


Anne Arundel .... 


2 


10 


53 


87 


1 


40 


4 


96 


1 


34 


1 


57 


65 


24 


.02 


Baltimore 




11 


43 


02 


1 


35 


4 


95 


2 


49 


5 


61 


57 


53 


5.62 


Calvert 


2 


73 


38 


47 


1 


52 


2 


30 


1 


04 


4 


43 


50 


49 


4.12 


Caroline 


1 


16 


48 


03 


1 


43 


2 


79" 


1 


92 


13 


32 


68 


65 




Carroll 


1 


25 


52 


33 


1 


30 


5 


27 


5 


49 


13 


46 


79 


10 




Cecil 


5 


54 


57 


57 


2 


50 


6 


28 


2 


23 


22 


67 


96 


79 




Charles 


2 


37 


39 


18 




97 


2 


84 


1 


44 


9 


77 


56 


57 


10. 6i 




2 


37 


41 


47 


1 


22 


3 


77 


4 


64 


13 


36 


66 


83 


.88 


Frederick 


2 


67 


47 


61 


1 


23 


5 


50 




65 


12 


15 


69 


81 


.05 


Harford 


1 


40 


58 


17 


2 


03 


5 


27 


3 


26 


10 


98 


81 


11 


.16 


Howard 


2 


03 


46 


90 


1 


46 


1 


82 


1 


76 


10 


06 


64 


03 


.09 


Kent 




89 


44 


02 


1 


56 


3 


86 




59 


14 


74 


65 


66 


.47 


Montgomery 


2 


04 


63 


08 


2 


50 


6 


76 


3 


32 


14 


80 


92 


50 


5. 10 


Prince George's . . . 




89 


52 


04 


2 


11 


5 


17 


3 


38 


4 


47 


68 


06 


16.49 


Queen Anne's 


3 


22 


55 


20 


2 


61 


1 


88 


5 


58 


15 


24 


83 


73 


.03 


St. Mary's 


3 


57 


47 


44 


1 


36 


2 


02 


1 


55 


10 


91 


66 


85 




Somerset 


2 


18 


41 


03 


1 


84 


3 


13 


1 


63 


10 


20 


60 


01 


' ^84 


Talbot 


2 


.62 


50 


29 


1 


84 


3 


55 


1 


38 


11 


62 


71 


30 


.41 


Washington 






53 


32 


1 


52 


3 


89 




99 


2 


15 


61 


87 


.10 


Wicomico 


3 


25 


51 


67 


1 


91 


4 


88 


2 


60 


10 


69 


75 


00 


.34 


Worcester 


2 


53 


40 


16 


1 


36 


4 


59 


1 


39 


9 


72 


59 


75 


.03 


Baltimore City. . . 


1 


48 


63 


75 


2 


89 


8 


84 


4 


38 


1 


15 


82 


49 


12.53 


State Average. . . 


$ 1 


66 


$56 


85 


$ 2 


32 


$ 6 


80 


$ 3 


46 


$ 4 


50 


$75 


59 


$ 8.72 



Excludes estimated expenditures for health service rendered public school children by County 
City and State health departments. See Table 142, page 233. 
For basic data, see Table XX, page 264. 



116 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 26 

Cost per Colored Public High School Pupil Belonging for 
Current Expenses Excluding General Control: 1944, 1945, 1946 



County 

County Average 

Allegany 
WashlngtOQ 
Carroll 
Cecil 

St. Mary' a 
Queen Anne's 
CalTert 

Uontgoaery 
Charlea 

WlCOIBlCO 

Anne Arundel 
Caroline 
Howard 
Kent 

Dorchester 

Prince George's 

BaltlBiore 

Tadbot 

Harford 

Sooereet 

Frederick 

Worcester 

Baltlaore City 

State Average 




Excludes payments of $20 and $15 by parents for each hiffh school pupil transported a 
full school year in Rallimore County and MontRomery County, respectively. 
For basic data by county see Table XXI, page 265. 



Cost per Colored High School Pupil Belonging 



117 



TABLE 95 

Cost Per Pupil in Maryland Colored Junior, Junior-Senior, and Regular High 
Schools for the Main Subdivisions of Expenditures, Exclusive of General 
Control and Fixed Charges, for the Year Ending June 30, 1916 



County 


Super- 
vision 


Salaries 


Textbooks 
and 
Other 
Costs of 
Instruction 


Operation 


Main- 
tenance 


Auxiliary 
Agencies 


Total 
Current 
Expenses 


Capital 
Outlay 


County Average: 


















$ 2 
















1945 


$ 


37 


$70 


65 


$ 3 


83 


$ 6 


82 


82 


$20 


69 


$105 


. 18 


$ 7 


32 


1946 




43 


72 


39 


4 


38 


6 


73 


3 


85 


19 


66 


107 


.44 


13 


25 


Allegany 






150 


16 


5 


45 


20 


16 


8 


74 


7 


69 


192 


20 




16 


Anne Arundel .... 






70 


97 


6 


90 


7 


47 


5 


39 


18 


17 


108 


90 


70 


03 


Baltimore 




07 


74 


77 


2 


31 


7 


74 


3 


55 


y9 


28 


y97 


.72 


1 


29 


Calvert 




38 


66 


48 


3 


37 


7 


27 


3 


09 


41 


53 


122 


12 


5 


90 








71 


76 


4 


63 


7 


40 


1 


89 


21 


34 


107 


02 






Carroll 






95 


73 


5 


52 


5 


74 


6 


58 


25 


88 


139 


45 






Cecil 






75 


45 


4 


86 


10 


43 


2 


84 


36 


46 


130 


04 






Charles 






76 


70 


1 


64 


8 


39 


1 


94 


25 


74 


114 


41 




84 


Dorchester 




68 


71 


42 


4 


10 


4 


08 


5 


04 


18 


78 


104 


10 






Frederick 






62 


28 


2 


47 


5 


57 




35 


14 


99 


85 


66 




14 


Harford 


i 


54 


67 


99 


3 


36 


6 


00 


8 


01 


8 


42 


95 


32 




87 


Howard 


4 


22 


68 


54 


4 


20 


3 


45 


2 


72 


23 


26 


106 


39 


7 


42 


Kent 


1 


05 


65 


35 


5 


72 


7 


71 


4 


14 


20 


33 


104 


30 


4 


16 


Montgomery 




70 


71 


36 


6 


05 


7 


77 


2 


95 


y28 


79 


yll7 


.62 


7 


95 


Prince George's . . . 
Queen Anne's 


1 


32 


64 


66 


4 


72 


6 


26 


5 


69 


20 


60 


103 


25 




31 






84 


13 


4 


83 


7 


87 


1 


83 


27 


52 


126 


18 


13 


19 


St. Mary's 






82 


32 


8 


16 


6 


21 


8 


72 


22 


86 


128 


27 






Somerset 






66 


06 


2 


53 


4 


39 


1 


81 


11 


81 


86 


60 




02 


Talbot 






69 


15 


2 


56 


3 


98 


3 


26 


16 


93 


95 


88 


5 


25 


Washington 






128 


61 


6 


33 


8 


16 


1 


31 


27 


92 


172 


33 


125 


10 


Wicomico 






79 


09 


4 


83 


5 


82 


2 


46 


19 


48 


111 


68 


23 


18 


Worcester 






55 


13 


4 


01 


6 


36 


2 


56 


16 


07 


84 


13 




35 


Baltimore City. . . 


2 


18 


105 


50 


5 


97 


16 


08 


5 


62 


2 


09 


137 


44 




37 


Junior High. . . . 


2 


36 


87 


42 


4 


58 


12 


88 


3. 


53 


1. 


24 


112 


01 




09 


Senior High .... 


1 


78 


141 


11 


7 


86 


18 


44 


5. 


72 


3. 


82 


178 


73 




30 


Vocational 


2 


20 


116 


42 


8 


89 


27 


57 


16. 


65 


2. 


44 


i¥ 


17 


2. 


04 


State Average .... 


$ 1 


36 


$89 


91 


$ 5 


22 


$11. 


68 


$ 4. 


79 


$10. 


36 


$123 


32 


$ 6. 


43 



For basic data, see Table XXI, page 265. 
y Includes transportation charges to high school pupils: BaltimoreCounty $2.04 and Montgomery $6.29. 



118 



1946 Report 



OF Maryland State Department of Education 



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1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 98 

Federal Vocational Funds Allotted to and Expended in Maryland, 1945-46 



Purpose 


1946 
Allotment 


1946 
Expenditures 


Unexpended 
Balance 


Agriculture 


$69. 133.88 


*$67.895.02 


$1,238.86 


Trade and Industry 


104.538.88 


*94.363.84 


10. 175.04 


Home Economics 


49.673.98 


♦49.606.21 


67.77 


Teacher Training and Supervision 


26.432.28 


26.298.97 


133.31 




15.668.77 


*10.940.67 


4.728.10 


Total 


$265,447.79 


$249. 104.71 


$16,343.08 



* Thefollowing amounts shown above opposite Agriculture $3,310.72, Trade and Industry $4,185.26, 
Home Economics $4,628.71, and Distributive Occupations $2,391.17 are included in Table 103 as 
charges for State Administration and Supervision opposite these same titles. 



TABLE 99 

Federal Vocational Funds Expended by Subject and Type of School, 1945-46 



Type of School 



Subject 



County Day 

White 

Colored 

County Evening 

White 

Colored 

University of Maryland 

Mining 

Volunteer Fireman 

Baltimore City 

Day 

Evening 

Cooperative and Continuation 

Supervision 

Total 



Agriculture 



$40,205.88 
15.320.29 

8.381.63 
676.50 



$64.584 .30 



Industrial 
Education 



$16,649.52 
516.66 

2.635.09 
90.00 

1.966.31 
2.080.50 

50.680.00 
8 . 500 . 00 
5.160.50 
1.900.00 

$90. 178.58 



Home 
Economics 



$25,326.87 
10.434.05 

2.832.08 
634.50 



5,750.00 



$44,977.50 



Distributive 
Education 



$3, 190.00 
22 . 50 



2. 170.00 
3. 167.00 



$8,549.50 



Total 



$86,372.27 
26,271.00 

13.871.30 
1,401.00 

1,966.31 
2,080.60 

52,850.00 
17,417.00 
5, 160.50 
1.900.00 

$208,289.88 



Expended Federal Vocational Funds by 
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°Xl c 

- E 2 
•C S •= £ 



3 

■lij 

3 

o 



(3 



0^ 3 



0; a; ^ 

^ OJ e 



0) 



2 c ^ 2 

y 0/ 2 

? •in- 

^ m — ' 
— 3 

bE«-^ 



en ca 



«— -J 

tn eS ™ 

Ec^ = ? 
|EiN> 

fc O t, 0* 

" £ 
ca? ?-> 
a; >.2 o 

Sr* ^ c 

O B) c »- 

c-:: o a 

3 c a; 

O 3 0; J3 
C O J= 

o 

i. K O 

- ■> ? 

— 4f I- * 

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^ — ET) 

£ 03O ^ 

3 . L' ca 

^ c 4- 
E.2E^ 

. C cS M = 

ea ^73 O «J 
S E — ^-c 

E'^.H 3^ 
^ a c o ?: 
E c — j= -c 

c X " » c 

■£-'2 ° 

4, ea ea _« .g 

X T3 • - ca ea 

a, w Of) c 

- 3 E ^ S2 
° c § £ 

?^s:£^ 

aJ^Ec 
fc'^e^E 

«i (n O ca 
a. X *J 

S c * 0; c 

- 0.2 5 



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2 C ^ S S 

f- C 3 U 

- d =-g * 

£ N u «'5 

5 3 a ea c 
qMcm S E 

l-H 

• K 



Federal Aid for Vocational Education 



123 



TABLE 102 

Federal Aid for Vocational Education in Haltimore City Schools for School 

Year Ending June 30, 1946 







Enrollment 


Amount of 




Total 






Federal 


Type of Sphooi. 


Federal 






Aid per 




Funds 






Pupil 






Male 


Female 


Enrolled 


Trade and Industrial 










Day Vocational 


$50,680.00 






$16.72 


White 




1,750 


539 




Colored 




490 


2.53 




Cooperative and Continuation . . . 


5, 160.50 




276 


18.70 


Evening 


8,500.00 


M75 


66 


6.85 


Supervision 


1,900.00 








Home Economics — Evening 


5,750.00 






8.94 


White 






320 




Colored 






323 




Distributive Occupational Classes 












2,840.00 




208 


13.65 


Cooperative part-time 


2, 170.00 






31.45 


White 










Colored 




' ' ii 


"58 






327.00 


36 


13 


6.67 


Total 


$77,327.50 


3,462 


2,056 


$14.01 



TABLE 103 

Expenditures for Administration, Supervision and Teacher Training 
in Vocational Education, Year Ending June 30, 1946 



Purpose 


Administration 
and Supervision 


Teacher Training 


Total 


State 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


University 
of Maryland 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


State and 
University 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Agriculture 

Trade and Industry 

Home Economics 

Distributive Education, 
Occupational Informa- 
tion and Guidance. . . 

Total 


$4,496.60 
4, 102.52 
4,948.72 

1,697.16 


t$6,814.13 
t6,487.49 
t8,317.95 

t2,391.17 


*$3, 154.91 
♦10,942.51 
♦2,622.47 


♦$3,154.90 
♦11,392.51 
♦2,2.56.68 


$7,651.51 
15.045.03 
7,571.19 

1.697. 16 


$9,969.03 
17,880.00 
10,574.63 

2.391. 17 


$15,245.00 


$24,010.74 


♦$16,719.89 


♦$16,804.09 


$31,964.89 


$40,814.83 



♦Includes for Princess Anne College $928.91 for Agriculture, $1,235.99 for Trade and Industry, 
$530. 10 for Home Economics, Total $2,695.00. 

t Federal funds for Administration include the following amounts charged in Table 98 to Agriculture 
$1,086.88; Trade and Industry $1,085.44; Home Economics $1,086.76; and Distributive 
Education $1,085.54. Likewise the following amounts are charged to .\griculture $2,223.84; 
Trade and Industry $3,099.82; Home Economics $3,541.95; and Distributive Education 
$1 , 305 . 63 towards salaries of State Supervisors opposite these subjects on Ta^le 98. 



124 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 104 

Expenditures For Adult Education in Maryland Counties, 1945-46 



County 


Salary Expenditures 


County 
Expendi- 
tures 
Reported 
for Other 
than Salaries 


Receipts 
from Fees 


Total 


Federal 


State 


Grand Total 


ae$34,688.94 


e$14,948.45 


a$19,740.49 


t$4,665.60 


$3,797.94 





White Adults 



Total Counties 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel... 

Baltimore 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's. 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 



ae$30.707.94 

9.445.00 
242.04 
2,035.50 
a214.50 
845.50 
62 . 50 
C743.15 
f 2. 373. 50 
184.50 
d2,223.00 
e575.00 
384.00 
f 6. 672. 25 
g3.208.50 
h24.00 
233.00 
k 1,026. 00 
216.00 



e$13,394 45 
7,783.00 



102.00 

456.45 
1 . 805 . 50 

237.00 
e294.00 

1 .653.00 
1.039.50 
h24 . 00 



a$17,313 49 

1,662.00 
242.04 

2,035.50 
a214.50 
743 . 50 
62 . 50 
286.70 
568.00 
184.50 

1,986.00 
281.00 
384.00 

5,019.25 

2,169.00 

233.00 
1 .026.00 
216.001 



t$4.423.31 
t2,902.88 
233.65 



53.00 
b254 . 52 
49.13 
17.00 



160.00 
t374.38 
209 . 92 
ht24.18 
.65 
k 

144.00 



$3,565 94 
1,511.99 
536.00 
70.00 

47.66 
159.06 



818.95 
380.00 



43.00 



Colored Adults 



Total Counties 

Allegany 

Anne .Arundel.. 

Carroll 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Harford 

Montgomery..., 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



$3,981 


00 


282 


00 


445 


50 


378 


50 


62 


50 


198 


00 


m918 


00 


fl47 


00 


72 


00 


378 


00 


895 


50 


204 


00 



$1,554.00 

171 .00 
346.50 



1.53.00 
402 . 00 



229 . 50 
252 . 00 



$2,427 


00 


111 


00 


99 


00 


378 


50 


62 


50 


45 


00 


516 


00 


147 


00 


72 


00 


148 


50 


643 


50 


204 


00 



$242.29 
94.00 
22.00 



6.29 
120.00 



$232 . 00 
14.00 
26.00 



55.00 
37.00 



100.00 



a Received $2 additional. 

b For equipment for canning program. 

c Financial report shows $12 less. 

d Financial report shows $187.50 less. 

e Received $228 additional in error for class not held. 

f Financial report shows less. 

g Financial report excludes $486 for supervision in 1946-47 and $216 included with salaries for day 
schools in error. 

h Reimbursement made after June 30, 1946. Expenditures not included in 1945-46 financial report, 
k Excludes $372 for salaries and $585.27 for supplies and expenses of veterans' evening classes, 
m Financial report shows $40.50 more. 

1 Federal reimbursements for travel expenditures were $95.85: $70.09 in Allegany, $1.58 in Mont- 
gomery, and $24.18 in Somerset, 



Adult Education Costs; County Pupil Transportation 125 



TABLE 105 

Maryland County Expenditures for Transporting!: Pupils to School, 1924-1946 





Public 






Public Funds 




Expenditures 


Number 


Number of 


Spent pe 


r 


Year 


for 


of 


Pupils 


Pupil Trans- 




Transportation J ab 


Counties 


Transported a 


ported 


a 


1924 


$188, 516 


21 


6,499 


$29 


01 


1925 


242,041 


22 


8,618 


28. 


09 


1926 


312 , 495 


22 


10, 567 


29 


57 


1927 


373, 168 


23 


13,385 


27. 


88 


1928 


436, 583 


23 


15,907 


27 


45 


1929 


*512, 385 


23 


18, 928 


27. 


07 


19*30 


*603, 148 


23 


22, 814 


26. 


41 


1931 


*744,400 


23 


29 , 006 


27 


66 


1932 


*834,679 


23 


35,019 


23 


84 


1 Q QO 








21 


29 


1934 


863,549 


23 


42,241 


20. 


44 


1935 


892,422 


23 


44,576 


20 


02 


1936 


952,598 


23 


49,051 


19 


42 


1937 


1,019,872 


23 


52,248 


19 


52 


1938 


1,121,498 


23 


56,268 


19 


93 


1939 


1,202,784 


23 


61,753 


19 


48 


1940 


1,285,520 


23 


66,036 


19 


47 


1941 


1,326,389 


23 


70, 162 


18 


90 


1942 


1,411,110 


23 


74,113 


19 


04 


1943 


1,491,244 


23 


74,711 


19 


96 


1944 


1,561,711 


23 


74,813 


20 


87 


1945 


1,696,487 


23 


77,349 


21 


93 


1946 


1,857,239 


23 


82,020 


22 


64 



TABLE 106 

County Pupils Transported to Public Schools at Public Expense, 1924-1946 





Pupils Transported to School at 


Public 


Expense 
























Public 


Funds 




Number Transported 


Percent Transported 


Expended for 




















Transportation 


Year 


















of Pupils Jb 




Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 
























White 


Colored 




White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


Pupils 


Pupils 


1924 


4,682 


133 


1,701 





5 


1 


11 


"o" 


$185,263 


$3,253 


1925 


6,269 


144 


2,197 


1 


6 


1 


13 





238,094 


3,947 


1926 


7,613 


105 


2,835 


14 


8 





15 


2 


308,596 


3,899 


1927 


9,778 


tl40 


3,424 


n 


10 


1 


17 


1 


368.089 


5.079 


1928 


11,774 


t201 


3,870 


20 


11 


1 


18 


2 


431.065 


5,517 


1929 


14,028 


t247 


4,632 


23 


14 


1 


20 


2 


506,478 


♦5.907 


1930 


16,670 


t310 


5,660 


174 


16 


1 


23 


9 


594,473 


♦8,675 


1931 • 


20,593 


t493 


7,746 


215 


20 


2 


29 


10 


726,747 


♦17,653 


1932 


24,787 


t724 


9,019 


477 


23 


3 


32 


19 


807,373 


♦27.305 


1933 


28,741 


t847 


10. 157 


502 


27 


3 


34 


19 


828,067 


30.207 


1934 


29,969 


tl.OSl 


10,581 


740 


28 


4 


35 


27 


826,817 


36.732 


1935 


31,147 


tl.096 


11,517 


1,035 


29 


4 


37 


35 


850.481 


41 .938 


1936 


32,676 


tl.389 


13. 191 


al,795 


31 


6 


41 


51 


890.325 


a62.272 


1937 


34,076 


tl .807 


13,970 


a2,395 


32 


8 


42 


59 


944,922 


a74.951 


1938 


35,980 


t2.749 


14,556 


a2,983 


34 


12 


43 


68 


1.013,356 


al08.142 


1939 


38,201 


t4.147 


16, 147 


a3.258 


36 


18 


45 


70 


1.066.880 


al35.904 


1940 


40,633 


t4,834 


17, 122 


a3,447 


38 


21 


45 


71 


1.134.161 


al51.359 


1941 


42.765 


t5.472 


18,326 


a3.599 


40 


24 


47 


70 


1.160,242 


al66,146 


1942 


45,055 


t6,650 


18,893 


a3, 515 


42 


29 


48 


69 


1.223.726 


al87.384 


1943 


45,733 


t6,591 


18,804 


a3,583 


42 


29 


49 


69 


1.288.998 


a202.246 


1944 


46.025 


t6,904 


18,340 


3,544 


42 


31 


50 


70 


1,337.030 


224.681 


1945 


47.807 


t7,486 


18,444 


3,612 


43 


33 


50 


70 


1,437.994 


258.493 


1946 


42 , 505 


t7,397 


27,177 


4,941 


44 


34 


52 


72 


1.554.280 


302.959 



t Includes county pupils transported to elementary school at Bowie Normal School or Teachers Col- 
lege from 1927 to date. 
♦ Includes Rosenwald aid toward transportation of pupils. 

a Includes Baltimore County pupils toward whose transportation costs to Baltimore City high schools, 

Baltimore County contributed from 1936 to 1943 inclusive, 
b Excludes cost of State bus transporting pupils to Bowie Normal School or Teachers College from 1927 

to date. 

X Excludes payments by parents toward cost of high school transportation in several countiee. 



126 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 107 

Maryland Pupils Transported to School in 1945-46 at Public Expense 





Pupils Transported j 


Public 


Expense for Tran 


SPORTATION 




County 
























To Ele- 


To 






To Ele- 




To 






Total 


mentary 


High 


Total 




mentary 




High 








School 


School 






School 




School 




Total Counties 


oZ , OZO 


49 , 902 


32, 118 


$1,857,238. 


94 


$1 . 156, 702 


. 87 


$700,536. 


07 


Baltimore 


12, 175 


7 , 972 


4 , 203 


al84,381 . 


52 


134. 043 . 


23 


a50,338. 


29 


Montgomery 


6, 846 


4 , 360 


2.486 


al39,908. 


80 


98,658. 


35 


a41 ,250 


45 


Anne Arundel 


♦6 , 5y 1 


*3 , 773 


2, 818 


123,730. 


30 


72, 557. 


55 


51, 172 


75 


Frederick 


t4 , 767 


2 , 969 


tl . 798 


119,491. 


18 


74 . 814 . 


85 


44.676. 


33 




js , 259 


13 , 125 


X2, 134 


119,957. 


53 


71 .389 . 


53 


48,568 


00 


Prince George's 


x*6 ,511 


x*3 , 519 


x2, 992 


113,433 


98 


60, 299 . 


05 


53 . 134 


93 


Carroll 


°4,424 


°2,782 


°1.642 


105,542. 


46 


67, 163. 


75 


38,378 


71 


Garrett 


2,489 


1,597 


892 


b88. 194. 


46 


60,868. 


26 


27.326 


20 


Washington 


4,343 


2,401 


1,942 


77.027 


35 


41,590. 


94 


35,436 


41 


Charles 


2,623 


1 ,706 


917 


72.576 


84 


45,562. 


25 


27,014 


59 


Wicomico 


2,285 


1,415 


870 


72, 259 


48 


46,318. 


81 


25,940 


67 


Dorchester 


1 Qf^^ 
i , 


1 1 f^fl 




71 794 


A A 






27 , 001 


1 8 


Worcester 


2,161 


1,280 


881 


62,729 


87 


36.420 


59 


26^309 


28 


Harford 


3.160 


1 .900 


1 .260 


60.589 


41 


35,921 


91 


24,667 


50 


Cecil 


2,455 


1.414 


1.041 


60,572 


28 


36.088 


91 


24,483 


.37 


Howard 


2,628 


1 , 572 


1 ,056 


57.492 


11 


33,851 


82 


23 , 640 


29 


St. Mary's 


1.626 


926 


700 


54.383 


44 


30,433 


61 


23 , 949 


.83 


Caroline 


1,918 


1 . 131 


787 


51,285 


99 


30, 137 


57 


21, 148 


.42 


Somerset 


1,956 


1 .205 


751 


49,393 


20 


30. 194 


10 


19.199 


. 10 


Calvert 


1,385. 


919 


466 


48, 134 


. 12 


29.026 


.40 


19. 107 


.72 


Queen Anne's 


1,527 


922 


605 


45 . 723 


.93 


28. 176 


43 


17.547 


.50 


Talbot 


1,624, 


973 


651 


43, 198 


.22 


25.606 


.33 


17.591 


.89 


Kent 


1.312 


873 


439 


35,438 


.03 


22,785 


.37 


12.652 


.66 


Baltimore City 


454 


454 




42,046 


.63 


42,046 


.63 






Total State 


82,474 


50,356 


32. 118 


$1,899,285 


.57 


$1. 198.749 


.50 


$700,536 


.07 



TABLE 108 — Expenditures of Public Pounds per Maryland County Pupil 
Transported to School, for Year Endinjj June 30, 1916 





Average Expenditure of 

Public Fund.s per County 
Pupil Transported to 
School for 




Average Expenditure of 
Public Funds per County 
Pupil Transported to 
School for 


County 








County 










All 


White 


Colored 




All 


White 


Colored 




Pupils 


Pupils 


Pupils 




Pupils 


Pupils 


Pupils 


County Average 

Dorchester 

Garrett 

Calvert 

St. Mary's 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Charles 

Kent 

Talbot 


$22 64 

36.72 
b35.43 
34.75 
33 . 45 
31 .62 
29.94 
29.03 
27.67 
27.01 
26.74 
26.60 


$22.29 

41.20 
b35.43 
39.38 
39.36 
33 .47 
28.90 
35.04 
30.31 
28.66 
28.75 
30.28 


$24 . 55 

28.58 

26 . 20 
21.39 
27 . 20 
33 . 66 
19 . 03 
23. 16 
23.92 
21 .27 
20.37 


Somerset 

Frederick 

Cecil 

Carroll 

.\llegany 

.M ontgomery 

Howard 

Harford 

.\nnp Arundel 

Washington 

Prince George's 
Baltimore 


$25 . 25 
t25 . 07 
24.67 
°23.86 
:22.81 
a20.44 
21 .88 
19. 17 
18.82 
17.74 
*xl7.62 
al5. 14 


$32.27 
t24.80 
22.31 
°23 . 6^ 
122.78 
al8.70 
21.87 
18.63 
17.95 
17. 17 
xl6. 16 
al4.69 


$16.28 
28.30 
44.90 
27 . 30 
29 . 59 

a29.48 
21 .91 
22.77 
26.45 
65.71 

♦25.24 

a21 .90 



* Number transported includes 88 pupils. 16 from Anne Arundel and 72 from Prince George's, trans- 
ported to the elementary school at Bowie State Teachers College, but public expense for trans- 
portation and average expenditure per pupil transported excludes them. 

t Includes average cost of $27.86 for 35 Washington County pupils attending a Frederick County 
high school at a total cost of $975.00 to Washington County. 

X Includes average cost of $65.98 for 33 elementary and 71 high school Garrett County pupils at- 
tending school in Allegany County at a total cost of $6,868.74 to Garrett County. 

X Includes average cost of $17.30 for 90 elementary and 28 high school Anne Arundel County pupils 
attending school in Prince George's County at a total cost of $204.40 to Anne Arundel County. 

° Includes average cost of $45.44 for 19 elementary and 15 high school Frederick County pupils at- 
tending school in Carroll County at a total cost of $1,545.00 to Frederick County. 

a Excludes payments by parents of high school pupils from Baltimore County, $17,870.94; Mont- 
gomery County, $31,989.78, which for a full time pupil approximates $20 a year in Baltimore 
County and $15 a year in Montgomery County. 

b Excludes payment of $1,567.12 for transportation of pupils to W.Va and Penna. Schools. 



Transportation of Pupils in Maryland 



127 



TABLE 109 — Number and Percent of Maryland County Pupils Transported 
to School at Public Expense, Year Ending June 30, 1946- 



County 


White 


Colored 


Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total and Average 


























1944 


46,025 


42 


4 


18,340 


50 


: 


6.904 


31 


2 


3.544 


69 


8 


1945 


47,807 


43 


1 


18,444 


49 


6 


t7,486 


32 


7 


3.612 


70 


3 


1946 


42,505 


44 


3 


27, 177 


52 


2 


t7,397 


34 


1 


4.941 


71 


6 




1,313 


73 


5 


896 


92 


1 


259 


48 


4 


160 


87 


9 


Carroll 


2,651 


70 


8 


1,564 


69 


6 


131 


54 


1 


78 


72 


2 




567 


58 


2 


524 


99 


2 


359 


49 


6 


176 


97 


8 


Charles 


1,087 


73 


5 


568 


74 


3 


619 


44 


4 


349 


94 


8 


Queen Anne's 


710 


63 


6 


481 


80 





212 


44 


1 


124 


91 


2 




805 


60 


3 


598 


63 


8 


326 


60 


9 


189 


88 


3 




551 


56 


4 


304 


64 


4 


322 


60 


3 


135 


80 


4 




799 


57 


9 


551 


62 


5 


481 


54 


5 


330 


73 


5 




630 


80 


2 


269 


97 


8 


289 


27 





197 


97 


5 


Somerset 


670 


54 





428 


59 


1 


535 


58 


1 


323 


77 


1 




1,597 


50 


4 


892 


79 


3 














Talbot 


582 


49 


7 


439 


57 


8 


391 


59 


7 


212 


71 


4 


Frederick 


2,737 


53 


6 


1,662 


54 


7 


232 


40 


8 


136 


52 


3 


Cecil 


1,290 


48 


9 


908 


56 


6 


124 


46 


6 


133 


81 


1 




3,529 


54 


3 


2,374 


72 


2 


t244 


8 


1 


444 


55 


9 


Harford 


1,630 


43 


.4 


1.115 


54 


4 


270 


40 


5 


145 


50 


9 


Baltimore 


7,398 


42 


9 


4.003 


49 


3 


574 


24 


3 


200 


36 


2 


Wicomico 


1,039 


38 


8 


574 


48 


5 


376 


36 


4 


296 


71 


7 


Dorchester 


715 


39 


4 


547 


48 


5 


453 


44 


3 


240 


70 


6 




3,688 


39 


2 


2,063 


41 





672 


45 


7 


423 


86 


9 


Allegany 


3.121 


35 


8 


2, 114 


36 


8 


4 


2 


8 


20 


21 


7 


Washington 


2,366 


31 


5 


1,926 


39 


2 


35 


22 


4 


16 


14 


4 


Prince George's 


3,030 


26 


6 


2.377 


41 


5 


t489 


14 





615 


90 


7 



* Rank is determined by the total number transported to the total enrollment. 

t Includes in number and excludes in percentage 16 pupils from Anne Arundel and 72 pupils from 
Prince George's transported to elementary school at Bowie State Teachers College. 



128 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 110 

Number of County Schools to Which Transportation Was Provided At Public 
Expense, and Number of Buses Used, Year Ending: June 30, 1946 





Schools for White Pupils 






Number of Bxisesf 
















Total 








With Elementary 


W itn 




Schools 


Number 


Owned by 


County 


Grades only 


High 


With 


for 


of 














and 


High 


Colored 


Different 














Ele- 


School 


Pupils 


Schools 








One- 


Two- 




mentary 


Only 






County 


Con- 




Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


Grades 








tractors 


Total Counties 


35 


66 


197 


91 


57 


166 


612 


126 


:896 


Allegany 




3 


17 


6 


4 


2 


32 




^72 


Anne Arundel 




1 


20 


4 


5 


*5 


35 




*55 


Baltimore 




2 


24 


6 


3 


8 


43 


27 


J77 


Calvert 




1 


4 




1 


5 


11 




22 


Caroline 




3 


1 


5 




4 


13 




37 


Carroll 




3 


8 


6 


3 


4 


24 


1 


48 


Cecil 


2 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


21 




32 


Charles 






1 


4 


1 


11 


17 


1 


28 


Dorchester 


7 


2 


4 


6 


1 


12 


32 




45 


Frederick 




4 


14 


6 


2 


7 


33 


2 


75 


Garrett 


14 


5 


8 


4 


1 




32 


6 


45 


Harford 


1 


2 


8 


6 


2 


10 


29 


8 


27 


Howard 


2 


1 


4 


3 


1 


6 


17 




25 


Kent 




7 


1 


3 


1 


6 


18 




24 


Montgomery 


1 


2 


21 


5 


7 


15 


51 


66 




Prince George's . 


1 




18 


5 


7 


♦11 


42 


11 


*36 


Que<»n Anne's 


3 


5 


5 




4 


11 


28 




26 


St. Mary's 


4 


7 


1 




2 


9 


23 




26 


Somerset 




2 


3 


2 


2 


10 


19 




34 


Talbot 




3 


4 


1 


2 


10 


20 


1 


26 


Washington 




6 


18 


6 


3 


1 


34 


3 


48 


Wicomico 




1 


6 


5 


1 


6 


19 




45 


Worcester 




3 


:i 


4 




9 


19 




43 


Baltimore City 






3 






2 


5 




tl2 


Total State 


35 


66 


200 


91 


57 


168 


617 


126 


908 



* Excludes elementary school at Bowie State Teachers College and bus carrying pupils there. 

t Excludes total of 93 private cars and station wagons used: in .MIegany, 7; Baltimore, 2; Cal- 
vert, 8; Carroll, .'>; Chark-s, 4; Dorchj-ster, 2; Frederick, 2; Garrett. 23; Harford, 2; Queen 
Anne's, 17; St. Mary's, 9; Talbot, 5; Washington, 3; Wicomico, 2; Worcester, 2; and one 
county-owned station wagon in Garrett. 

J Includes total of 75 common carri»»r line buses used: Allegany, 22; Baltimore,41 ; and Baltimore 
City. 12. 



Schools to Which Public School Pupils Were Transported; 129 
School Capital Outlay in Maryland 



TABLE 111 



Capital Outlayt for the Year Ending June 30, 1916 









White Elementary 


































White 












County 


















High 




Colored 


Grand 






One- 


Two- 






All 


Schools 




Schools 


Total 






Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


Elementary 
















iscno 


ols 


ocno 


ols 


Schools 


Schools 
















$317. 


91 


$2725 


.20 


$296,241 


46 


$299,284 


57 




47 


$178,409 


.04 


«r8>1 '^AA Atid 


. 


Allegany 


5. 


00 


20 


00 


1,493 


90 


1,518 


90 


556 


60 


23 


81 


2,099 


31 


Anne Arundel . . 






25 


00 


3,297 


40 


3,322 


40 


34,619 


42 


53,707 


00 


a92,005 


89 


Baltimore 










47,584 


87 


47,584 


87 


617,052 


49 


13,942 


78 


b678,580 


14 


Calvert 






535 


22 


490 


46 


1 ,025 


68 


830 


00 


5,485 


49 


7,341 


17 


Caroline 










90 


36 


90 


36 


75 


00 






165 


36 


Carroll 






20 


00 


5,698 


35 


5,718 


35 


4,583 


03 






10,301 


38 


Cecil 






286 


17 


1,511 


75 


1,797 


92 


3,246 


02 






5,043 


94 


Charles 






166 


53 


678 


15 


844 


68 


1,482 


79 


14,083 


14 


16,410 


61 


Dorchester 


















65 


00 


906 


01 


971 


01 


Frederick 


10 


00 


100 


70 


5,471 


00 


5,581 


70 


4,652 


0] 


63 


70 


cl0,457 


03 


Garrett 


115 


88 


340 


30 


3,600 


53 


4,056 


71 


303 


34 




90 


4,360 


05 


Harford 


27 


53 


104 


45 


1,005 


76 


] ,137 


74 


1,412 


61 


367 


2,918 


25 


Howard 






10 


00 


15,468 


51 


15,478 


51 


2,768 


76 


1,290 


51 


19,537 


78 


Kent 


8 


84 


108 


38 


740 


18 


857 


40 


651 


24 


911 


14 


2,419 


78 


Montgomery. . . 






149 


50 


91,521 


25 


91,670 


75 


145,568 


01 


11,211 


28 


d249,506 


63 


Prince George's 
Queen Anne's . . 


15 


64 


135 


16 


96,857 


90 


97,008 


70 


78,107 


80 


48,793 


37 


©223,909 


87 










156 


00 


156 


00 


2,906 


73 


1,848 


84 


4,911 


57 


St. Mary's 






331 


80 






331 


80 










331 


80 


Somerset 










3,404 


11 


3,404 


11 






774 


15 


4,178 


26 


Talbot 






82 


79 


548 


91 


631 


70 


543 


87 


1,766 


17 


2,941 


74 


Washington. . . 


8 


63 


65 


79 


7,102 


04 


7,176 


46 


136,024 


09 


13,525 


92 


156,726 


47 


Wicomico 


126 


39 


208 


66 


9 , 255 


30 


9,590 


35 


29,361 


70 


9,531 


33 


48,483 


38 


Worcester 






34 


75 


264 


73 


299. 


48 


388 


96 


176 


50 


864 


94 


Baltimore City . 














52,415 


00 


233 , 783 


09 


316,820 


28 


f605,l26 


62 


Elementary. 














62,415 


00 






314,038 


9.^ 


366,4.53 


95 


Junior High . 


















56,154 


46 


429 


57 


56,584 


03 


Senior High . . 


















8,640 


86 


624 


55 


9,265 


41 


Vocational . . 


















168,987 


77 


1 ,727 


21 


170,714 


98 


Total State. . . . 


$317 


91 


$2725 


.20 


$296,241 


46 


$351,699 


57 


$1 ,298.982 


56 


$495,229 


32 


g$2.149,592 


98 



t Excludes school busses purchased. 

a Includes $21,611.00 from Federal Works Agency; $357.07 for administration building not shown 

in columns at left, 
b Includes $122,500.00 from Federal Works Agency. 

c Includes $159.62 for administration building not shown in columns at left. 

d Includes $43,729.03 from Federal Works Agency; $1,056.59 for administration building not shown 

in columns at left, 
e Includes $57,502.72 from Federal Works Agency. 

f Includes $2,108.25 for administration building not shown in columns at left. 

g Total for Counties includes $1,573.28 and total for state includes $3,681.53 not shown in columns 
^t left. 



130 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 112 
Schools Bonds Outstanding as of June 30, 1946 







1946 Assessable 


Assessable Basis 


Percent That 






Basis Taxable 


Back of Each 


School Bonds 


County 


School Bonds 


at Full Rate 


Dollar of School 


Outstanding 




Outstanding 


for County 


Bonds 


Are of Total 




June 30, 1946 


Purposes 


Outstanding 


County Basis 


Total Counties 


ah$19,447,142 


$1,461,141,999 


$75 


1.3 


Allegany 


3.929,000 


95,851,535 


24 


4.1 




a919,282 


*72.666,311 


79 


1.3 




b2, 881. 667 


*375.054.720 


130 


.8 


Calvert 


c2.56.500 


7.441.080 


29 


3.4 


Caroline 


92,000 


16.378,461 


178 


.6 


Carroll 




44.589.515 


t 


0.0 


Cecil 


209,020 


*54.234. 137 


2.59 


.4 


Charles 


84,000 


*13. 171 .379 


157 


.6 




d314.520 


26,817.226 


85 


1.2 


Frederick 


e8I4.090 


73. 191.339 


90 


1.1 


Garrett 




19.906.677 


t 


0.0 


Harford 


159,550 


*68.702.518 


431 


.2 


Howard 


267,780 


21,983.334 


82 


1.2 


Kent 


f 


18.525.830 


t 


0.0 


Montgomery 


g4, 795, 413 


♦179.551.065 


37 


2.7 


Prince George's 


h2. 914. 820 


*140. 185.438 


48 


2.1 


Queen Anne's 


144.000 


18.910.001 


131 


.7 


St. Mary's 




♦10.993.000 


t 


0.0 


Somerset 


34.000 


12.998.3.52 


382 


0.3 


Talbot 


113,000 


23.634.635 


209 


.5 


Washington 


757. 500 


103.!t5S.326 


137 


.7 


Wicomico 


k644,000 


38,861,262 


60 


1.7 


Worcester 


117,000 


23.535,858 


201 


.5 


Baltimore City 


m$16.118,511 


♦11.379,008,454 


$86 


1.2 


Total State 


ahm$35.565.653 


$2.840. 150.453 


$80 


1.3 



a $122,718 for sinking fund balance has been deducted. See N.B. below, 
b Excludes portion of $2,000,000 authorized but unis-sui-d. 

c Excludes $.5,000 ftir short t. rm indcbtednoss and portion of $262,000 authorized but unissued, 
d Excludes $15,000 for short term indebtedness, 
e Excludes $200,000 authorized but unissued, 
f Excludes $245,000 authorized but unissued. 

g Excludes $127,398 for short term indebtedness, and an indefinite amount of bonds authorized but 

unissued. 

h $249,180 for sinking fund balance has been deducted, 
k Excludes $670,000 authorized but unissued. 

m $1,875,489 for .<iinking fund balance has been deducted and excludes $5,350,000 authorized but 
unissued. 

♦ Excludes assessments on Federal housing projects, 
t Infinity. 

N.B. Footnote a, Table 111, Page 135, 1945 Annual Report, should read "has been mcluded . 



School Bonds Outstanding, Bonded Debt, Interest Payments, 131 
Value of School Property 



School Bonded Debt' 



TABLE 113 

and Interest Paymentsf Per Pupil Belonj^ing, 1916 





School 


Interest 




Debt 


Payments 


County 


Per Pupil 


IVr Pupil 




Belonging 


Belonging 


County Average .... 


$112.25 


$3.51 


Allegany 


271.43 


6.63 


Anne Arundel 


69.55 


4.98 


Baltimore 


102.58 


3.80 


Calvert 


115.20 


1.35 


Caroline 


31.09 


1.16 


Carroll 


0.00 


0.00 


Cecil 


4."). 50 


1,54 


Charles 


21.19 


.79 


Dorchester 


77.79 


1.52 


Frederick 


86.66 


3.37 


Garrett 


0.00 


0.00 


Harford 


21 .88 


.49 



County 



Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's. . 
Queen Anne's . . . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City . . . 

State Average 



School 
Debt 
Per Pupil 
Belonging 



$77.78 

0.00 
302.76 
141 .67 
62.04 
0.00 
10.55 
39.80 
60.77 
124.71 
33.26 

155.78 

$128.48 



Interest 
Payments 
Per I*upil 
Belonging 



$2.67 

0.00 
8.81 
3.42 
1.21 
.07 
.44 
1 .68 
2.32 
3.62 
1.85 

5.70 

$4.33 



* See Table 112, page 130, for school bonds outstanding and short term loans. 

t See Table XVII. page 261, for interest payments on bonded indebtedness and short term loans. 



In 1945-46 with $329,° Maryland ranked twenty-fourth in 
average value of school property per pupil enrolled. The average 
for the United States was $351. 

"The U. S. OfBce of Education excluded enrolled pupils transferring to Maryland 
from other States in obtaining the above average, which is nine dollars higher than the 
amount shown in Table 114. 



TABLE 114 
Value of School Property, 1922-1946 



Value of School Property 



Value Per Pupil Enrolled 



YEAR 


Marylandf 


Counties 


Baltimore 
Cityt 


Maryland! 


Counties 


Baltimore 
Cityt 


1922 


$20,453,646 


$10,014,638 


$10,439,008 


$82 


$68 


$103 


1923 


22,236.638 


11,796,630 


10,440,008 


87 


77 


100 


1924 


28,264,507 


12,813,396 


15,451,111 


110 


85 


147 


1925 


33,622,503 


14,946,810 


18,675,693 


129 


97 


164 


1926 


38,865,024 


16,704,564 


22,160,460 


148 


108 


205 


1927 


48,654,045 


17,889,796 


30,764,249 


182 


114 


277 


1928 


51,765,517 


18,994,670 


32,770,847 


191 


120 


291 


1929 


52,801,013 


19,920,102 


32,880,911 


193 


124 


290 


1930 


55,741,316 


21,483,720 


34,257,596 


201 


132 


297 


1931 


61,141,759 


23,830,725 


37,311,034 


217 


144 


321 


1932 


64,116,448 


24,608,923 


39,507,525 


222 


146 


331 


1933 


66,030,676 


25,350,740 


40,679,936 


225 


147 


335 


1934 


72,241,647 


25,501,303 


46,740,344 


246 


149 


384 


1935 


74,116,872 


26,847,518 


47,269,354 


251 


156 


384 


1936 


74,429,453 


26,778,790 


47,650,663 


250 


155 


380 


1937 


*78,573,662 


♦29,656,237 


48,917,425 


♦264 


♦171 


395 


1938 


*81, 336,202 


♦31.702,972 


49,633,230 


♦277 


♦184 


410 


1939 


*82,477,467 


♦32,801,326 


49,676,141 


*278 


♦188 


408 


1940 


♦86,373,506 


♦36,605,396 


49,768,110 


*291 


♦208 


412 


1941 


*87,253,746 


♦37,426, .VJe 


49,827,220 


♦292 


♦210 


414 


1942 


*88,171,l.'-)4 


♦38,442,796 


49,728,358 


♦296 


♦213 


421 


1943 


*89,953,989 


♦39,490,295 


50,463.694 


♦300 


♦217 


430 


1944 


♦89,951,808 


♦39,824,086 


50.127,722 


♦304 


♦223 


427 


1945 


♦89,660,481 


♦39,934,0r)l 


49.726.430 


♦303 


♦219 


437 


1946 


♦94,935,593 


♦45,209,163 


49,726,430 


♦320 


♦245 


442 



♦ Includes value of equipment in Maryland counties, but excludes value of administration buildmgs. 
t Excludes value of equipment, and also of administration buildings, warehouses, and storage buildings 
in Baltimore City. 



132 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 115 

Value of School Property, Including Equipment, Per Pupil Belonging, 1946 



County 



' 1944. 

Total Counties^ 1945. 

11946. 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchestt-r 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Baltimore City. 
Total State . . 



School Property Used 
By White Pupils 



Value t 



$37,719,487 
37.7.31 .770 
42.696.100 



§5.641 
2.261 
°8.540 
§173 
645 
1.277 
1 . 117 
t342 
1 . 044 
1 .894 
a 556 
:i .070 
§7.58 
220 
6 . .562 
3 . 437 
564 
277 
499 
496 
3 . 004 
1 .782 
525 



,963 
,650 
.472 
.690 
.075 
.469 
.720 
.400 
.900 
,390 
.540 
.300 
.200 
.900 
.060 
.100 
.200 
.975 
..500 
.941 
.600 
. 205 
,850 



5*42.270.468 
*$84.966..568 



Average 
Number 
Belonging 



143.761 
145.701 
146.067 

14.244 
9.646 

25. 198 
1 .022 
2 . 236 
5 . 853 
4. 177 
2 . 239 
2.884 
8.038 
4.213 
5.750 
2,751 
1 .407 

14,325 

16.965 
1 ,678 



1 
1 
1 

12 
3 



,463 
.916 
,897 
,201 
,751 



2.213 
70,924 
216,991 



Value 

Per 
White 
Pupil 



$262 

259 
292 

§396 
234 

§339 

§170 
289 
218 
268 
1 53 
362 
236 
132 
186 

§276 
157 
458 
203 
336 
190 
261 
262 
246 
475 
238 

596 

$392 



School Property Used 
By Colored Pupils 



Valuet 



$2,104,599 
2.202,281 
2.513.063 

93.918 
a233.950 
°384.065 
54.450 
73 . 000 
21.100 
32 . 1 50 
214.200 
a 104. 500 
111.960 



66.800 
25.800 
34.100 
174.000 
320,850 
a41 ,650 
a25.750 
80.050 
.59 . 850 
47,000 
232.670 
81,250 

§♦7,455.962 

*$9.969.02.') 







Value 


Average 


Per 


Number 


Colored 


Belonging 


Pupil 


26 


502 


$79 


27 


184 


81 


27,953 


90 




231 


407 


3 


558 


66 


2 


895 


133 


1 ,248 


44 




723 


101 




347 


61 




417 


77 


1 


726 


124 


1 


352 


78 




813 


137 




969 


69 




692 


37 




684 


50 


1 


935 


90 


3 


609 


89 




643 


65 




880 


29 


1 


.307 


62 




942 


64 




264 


178 


1 


413 


165 


1 


.305 


62 


32 . 547 


229 


60 


.500 


$165 



t No valuations are included for administration buildings, warehouses, storage buildings, schools 
owned no longer in use, or sites acquired on which construction is not yet completed and buildings 
are not yet in use. 

a Excludes value of rented buildings. 

t Excludes value of property owned by Federal Government. 

* Excludes value of equipment in Baltimore City. 

° Includes value of property own'^d by Federal Government. 

§ For white schools of all counties designatpd by §, valuations are replacement costs fixed by 
fire insurance underwriters. For white schools of counties without designation §, figures represent 
original cost. For all county schools used by colored pupils, values are appraisals in terms of a 
common base by State supervisor of colored schools who is acquainted with every county school 
building used by colored pupils. Baltimore City valuations are not original costs but replace- 
ment valuations. 



Value of School Property; Local Levies 1946-47 133 



TABLE 116 
County Tax Levy, 1946-47 (1947 f) 



County 



Total Counties 

Allegany 

Anne Arundelf 

Baltimoret 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchestert 

Frederickf 

Garrett t 

Harfordt 

Howardt 

Kentt 

Montgomery.. 
Pr. George's. .. 

Qu. Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washingtonf 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Balto. Cityt 

Entire State ... 



Total 
County 
Levy 



m$27,092,852 

al, 815. 364 
b2, 078, 201 
c7. 104, 161 
130,828 
256,734 
656,358 
e644,739 
169.627 
f625.012 
1,150,998 
h502.182 
il, 053, 702 
480,853 
314,875 
kt3,780,898 
2 , 593 , 604 
n317.260 
164.952 
272,041 
o275,069 
1.675,725 
658,256 
371,413 

66,486,543 

$93,579,395 



Levy For Public Schools 



Current 
Expenses 



$12,127,249 

807,313 
690,274 
d2, 387, 873 
54,990 
139,075 
302.048 
e388.447 
110.082 
223.000 
g615.300 
171,275 
531,400 
201,324 
182,983 
1,860,299 
1,456,750 
147,590 
75,031 
107,088 
ol36,905 
1,038,837 
315,187 
184,178 

12,693,320 

$24,820,569 



*Debt 
Service 



$1,496,875 

*275,589 
115.455 
234,544 
*18,087 
*10,185 



*3 1,158 
*8 . 558 
*57 , 683 
*104.374 
1.742 
*24,887 
*36 , 193 



*J162.124 
*198,941 
*14,640 
100 
*7,750 
*17,260 
*115,785 
*61.820 



*2, 230, 435 
$3,727,310 



Capital 
Outlay 



$909,474 



35,800 
106,500 



29,000 

4,000 
5,000 
2,800 
30,883 

j93,000 
9,900 
7,000 

410,000 
44,500 
7,723 



11,371 



106,000 
1,975 
4,022 

126,500 

$1,035,974 



Total 



$14,533,598 

1.082,902 
841,529 
d2, 728, 917 
73,077 
149.260 
331.048 
e419.605 
122.640 
285.683 
g722,474 
203.900 
j649,287 
247.417 
189.983 
t2, 432, 423 
1,700,191 
169,953 
75,131 
126,209 
°154,165 
1,260.622 
378.982 
188,200 

15,050,255 

$29,583,853 



Library 



m$144,368 



14,200 
43,269 



10,000 
250 
900 
1,000 
4,189 
16.000 
4,595 



m20.127 
27.665 
3,900 



900 
2,500 
15,000 



pi, 000. 515 
$1,144,883 



lycvy for 
Purposes 
Other than 
Public 
Schools 



$12,414,886 

a732,462 
bl, 222. 472 
c4, 331, 975 
57,751 
107,474 
325,310 
215.134 
46.737 
f 338. 429 
427,524 
h294.093 
1388,415 
228,841 
124.892 
ktl.348,475 
865,748 
143,407 
89,821 
144,932 
118,404 
400,103 
279,274 
183,213 

50,435,773 

$62,850,659 



t Calendar year 1947 

a. Excludes State funds as follows: for care of insane, $8,000., lateral roads gasoline tax, $122,500. 

b. Excludes $45,000. from State Roads Commission - lateral roads gasoline tax 

c. Excludes $285,000. from State Roads Commission - lateral roads gasoline tax 

d. Includes $2,886.24 paid directly by County Commissioners for Teachers' Retirement 

e. Excludes $25,000. available from surplus 

f. Excludes State funds as follows: ferry and draw operation, $2,473., welfare, $500., lateral 
roads, $20,000. 

g. Includes $3,000. paid directly by County Commissioners for Teachers' Retirement 

h. Excludes State funds as follows. State Hospital Fund, $6,000.; State Forestry Department, $800. 

i. Excludes $170,000. from State Roads Commission - lateral roads. 

j. County Commissioners agree to provide up to $60,000. for school building fund from redistri- 
bution of State funds or additional county funds, 
k. Excludes $256,425. from State Roads Commission - lateral roads. 
X- Excludes redemption of bonds paid from refunding bonds. 

m. Local levy of $.03 in Bethesda and $.02 in Silver Spring not included in total county levy 
n. Same total levy figures used in years 1946-47 and 1947-48 

o. Excludes $35,000. made available for teachers' salaries which will be included in debt service 

in 1947-48. 
p. Includes $157,800. for debt service. 

* Includes funds paid directly by county commissioners and not by School Board. 



134 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Percent of Local Levies Devoted to School Purposes 135 



CHART 27 

Percent of Total Tax Levied by County and Incorporated Towns 
Devoted to School Purposes 1946-47 (*1947) 



County 
County Average 

Charles 
Cecil 

Washington* 

Kent* 

Caroline 

Prince George's 

Harford* 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Talbot 

Howard* 

Carroll 

Worcester 

Montgomery 

Calvert 

Frederick* 

Wicomico 

Baltimore* 

Somerset 

Anne Arundel* 

Garrett* 

Allegany 

Dorchester* 

Baltimore City* 

State Average 



Total 

U5.9 

69.7 
60.1 

63.7 
5U.5 
U9.6 

53.7 
55.3 
50.9 
U3.9 
U7.2 
51.5 
U3.U 
UO.2 
50.2 
50.8 
U2.7 
la. 7 
38.0 
39.0 
38.3 
36.5 
ho. 2 
36.5 

22.6 

30.1 



Current 
Expenses 



Debt Service and 
Capital Outlay 




4^.2 



43.8 



41.9 



41.9 



39.6 



39.3 



38.Z 



3fc.4 



34.7 



33.3 



5.3 



9.b 



I |3.8 

D 3 



38.4 


118 







IZ Co 



70 



47 





33. 


1 






* Calendar year 1947. 



136 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 118— Assessable Basis Taxable at Full Rate 
for County Purposes in Thousands of Dollars 

(Data Furnished by State Tax Commission) 



County 


*1923 


*1928 


1938 


*1944 


*1945 


*1946 


Total Counties 


$661,725 


$883 , 508 


$1,025,573 


$1,431,211 


$1,463,781 


$1,501,532 


Allegany 


69,886 


80,715 


*83.160 


95,483 


95,812 


100.608 


Anne Arundel 


30,692 


47 , .544 


*55,7.50 


69.567 


t72.244 


J76,840 


Baltimore 


104,232 


157,654 


199,908 


359.748 


:362.204 


$3 58, 721 


Calvert 


4,427 


5.305 


6,181 


7,316 


7,476 


7,730 


C'aroline 


14,027 


15.283 


*14,813 


16.244 


16.625 


17,019 


Carroll 


33 , 382 


39,875 


38,633 


43.419 


46.612 


47,412 


Cecil 


23,189 


30,408 


40 , 402 


53.694 


t 54. 621 


J54,609 


Charles 


8,394 


9.938 


10.145 


12.937 


$14,109 


tl4,594 


Dorchester 


18,987 


21,918 


26.403 


25.424 


27.. 541 


29,464 


Frederick 


51,248 


65,234 


66 , 548 


72.154 


73.607 


75,931 


Ciarrett 


16 , 303 


iil , 003 


*19 , DOl 


19 , 390 


19 , 755 


20 , 575 


Harford 


28,580 


39,763 


53.192 


66.056 


J74.637 


J76,259 


T T J 

Howard 


1 D . O / 


1 n , Ob.5 


18 . 386 


21 , 299 


21 . 684 


22 ,9 (2 


Kent 


14,519 


16.162 


*17.062 


18,5.59 


18.600 


18,993 


Montgomery 


45,503 


77.889 


109,635 


181 ,243 


J181.733 


tl89.012 


Prince George's 


33,651 


59,312 


77,260 


tl41 ,652 


J 147. 564 


U 52, 540 


Queen Anne's 


14,793 


16.692 


16.778 


18,X31 


18.013 


19.596 


S*. Mary's 


7,163 


8,289 


*9.084 


10.077 


tU .253 


Jll 338 


Somerset 


10.609 


12,392 


11 .920 


12.992 


13.194 


13,931 


Talbot 


16,927 


20,478 


21 .682 


23.332 


23.607 


24,231 


Washington 


62 , 570 


72.908 


76.348 


101 .577 


100.783 


103,171 


Wicomico 


20.394 


25,092 


*31 ,538 


37,169 


38.480 


40,412 


Worcester 


16,579 


20,941 


21 .084 


23,048 


23.627 


25,574 


Baltimore City 


902,208 


1 ,250.978 


1.231,046 


1.341,061 


11.408,412 


Jl ,455.301 


Entire State 


$1 ,563,933 


$2,139,486 


$2,256,619 


$2,772,272 


$2,872,193 


$2,956,833 



* Includes reassessment figures. 

t Includes $6,784,761 for Greonbelt. Calvert. Carry Houses and Mar>'hurst. 

t Includes a.ssessments on Federal housing projectii for which lump sum payments are 
madi' in lieu of taxes. 



TABLE 118-A 

Assessable Wealth Back of Each Public School Pupil Belonging: 1945-46 





Total Basis 








Assessable at 


Number 






Full Rate for 


of 


Wealth 


County 


County Purposes 


Pupils 


per 




'in thousands) 


Belonging 


Pupil 




$1,501,532 


174,020 


$8,629 




358.721 


28.093 


12,769 




54 . 609 


4,594 


11,887 




189.012 


16.260 


11 .624 




76.259 


6,719 


11 .350 




18.993 


2,091 


9.083 




75.931 


8.851 


8,579 




24.231 


2.839 


8,535 




19,596 


2.321 


8,443 




103,171 


12.465 


8,277 




40,412 


5.164 


7,826 




47.412 


6,200 


7.647 




152,540 


20.574 


7.414 




25.574 


3.518 


7.270 




29,464 


4,236 


6.956 




100.609 


14.475 


6.951 




22,972 


3.443 


6,672 




76.840 


13.204 


5,819 




17.019 


2,959 


5,752 




20,575 


4.213 


4.884 


St. Mary's 


11.338 


2,343 


4.839 




13.931 


3.223 


4,322 




14.594 


3,965 


3,681 




7,730 


2,270 


3,405 




1.455,301 


103,471 


14,065 


State Total and Average 


$2,956,833 


277,491 


$10,656 



Assessable Basis Taxable at Full Rate 



137 



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138 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 120 

Calculated County School Tax Rates and Published County Tax Rates, 

1946-47 



1946-47 Calculated County Tax RATSf 



County 



Total Counties. .. 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel*.... 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester* 

Frederick* 

Garrett* 

Harford* 

Howard* 

Kent* 

Montgomery 

Prince George's.... 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington* 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore Co.*°., 

Baltimore City*° 

Entire State 



For School 



Current 
Expenses 



$.807 



.815 
.900 
.706 
.819 
.648 
.695 
.767 
.761 
.811 
.836 
.696 
.877 
.965 
.991 
.952 
.755 
.671 
.778 
.570 
.005 
.791 
.729 



.658 
.873 
.840 



Debt 
Service 



$.100 

X.278 
.150 
X.232 
X.060 



X.056 
x.060 
X 197 
X.138 
.008 
X.033 
X.158 



X.086 
X.130 
X.075 
.001 
X.056 
X.072 
X.112 
X.155 



.065 
X.154 
.126 



Capital 
Outlay 



$.060 
'.Oil 



.062 

.028 
.017 
.004 
.151 
.122 
.043 
.037 
.218 
.029 
.039 

.083 

.103 
.005 
.016 

.029 

.009 

.035 



Total 



$.967 

1.093 
1.097 
.938 
.879 
.710 
.751 
J. 855 
.975 
.953 
.995 
.851 
1.078 
1 . 002 
1 .295 
1.111 
.869 
t.672 
.917 
.642 
1.220 
.951 
.745 



.752 
1.036 
1.001 



For 
Libraries 



$.010 
.019 



.018 

,002 
.003 
,001 
.020 
.021 
.020 



.108 
.020 

.006 
.013 
.015 



.012 

.069 
.039 



Total 
Published 

County 
Tax Rate 

1946-47 



Additional 
Rates in 
Districts and 
Incorporated 
Places 



$1 


.72 


$.50-$l 


25 


1 


.55 


.59-4 


30 


2 


.17 


.60-1 


10 


1 


.30 


.25- 


80 


1 


.45 


.30-1 


00 


1 


14 


.40-1 


33 


1 


.35 


.50- 


65 


1 


85 


.65-1 


35 


1 


34 


.10-1 


30 


2 


10 


.15- 


85 


1 


20 


.95-1 


00 


1 


75 


.07 




I 


25 


.40-1 


35 


1 


85 


.18-1 


89 


1 


95 


.08-1 


55 


1 


00 


.35- 


90 


1 


50 


.90 




1 


60 


.75-1 


55 


1 


40 


.75-1 


10 


1 


50 


.37-1 


00 


1 


25 


.40-1 


15 


1 


35 


.25-1 


40 


1 


80 


.03 




2 


96 







tObtained by dividing county levy for school and library purposes by assessable basis taxable at the 

full rate for county purposes. 
* For calendar year 1947. 
X Levied directly by county commissioners. 

t Funds received from Federal government for Indian Head and Patuxtent River not includa 
° Not eligible to receive Equalization Fund money. 



Calculated School Tax Rates and Published Total Tax Rates 139 



CHART 28 

Calculated County Tax Rates for School Purposes 1946-47 (*1947) 



County Total 

County Average $ .967 

Washington* 1.220 

Montgomery 1.295 

Kent* 1.002 

Prince George's 1.111 

Anne Arundel* 1.097 

Howard* 1.078 

Garrett* .995 

Caroline .879 

(aiegany 1.093 

Frederick* .953 

Wicomico .951 

Somerset ,917 

Charles .855 

Dorchester* .975 

(Jueen Anne's .869 

Worcester ,7hS 

Calvert .938 

Harford* .851 

Cecil .751 

St. Mary's .672 

Carroll .710 

Talbot .6U2 

Baltimore Co.* ^ .752 

Baltimore City* 1.036 

State Average 1.001 



Current 
Expenses 



* .801 



1.005 



.991 



.965 



55 ^ 



.(AG 



.b95 



.510 



.ST 3 



.840 



• IfcO 



21.5 



30-* 



□ 0. 



.952 






.900 


1 




.877 


H 201 






1 1-53 1 




.819 






.815 ; -^A: 





.611 


M 1 




.791 


1 IfeO J 




.776 


139 1 




f.7*T 1 


088 




.7fel 1 







232 



155 



I I 05fo 
OOl 

I I Ofoa. 



1(»Z> 



10.1 I 



• Calendar year 1947. 

t Funds received from Federal government for school at Indian Head and at Patuxent 
River not included. 

t Not an Equalization Fund county. 



140 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 29 

State Individual Income Tax per Capita in Maryland Counties: 1945-46 



County 
County yiyerage 

MoDtgonery 
Baltimore 
Talbot 
Queen Anne's 
Cecil 

Prince George's 

Raahlngton 

Howard 

Anne Arundel 

Harford 

Wicomico 

WorceFter 

Dorchester 

Allegeny 

Charles 

Frederick 

Kent 

Carroll 

Caroline 

Somerset 

Calrert 

St. Mary'e 

Garrett 

Baltimore CltJ- 
State Average 



34 




Sources : Report of the Comptroller of the Treasury of Maryland, Fiscal Year 1946, 
pages 88 and 89 ; population estimates from Bureau of Vital Statistics, Maryland State 
Department of Health. 



State Individual Income Tax pek Capita; Per Capita Income Payments 141 



CHART 30 



Per Capita Income Payments in 13 States, 1945-46 



Per capita income payments (in hundreds of dollars) 
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 



1 Nevada 

2 New York 

3 California 

4 New Jersey 

5 Delaware 

6 Illinois 

7 Connecticut 

8 Montana 

9 Massachusetts 

10 Rhode Island 

11 Washington 

12 Ohio 

13 Maryland 



« 1703 



1531 



1493 



I486 



14G5 



1334 



135G 



1347 



134fe 



ia93 



Source: Survey of Current Business, August. 1947. 



142 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 
CHART 31 — Per Capita Income Payments in Maryland: 1929-1946 




u 

ID 

a, 

1 



I I . 1 , , III! , III! 1— I , 

•29 '31 "33 '35 '37 '39 '41 '43 *45 '47 

Yof.r 



Source: Survey of Current Business, Augiast, 1947, 1946, 1945. 



TABLE 121 — Net Receipts and Expenditures from Sources Other than 
County Public Funds for County White and Colored Schools, 1945-46 



Gross 
Receipts 


Net 
Receipts 


Expenditures 
from Net 
Receipts 


$1,210,146.34 


$559,233.98 

8.989.82 
28.841.43 
183.200.34 


$343,796.83 

8,989.82 
28,841.43 
77,578.92 




487,724.50 


71,885.59 
159,705.31 


62,820.25 
44,425.77 
437.63 


56,762.26 
21.943.46 
437.63 


72,325.55 


21,049.00 


12,543.17 


52,370.70 


2,437.42 
39,691.09 


2,437.42 
27,908.15 




1 . 523 . 84 
533 . 85 
10.13 


1.523.84 
533 . 85 
10.13 










50,021.36 
41,855.40 
274,257.93 


30. 290.. 59 
16.377.73 
88.758.71 
9.271.66 
20,574.72 


20.394.72 
12,724.28 
48,619.97 
9,271.66 
13,276.12 



County 



Total 

Allegany* 

Anne Arundel*t 

Baltimoref 

Calvert 

Caroline*t 

Carroll t 

Cecil* 

Charles 

Dorchester*t 

Frederick 

Garrett* 

Harford*t 

Howard 

Kent* 

M ontgomery *. . . . 
Prince George's. 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Somerset*! 

Talbot*t 

Washingtonf 

Wicomico* 

Worcester *t 



Balance 
June 30, 1946 



$215,437.15 



105,621.42 

6,bi57.99 
22,482.31 



8,505.83 
ii',782.94 



9,895.87 
3,653.45 
40,138.74 

'7,298.6b 



* Receipts and expenditures that were removed from the financial report, 
t Receipts and expenditures reported separately by the county. 



Other than Public Funds; Parent-Teacher Associations 



143 



TABLE 122 



Parent-Teacher Associations in County White and Colored Schools 



County 



Total and County 
Average 

Anne Arundel . . . . 

Queen Anne's 

Wicomico 

Montgomery 

Baltimore 

Kent 

Somerset , 

Howard 

Worcester 

Caroline 

Charles 

Calvert 

Harford 

Prince George's . . 

Talbot 

Washington 

Allegany 

Cecil 

Frederick 

Dorchester 

Carroll 

Garrett 

St. Mary's 



White Schools 



Number 



1945 



416 

31 
13 
10 
45 
42 
13 
10 
11 
6 
8 
7 
6 
19 
44 
7 
30 
30 
13 
19 
12 
18 
20 
2 



1946 



445 

32 
19 
16 
42 
43 
12 
12 
10 
9 
8 
7 
6 
27 
45 
9 
35 
29 
14 
19 
16 
11 
21 
3 



Percent 



1945 



70.5 

100.0 
65.0 
62.5 

100.0 
93.3 

100.0 
66.7 

100.0 
60.0 
88.9 
87.5 
85.7 
54.3 
83.0 
53.8 
68.2 
71.4 
52.0 
61.3 
42.9 
78.3 
39.2 
13.3 



1946 



77.7 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
97.7 
95.6 
92.3 
92.3 
90.9 
90.0 
88.9 
87.5 
85.7 
84.4 
83.3 
81.8 
81.4 
70.7 
63.6 
61.3 
57.1 
52.4 
42.9 
20.0 



County 



Total and County 
Average 

Anne Arundel . . . 

Baltimore 

Cecil 

Kent 

Prince George's. . 
Queen Anne's . . . 

Worcester 

Montgomery 

Charles 

St. Mary's 

Wicomico 

Talbot 

Howard 

Harford 

Carroll 

Somerset 

Caroline 

Calvert 

Allegany 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Washington 



Colored Schools 



Number 


Percent 


1945 


1946 


1946 


1946 


258 


245 


88 


7 


89 


1 


37 


37 


94 


9 


100 





14 


16 


82 


4 


100 





5 


5 


100 





100 





6 


6 


100 





100 





40 


37 


100 





100 





14 


13 


100 





100 





10 


9 


100 





100 





20 


19 


100 





95 





19 


18 


100 





94 


7 


9 


13 


64 


3 


92 


9 


10 


10 


90 


9 


90 


9 


10 


9 


100 





90 





7 


7 


87 


5 


87 


5 


13 


10 


72 


2 


83 


S 


4 


4 


66 


7 


80 





6 


7 


66 


7 


77 


8 


2 


3 


50 





75 





17 


11 


100 





64 


7 





1 








50 





8 


6 


66 


7 


50 





6 


4 


66 


7 


50 





1 





100 












The parent (s) of the following number and percent of 
county pupils visited the schools during 1945-46 : 

Pupils Whose Parent(s) Visited School 



School Number Percent 

White Elementary 48,220 47 

Colored Elementary 9,799 44 

White High 11,216 21 

Colored High 1,727 25 

Teachers visited the homes of the following county pupils 
during 1945-46 : 

Pupils Whose Homes Were Visited by Teachers 

School Number Percent 

White Elementary 8,777 9 

Colored Elementary 8,716 40 

White High 3,060 6 

Colored High 1,429 20 



STATE AND COUNTY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION 
AND SUPERVISION 

Conferences of the State Department Staff 

Regular staff conferences were held September 10 and No- 
vember 9, 1945, January 4, March 29, and June 11, 1946. 

The following changes in assignment were announced in 
September, November and June : 

Miss Bateman in addition to her duties as Director of Teach- 
er Certification and Editor of Publications took over responsi- 
bility for the accreditation and licensing of all institutions in 
accordance with the provisions of Chapter 1043 of the Laws of 
1945. All members of the staff were to be available to assist her 
in the work of accreditation and licensing. 

Miss Hobbs assumed the position of office manager formerly 
held by Miss Bateman. 

All purchases of every kind including subscriptions to 
magazines and periodicals were to be made with the supervision 
and approval of Mr. Zimmerman, after Mrs. Travers indicated 
there were sufficient funds in the budget to cover such purchases. 

Whenever possible supplies were to be stored in one place in 
the department. 

Expense accounts were to be prepared in duplicate accom- 
panying monthly reports of activities. 

A committee with Mr. Fontaine as chairman had been ap- 
pointed to draw conclusions on the activities and supervisory 
program of the department. Suggestions were to be solicited by 
this committee from everyone on the staff. 

Dr. Pullen presented the need of a study of the responsi- 
bilities and functions of the State Department of Education. By 
whom and by what divisions should they be carried? Super- 
visory activities need to be analyzed. What practices and activ- 
ities may be curtailed or discontinued and what new activities 
need to be inaugurated? Is there adequate and effective coordi- 
nation among the various divisions of the department? Each 
professional member of the staff was asked to send to Mr. 
Fontaine a detailed statement of his responsibilities and recom- 
mendations regarding the above questions. 

At the staff meeting on November 9, 1945, Dr. Pullen an- 
nounced that Dr. Hawkins had been made director of instruction, 
Mr. Spitznas, supervisor of the curriculum laboratory at Towson, 
and Mr. Glenn Brown, supervisor of adult education. It was 
noted that it had been suggested that publishers send sample 
books to the curriculum centers at Towson and Bowie rather than 
to individual State Department members. 



144 



Conferences of State Department Staff 



145 



New Salary Schedule for State Department Professional Staff 

The following salary schedule for the State Department 
staff became effective November 1, 1945 after recommendation 
by the State Employees Standard Salary Board and approval by 
Governor O'Conor. 



Position 


Minimum 


Maximum 


Assistant State Superintendent 


$6,000 


$7,500 


Director of Division 


5,000 


6,250 


Assistant Director of Division 


4,500 


5,625 


Supervisor 


4,500 


5,625 


Assistant Supervisor 


3,500 


4,375 


Case Work Supervisor (Rehabilitation) 


3,500 


4,375 


Rehabilitation Counselor 


3,000 


3,750 


Medical Social Work Consultant 


3,000 


3,750 


(Rehabilitation) 


Medical Consultant (Part-time) 


1,000 





(Rehabilitation) 



Later, the salary of the State Superintendent, upon the 
recommendation of the State Board of Education and the approval 
of the Governor, became effective at $12,500. 

The Child-Study Program 

Miss Alder told of plans for the child-study program to be 
carried on under the guidance of Dr. Prescott in meetings lasting 
for 214 days to be held four times during the year at each of the 
four State teachers colleges. In trying to find out ''what makes 
Johnny tick", the basic laws of human development and scientific 
facts which explain human behavior would be studied. A three- 
year program is contemplated to be financed in part by the State 
teachers colleges, the county boards of education and the State. 

The following personnel from the counties and teachers 
colleges were expected to participate in the meetings at the four 
State Teachers Colleges: 

Elementary School High School 
Personnel White Colored White Colored All Areas Total 



Supervisors 


39 


13 


4 






56 


Attendance Workers 










17 


17 


Principals 


9 


2 


5 


7 




23 


Teachers 


1 


6 




1 




8 


Teachers College Faculty 


48 


13 








61 



165 



Some Baltimore City supervisors and critic and training 
teachers also planned to participate. All of these people will be- 
come leaders of groups of 10 to 18 members of the teaching staff 
representing grades 1 to 12. 



146 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



As the child-study groups function, ethical principles must 
prevail which means that the members act as professional per- 
sons, guarding any information collected as confidential and 
protecting the rights and personalities of the children studied; 
democratic procedures must govern making it possible for all 
members of the group to contribute and share in making deci- 
sions; and scientific factual material rather than inference and 
opinion must be the basis of all judgments. 

Each teacher who joins a child-study group will select a child 
who interests her for study. In learning to know one child w^ell 
she will learn to know all her pupils better. Each week she will 
write two or three anecdotal descriptions of behavior of the child 
she is studying. Once every two weeks this anecdotal material 
will be discussed at group child-study meetings at which time the 
teachers will learn how to observe, to distinguish between in- 
ference and fact, and to improve the form of the anecdotes. 
From January to March each teacher will attempt to formulate 
tentative hypotheses explaining the behavior of the child she is 
studying. From March to June the teacher will try to spot re- 
curring patterns of behavior in the records she has built up. 

It was hoped that there would be at least one child-study 
group in each county. The county supervisors reported great 
enthusiasm and interest of teachers already participating in the 
program. (See pages 182 to 185.) 

The teachers colleges see the need of changing the curriculum 
in psychology, biology and literature, so that the new graduates 
will come out with knowledge of how to study an individual child. 

The counties will want to change procedures and the curricu- 
lum. Teachers will recognize the needs of individual children 
and come to accept certain behavior as natural and not to be 
fought against. Supervisors will expect to work with teachers 
in the same way that we expect teachers to work with children. 

Provisions for Returning Veterans 

Mr. Devilbiss indicated a need for guidance of veterans in 
every community, those disabled as well as the able-bodied. 
There are few veterans who are from any one high school. There 
are two groups of veterans. Some want a high school diploma 
and this need can be satisfied by passing the high school equiva- 
lence examinations. Others who are younger may want high 
school refresher courses. Of the 16 units for high school gradua- 
tion, at least 8 are required constants. Of the remaining 8 units 
one may be allowed for basic training and a unit credit may be 
given for any course successfully pursued in the United States 
Armed Forces Institute. (See also page 161, and pages 215 
to 217.) 



Child-Study Program; Guidance for Veterans; Voc, Rehabilitatio> 147 



Veterans want to be treated as adults. They want to work 
quickly to continue their education. The number of weeks they 
pursue courses, therefore, need not be considered too important. 
Correspondence courses from the University of Nebraska may 
be used as well as standardized tests and the State high school 
equivalence examinations so that units may be accumulated in a 
short time. 

Expansion of the Vocational Rehabilitation Program 

Mr. Thompson presented a suggested position chart for the 
division of vocational rehabilitation in the Maryland State De- 
partment of Education. At the top is the State Board of Voca- 
tional Education with its Executive Officer the State Superin- 
tendent of Schools. They appoint the Director and a staff in- 
cluding an accountant, statistical clerk and secretary. The 
suggested services of the division and their staff are the follow- 
ing: 

Physical 
Restoration 
Supervisor of 

Physical Restoration 
and Medical Social 
Work Consultant 
Medical Administrative 

Consultant 
Secretaries 

Needed Expansion 
Psychiatric Admin- 
istrative Consultant 
Psychiatric Social 
Work Consultant 

The present case load of 2,200, should be doubled in 1945-46. 
There are 16,000 people in the State who are disabled and even- 
tually the division will have sufficient staff to care for the entire 
load. See Tables 82 and 83 on pages 98 to 99 for 1945-46 pro- 
gram. 

It was proposed that the above service staffs be located in 
five district offices. The first in Hagerstown, the second near 
Washington, D. C, the third for the counties surrounding Balti- 
more City, and the fifth in Salisbury, will each have a supervisor, 
counselor and a secretary who will provide industrial and rural 
guidance and placement. 

It is proposed that the Baltimore City district office have a 
Supervisor of Rehabilitation Case Services, a Psychologist, an 
Assistant Supervisor of Physical Restoration, an Assistant 
Medical Social Work Consultant, a Psychiatric Social Worker, 
Rehabilitation Counselors, a Rehabilitation Counselor for The 
Blind and an Industrial Employment Counselor for The Blind. 

The salaries for all of these staff members will be paid for 
by the Federal Government. One-half of the expenditures on 
clients for physical restoration, rehabilitation, guidance, training 
and placement will be paid for from Federal funds and the other 
half from State funds. (See page 239 for 1945-46 financing.) 



Rehabilitation 



Services for 



Case Work Supervisor the Blind 

Rehabilitation Counselors Supervisor and 
Secretary Industrial Spe- 

cialist 
Rural Specialist 
Secretaries to 
provide special 
services and 
home training 



Guidance, Training 

and Placement 
Supervisor 
Psychologist 
Secretary 

above recommended 
for in-service training 
and Psychological 
testing bureau. 



148 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



An advisory Rehabilitation Council will represent the fields 
of health, welfare, medicine and education. A professional and 
technical advisory committee will include five physicians, one 
nurse and one physical therapist. 

Group Insurance for the Department Staff Proposed 

Mr. Zimmerman presented to the staff the opportunity of 
participating in the Washington National Insurance Company 
group insurance plan which gives protection against accident, 
sickness, hospitalization and loss of life. 

Maryland Health Service Program 

At the staff conference on January 4, 1946 Dr. Ferguson 
reported on the procedures for the schools in the experimental 
health service program being carried on in five counties. 

I - INTRODUCTION 

A. Interest in and responsibility for the health of the pupil during 
his entire school life is shared by parents, the school administrator, 
the classroom teacher and special teachers; the health officer and 
the public health nurse; the private physician and the private 
dentist; personnel associated with special programs such as nutri- 
tion, recreation, physical education, special clinics and special 
health services; and social and civic volunteer groups. Through 
cooperative efforts utilizing the skills and interest of these in- 
dividuals and groups, an understanding of the pupil can be de- 
veloped. 

B. The Maryland State Joint School Health Committee, composed 
of representatives from the State Departments of Education and 
Welfare, County Boards of Education and Health, and others 
vitally interested, has recommended definite steps in the improve- 
ment of the school health program. 

C. A Health Service sub-committee, composed of the State Director 
of Health, the State Supervisor of Physical Education and Recrea- 
tion, County Superintendents of Schools and County Health Officers 
in Anne Arundel, Allegany, Carroll, Cecil and Wicomico Counties, 
the Chiefs of Nursing and Dental Services in the State Depart- 
ment of Health, the State Director of Welfare, and the presidents 
of the Maryland Medical. Dental, and Nurses Associations have 
met to consider the solutions to several problems such as: 

1. How may the specific skills of each person interested in the 
pupil's development be utilized? 

2. How can the teacher be informed intelligently about the 
physician's recommendations, nurse's home visits, follow-up, 
and the health status of each pupil? 

3. How can the information which each interested person has 
be shared? 

4. How can pupils in need of more thorough examination be 
selected? 

5. How can a definite basis for bringing together teachers, 
nurses, parents, the dentist and the physician be established 
and the time of each person be conserved? 

6. How can all persons concerned know what is happening to 
the pupil? 



Experimental County Health Service Program 149 



7. How can joint leadership be achieved in developing and 
administering an effective and economical health service 
program considering funds, personnel, facilities, and equip- 
ment available? 

D. The comprehensive health service program in the schools should 

include plans for: (a) the control of communicable diseases; (b) 
determination of the health status of the pupils; (c) records and 
recording; (d) follow-up; (e) first-aid and emergency care; and 
(f) sanitation and school regimen. 

- TENTATIVE PLAN OF PROCEDURE 

A. County School Health Council - to be composed at first of 
County Superintendent of Schools as Coordinator, Health Officer, 
Health Nurse, Chairman of Welfare Board, and principals of 
selected schools should : 

1. Advise and recommend ways to administer and supervise 
the health service program. 

2. Recommend policies and procedures. 

3. Define specific responsibilities. 

4. Secure cooperation of other community agencies and lay 
groups. 

5. Secure participation of school personnel, of health person- 
nel, of parents, and of pupils. 

B. The Co^inty Supeinntendent of Schools before introducing the 
program in county schools should be convinced of the value of the 
program, aware of the problems and their solutions, and help the 
members of his staff understand their part in carrying out the 
program. He should: 

1. Select for the initial introduction of the program, not more 
than four schools, of which at least tivo should be elemen- 
ta/ry schools, and if possible, one a junior high and one a 
senior high school. 

2. Initiate the formation of the County School Health 
Council as suggested in II A above. 

3. Plan arrangements and agenda for the initial and subse- 
quent meetings of the faculty of the school selected with 
the health personnel, and others concerned with the pro- 
gram. 

4. Provide a Pupil Health Observation Card, a School Medical 
Card, and a School Dental Card for each pupil in the 
selected schools. 

5. Provide a plan by which the teacher may participate in the 
health examinations of her pupils. 

6. Provide a filing case for each teacher in the selected elemen- 
tary schools, and for one teacher (physical education, 
homeroom, or counselor) in each high school who shall be 
responsible for recording observations. 

7. Provide a time and place for the teacher-nurse conference, 
and for the medical examination of pupils by the health 
officer or the physician. 

8. Provide for the reporting of crippled children who are in 
need of special medical treatment available through the 
Health Department, etc. 

9. Provide for the transfer of the three health, medical and 
dental cards along with other pupil records whenever a 
pupil transfers to another teacher or school or is transferred 
to another school system. 

10. Provide for reporting to parents and interested lay groups. 

11. Make provisions for necessary changes in the program as 
data are discovered. 



i946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Since the Classroom Teacher is the key, the central figure, the 
determining factor in all aspects of the education program, it is 
necessary that she understand and accept responsibility for her part 
of the health program. She is the only person in the school system 
who is in daily contact with the pupils and can make daily obser- 
vations. She should: 



1. See that there is a Pupil Health Card for each pupil on 
which she records the data required under specified head- 
ings — 

a. At any time she observes something that she wants recorded, 
either for her use or for reference to the parent, nurse or 
physician. 

b. At the time of special activities, such as v-ision testing, hearing 
testing, weighing, and measuring. 

2. Keep the card in the classroom in a file which is convenient 
for daily use by the teacher and the nurse. 

3. Mark with a clip the card(s) of the pupil (s) whom she 
wants to refer to the nurse, parent, or physician. 

4. Transfer the records when the pupil changes to another 
room or school. 

5. Whenever possible during the school day observe the pupils 
to note unusual behavior and changes in appearance. 
Record these observations by the use of the code in the 
column, "Teacher's Statement of Pupil's Health", as well 
as explanations of items marked on the reverse side of the 
card, and other statements considered pertinent. 

6. Regard the observation of pupils as one of the most valuable 
contributions in the entire program for it is the basis for 
understanding the pupil and planning for his welfare with 
parent, nurse, and physician, and for the teacher-nurse 
conference. 

7. Take part in the annual inspection of pupils to find defects 
of vision, hearing, dentition, and other obvious defects 
which might interfere with their normal education; to 
furnish valuable data for the teacher-nurse conference and 
for screening purposes; to give a basis for interpretin-g 
pupil behavior and for observing any changes which may 
occur. 

8. Learn to detect incipient communicable diseases in order 
to protect the school population and to educate the pupil 
about communicable diseases and his responsibility to 
himself and others, 

9. Learn the mechanics of the whisper-hearing test, the 
Snellen vision test, the dental examination and how to re- 
cord the resultant data. 

10. Learn how to participate effectively in the teacher-nurse 
conference, since it gives the teacher an opportunity 

a. To hear the interpretations of the medical findings. 

b. To learn about the special needs of individual pupils. 

c. To learn about the progress of the follow-up after the teacher's 
original observations and tests. 

d. To learn more about the pupil's relationships and problems 
outside the school. 



Responsibility of Teacher, Nurse and Health Officer 151 



D. The Public Health Nurse in the school becomes a member of the 
school staff and contributes to the total educational prop^ram when 
she deals with the pupils referred to her by the teacher. She should: 

1. Arranj2:e a definite schedule for each school, maintain the 
schedule and notify the school administrator if an emer- 
gency necessitates a change in schedule. 

2. Demonstrate the mechanics of making the daily inspection 
of pupils, and the annual vision and hearing testing, and 
the teeth and mouth inspection. 

3. Take an effective part in the teacher-nurse conference to 
decide jointly whether the pupil 

a. Should be referred to a physician for a health examination or 
an opinion. 

b. Should be further observed by the teacher. 

c. Should have adjustments made in his school or home routine. 

d. Should have special instruction pertaining to his health. 

e. Should be referred to the county Superintendent of Schools for 
education of handicapped children. (See page 34.) 

4. Make visits to the home(s) of pupils where needs are 
shown. 

5. Take part in conferences arranged for school and health 
personnel. 

6. Supply supplementary informational material to teachers. 

7. Assist the examining physician in the health examination. 

8. Orient pupils in regard to the various tests, examinations 
and services. 

9. Record information properly, particularly the data from 
the medical examination, visits to the home, recommenda- 
tions and advice of physician, the needed corrections and 
what has actually taken place. 

10. Interpret information to teachers and to parents. 

11. Arrange for special services when necessary. 

12. Evaluate and report the progress of the program. 

E. The Health Office^' should be utilized as a consultant rather 
than as a practitioner. He must be aware of the problems and 
their solutions and he must help his staff understand its part in 
carrying out the program in the schools. Instead of giving all his 
attention to finding defects, his activity should include giving 
guidance to children, parents, and teachers with whom he comes in 
contact. He should: 

1. Assume professional leadership by establishing contacts 
with private physicians and with clinics. 

2. Bring all of the community resources into closer relation- 
ship with the school. 

3. Coordinate his work with that of the school nurses at the 
time of the examination so that his undivided attention 
can be given to each child and parent. 

4. In the examination, concentrate his efforts on discovering 
poor health habits, deficiencies, and gaps in parent knowl- 
edge of health matters, health problems suspected by the 
teachers, defects which obviously hamper learning, and 
medically-neglected children. 

5. Examine the pupils who are referred to him following the 
teacher-nurse conference. 

6. Set up a definite plan for reporting cases of illness to the 
Health Department, and for readmission fallowing a 
communicable disease. 



152 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



7. Assist in securing special assistance from resources avail- 
able outside of the Health Department for children with 
unusual difficulties. 

8. Demonstrate the techniques for discovering deficiencies, and 
ways of overcoming difficulties. 

9. Devise plans for improving the program . 

10. Devise ways and means to bring to the attention of lay 
groups and individuals the progress and needs of the pro- 
gram. 

11. Coordinate the efforts of school and health personnel with 
those of the Welfare Department where a need is shown. 

12. Confer with teachers and administrators concerning the 
problems in the program. 

13. Be responsible for recording on the Medical Card data and 
recommendations following an examination or a conference. 

14. Coordinate the work of health personnel. 

F. The Dentist has the large recurring task of covering the dental 
needs of school children. Merely to find dental defects and to 
notify parents of these deficiencies is not meeting the problem. 
Only by bringing families and private dental practitioners into 
closer understanding of the need of additional dental service can 
dental care be provided. He should: 

1. Demonstrate how the teacher may make a cursory dental 
examination to observe certain symptoms and objective 
evidence. 

2. Demonstrate how the new Dental Card may be used and 
how the data discovered may be recorded. 

3. Participate in conferences with administrators, school 
personnel, health personnel, and lay groups and individuals 
for the purpose of clarifying procedures and promoting 
the program. 

4. Aid in enlisting private practitioners to understand and to 
participate in the program. 

G. Other Personnel may include medical social workers, special 
service personnel such as orthopedist, consultants in speech, child 
guidance, hearing and vision, nutrition, oral health, health educa- 
tion and mental health; technicians, sanitarians, social workers, 
professional and voluntary groups and others. These personnel 
should be utilized whenever possible, for it is only through the wide 
use of community resources and personnel that the program can 
be given impetus, direction, and support. The time and place for 
their use should be dictated by need and upon recommendation of 
the Health Council. It would perhaps be unwise to introduce too 
many of these services early in the program. 

Ill - PRELIMINARY ARRANGEMENTS 

A. Procedures to be followed at the initial meeting (s) and the 
composition of personnel who are to take an active part in the 
initial meeting (s) should be agreed upon. 

B. Record cards to be printed by the State Department of Educa- 
tion, after approval by the subcommittee on records will be for- 
warded to the County Superintendent of Schools for distribution 
to the selected schools. A filing case to hold inch x 11 inch 
cards should be provided each teacher who is to participate in the 
program. 

C. An In-service Training Program for public health nurses will 
be inaugurated in each of the selected counties under the direction 
of Miss Helen Fisk, R. N., Supervisor of Nurses, and Miss E. M. 
Tetlock, R. N., Assistant Chief, Division Public Health Nursing, 
State Department of Health. This program is for the purpose of 



Plans for Experimental County Health Program 153 



1. Familiarizing public health nurses with the background, 
general philosophy, trends, and changes in the concept of 
public health nursing in the development of the new school 
health program. 

2. Emphasizing the continous processes of growth, develop- 
ment, and learning so that the school-age period will be 
considered as only one phase in the life of the individual. 

3. Reviewing scientific information related to the program. 

4. Reviewing and becoming familiar with the new techniques, 
policies, and procedures necessary to the success of the 
planned program. 

5. Evaluating visual aids and their use in supplementing the 
development of the program. 

6. Familiarizing the health personnel with the plan for deter- 
mining the health status of the pupil and for maintaining a 
cumulative record. 

7. Developing an awareness of the need for coordinating the 
work of the various groups participating in the school 
health program. 

School personnel, particularly the County Superintendent of Schools 
or his representative, and representatives from the County Welfare 
Department should be invited to attend these meetings if they de- 
sire to do so. 

D. Preliminary Meeting of the Health Council or Executive Group 

described in II A should be arranged to clarify the procedures and 
the agenda in setting up a plan for inaugurating the program at 
the initial meeting (s). (See page 149.) 

- SUGGESTED AGENDA FOR INITIAL MEETING (S) 

A. Superintendent as chairman - to outline in detail the part 
each will play in the total program, particularly, its purposes and 
some of the results expected. The agenda should be announced and 
the participating personnel introduced as each is to take part in 
the program. 

B. Description of the Pupil Health Observation Card with ex- 
amples of recorded data by public health nurse. 

C. Demonstration of the Annual Inspection to include the 
mechanics of giving the Snellen visual test, the whispering-hearing 
test, the dental examination, weighing, measuring the height of 
the pupil, recording the data. The demonstration will be performed 
by a public health nurse and by a teacher. 

D. Demonstration of Daily Observation on methods of observing 
and discovering and coding pupil health needs or deviations to 
include eyes, ears, height and weight, abnormal behavior patterns 
with interpretation of results. This demonstration should be per- 
formed by a public health nurse and may include the participation 
of teachers with the use of pupils. 

E. Demonstration of the Teacher-Nurse conference. A sample 
case study should be used by the teacher and nurse in planning for 
the welfare of the pupil. 

F. Demonstration or description by the public health nurse and 
teacher of the orientation of pupils who are about to be examined 
by the physician, the dentist, or to receive some special service. 

G. Demonstration of the Health Examination to include 

1. Transfer and recording of data from the Pupil Observation 
Card to the School Medical Card by the nurse. 

2. Parent participation - invitation to the examinatioiT- 
making the parent feel perfectly at home - obtaining 
additional data by nurse and teacher. 



154 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



3. Setting for the examination by the health officer - privacy - 
quiet - pleasant surroundings - necessary equipment and 
supplies - dressing facilities and robes - personnel in- 

* volved. 

4. Steps in making the examination to include mechanics of 
the examination - demonstration to pupil and parent 
of the value of complete examination - guidance to parents 
and to pupils - interpretation of data - recommendations 
involving Health Officer, Nurse, Teacher, Parent and Pupil. 

H. Discussion of Follow-up program involving Health Officer, 
nurse, teachers, and others. 

I. Summary of procedures, use of personnel, problems, and plan 
for subsequent meetings. The schedule for visits by the nurse 
and health officer should be announced if possible at this time. 

note #1. It is hoped that Dr. Robert Riley, Director, State Department of Health; 

Dr. Richard C. Leonard, Chief of the Division of Oral Hygiene; Miss 
Helen Fisk, Supervisor of Nurses, State Department of Health; Dr. William 
J. French, Deputy Health Officer, Anne Arundel County; and Dr. Thomas 
C. Ferguson, State Supervisor of Physical Education and Recreation, 
will visit initial meetings in each county. 

note #2. This material was compiled from the report of the Maryland Joint School 

Health Committee and the Manuals of the State Department of Education, 
Oregon. 

A Health and Physical Education Association 

A Health and Physical Education Association for Maryland Schools 
was organized early in 1946 by the adoption of a Constitution of which the 
Preamble reads as follows: 

**In the belief that Health and Physical Education can be promoted 
through organized effort on a State-wide basis that provides for 
county-wide and local school organization, all similar in pattern, 
there is established this all inclusive organization to reach all 
children." 

The association program will deal with health education, health service, 
physical education, intramurals, interscholastics, appreciations and recrea- 
tion. 

Any public school receiving membership shall be entitled to a vote on 
matters of policy or constitutional amendment in the county organization. 
The counties will be kept aware of all policies, regulations and amendments 
so that proper action may be taken through county associations and by their 
delegates to the State association. 

The member schools in each county shall elect three delegates, one each 
representing the elementary schools, the junior high schools, and the senior 
high schools, and each county shall have three votes at the annual meeting to 
be held first in April 1947 and each April thereafter. 

For the purpose of intercounty contests in all activities of the Associa- 
tion the 23 counties of the State are divided into the following five districts: 

1. Allegany, Frederick, Garrett, Washington 

2. Calvert, Charles, Montgomery, Prince George's, St. Mary's 

3. Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Carroll, Harford, Howard 

4. Caroline, Cecil, Kent, Queen Anne's 

5. Dorchester, Somerset, Talbot, Wicomico, Worcester 

The member schools of each district shall be entitled to a delegate to 
represent the district on the Executive Committee for a term of two years. 
Districts 1, 3 and 5 shall elect in the odd years and Districts 2 and 4 in the 
even years. The election of delegates shall take place at the annual meeting. 

The Executive Committee shall include the President, Vice-President, 
Secretary-Treasurer, who shall be the State Supervisor of Physical Educa- 
tion and Recreation, the elected delegates from each of the five districts in- 
cluding at last one woman, the executive secretary of the State Teachers 
^Association, ex-officio. There should be an increase in members on the 
Executive Committee to represent women, elementary schools and supervisors 
of elementary schools. 



Plans for Health and Physical Education Ass'n 



155 



Committees to sponsor prames and activities may include Health, Hiph 
School Athletics, Junior High School Athletics and Activities, and Elemen- 
tary School Activities. Each committee shall include at least one woman, 
the number of members of each committee being left to the judgment of 
the President. 

The Association shall exercise (1) direction and control over all com- 
mittees it sponsors; (2) jurisdiction in approving, upon recommendation of 
the county association, the participation of any student in intersectional 
activities out of the State of Maryland; (3) shall seek to enrich programs 
in all counties, by offering suggestions for activities, materials, procedures 
for the organization of athletic events, health activities, and individual 
student programs to carry out specific purposes. 

In the By-Laws under "Amateurism" occur the following provisions: 
No post-graduate shall be deemed eligible to represent a high school in 
athletic competition. 

A bona fide student is one legally registered at a school according to 
Maryland school laws. 

Protests against individual contestants or teams for an infraction of 
• rules or other legitimate causes must be in writing and mailed to the 
Executive Secretary of the Association not later than 48 hours after the 
games or meet in question. 

Out-of-season practice for any sport which occurs during the following 
year is forbidden by the Association. 

No post-season games will be permitted unless these are a part of the 
Association's Tournament Schedule. 

Analysis of First-Grade Reading-Readiness Tests 

After analysis of the results for white pupils of the First- 
Grade Reading-Readiness Test given to pupils in September 1945, 
Miss Alder presented the following summary comments : 

There were 16,314 pupils tested in the first grade of the counties of 
whom there were 910 more boys than girls. All counties except Harford 
and Queen Anne's showed an excess of boys over girls. 

Date a child must be six if he shall be allowed to enter the first 
grade in the preceding September seemed to have little effect on the 
results. (See page 165.) 

Eleven counties had 20 percent or more of their first-grade pupils in 
the highest classification which indicated they were ready to read. 
For all of the counties there were 3,597 children, including 19. 4 percent 
of boys and 25 percent of the girls, who according to the results of the 
test, were ready to read. 

For boys there were ten counties and for girls five counties which 
had 20 percent or more pupils with the lowest rating. Only one county 
had more girls than boys and only four counties had a higher percentage 
of girls than of boys, with a low rating. Three counties had 12 percent 
or fewer pupils with the lowest rating. 

A total of 2,925 county pupils, 1,713 boys and 1,212 girls, showed 
little or no readiness for reading. Probably 75 percent of these pupils 
will not be ready to read this year. Many of these are "failures" from 
past years. 

There were 2,275 pupils who rated low average on the test. Many 
of these children read a little in the first grade, are promoted to the 
second grade, and seem to "forget everything" during the summer. If 
provision is made for materials they can use, they usually begin with 
pre-primers and primers in their second year and learn to read in two 
years. 

Each supervisor sent in a summary of a program for the 
children not ready to read. Some were quite elaborate while 
others were very general. 



156 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



In some counties, first-grade teaching has changed very 
little in the past ten or fifteen years. In these counties the follow- 
ing characteristics are found : 

Reading begins too early for those children not ready to read and it is 
meaningless to them. 

Children have little opportunity to talk about things that really in- 
terest them. 

There is no real program around which the day's work revolves. 

Classes in reading, arithmetic and writing are isolated. 

There is too little literature - stories, poems, story telling, story mak- 
ing, etc. 

The teacher does the work, makes the program, tells the children what 
to do. 

There are few pictures, library books, art and building materials. 

Children in the "low" group know that is where they are. 

Reports to parents contain marks for children in the first grade just 
as in higher grades. 

There is a supply of mimeographed material to copy or color. 

The chief emphasis is on learning to read from books. 

However, in other counties the following practices are in evidence : 

Manuscript writing is used in primary grades. 

Materials for dramatics, building, art work, etc, are in use. 

In some cases the first-grade teacher continues with the same group of 

children for a second year. 
The first reading is a part of the real interests of the children rather 

than from a pre-primer. 
The immature children aren't expected to start work with symbols - 

their reading experiences include looking at books, telling stories, 

reading pictures, etc. 
The childi'en feel the program is important and that they have a real 
part in making it. They understand what they are doing and why. 

It has been suggested that each supervisor work on some 
specific changes in the work of the first year. An attractive 
bulletin entitled, "The First Year in School" might include specific 
suggestions and new fresh materials for the first year social 
studies units, daily programs, reports to parents, reading pro- 
cedures, independent activities, etc. 

Follow-up of 1945 Workshops and Plans for 1916 Workshop 

Dr. Hawkins disclosed the deliberations of the steering com- 
mittee which had had two meetings. They seek to collect data on 
the curriculum development program in the seventh grades grow- 
ing out of the 1945 summer workshops at Towson and Bowie. 
There is no desire to burden the local units, but it is considered 
necessary to exercise leadership and bring about coordination of 
the program. Intervisitation to show actual development of the 
core program needs to be encouraged. The central group wants 
to give help when and where needed. The counties are planning 
county summer workshops in 1946 and want to know what the 
State is planning to do. There are ideas for resource units in 
conservation, consumer education, the school as a community 
center, and aviation. (See also pages 168-169, and 207-209.) 



First Grade Reading Readiness; 1945 and 194G Work Shops; 



157 



Library Service; Food Conservation; Saving 

Something must be done to have junior high school teachers 
understand adolescent children better, perhaps through using Dr. 
Prescott's child-study program. (See pages 204-205.) 

The teacher-training institutions including the liberal arts 
colleges must be utilized to train junior high school teachers in 
the new approach toward better meeting the needs of children. 

What can be done ethically, logically and legally to present 
the advantages of the teaching profession and what it means to be 
a teacher? Harford County has prepared a bulletin on the 
advantages. 

How can representative laymen be brought into the work of 
the planning committees working on the reorganized program? 

Library Services 

Miss Adelene J. Pratt, Director of Public Libraries, who was 
to retire on January 1, 1946 was honored at a staff luncheon on 
November 9. The new Division of Library Extension was to be 
organized January 1, 1946 as a result of the enactment of Chapter 
980 of the Laws of 1945. (See pages 169-171.) 

Food Conservation and Purchase of War Savings Stamps and Bonds 

At the March 29, 1946 meeting, data from the War Food 

Administration were presented regarding the need for production 

and conservation of food if mass starvation in Europe and Asia 

is to be prevented. 

The cafeterias were asked to use less wheat, oil and fats. Use of 
whole grains and oatmeal in breads and cookies and new emergency 
"white bread" were recommended. Fewer sandwiches and less pastry 
were to be replaced by mere meats, vegetables and fresh fruits. Creamed 
dishes could be served on potatoes instead of toast. For thickening, 
eggs and potatoes could replace flour. Fats would be conserved by 
broiling or baking meats, and oils by using homemade boiled salad dress- 
ings. Care in storing bread would prevent mold and in storing flour 
would prevent weevils. 

Pupils were urged to have school vegetable gardens and to care 
for them during the school vacations. They could also help with com- 
munity gardens and with the food produced. 

The home economics departments could cooperate in all of the above 
and preserve and can foods. 

In social studies classes pupils could investigate the reasons for 
famine in Asia and Europe. They should consider the need for sacrifice 
in saving 40 percent of the wheat and 20 percent of fats and oils in the 
next four months. This would be possible by changing the diets as 
indicated above and preventing waste in garbage cans not only at school 
but at home. Pupils could make posters urging the saving of food. 
They could report on their own individual lunches. 

Miss Alder reported on the program for helping build the 
peace by having the schools continue the purchase of stamps and 
bonds. Funds are needed not only to pay for the Nation's debt 
but saving is necessary to prevent the impending danger of in- 
flation. Plans for using the program to enrich the learning ex- 
periences of children were outlined and sent to the superinten- 
dents. 



158 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Supervision of Agriculture 

The State Board of Education on May 26, 1946 expressed 
regret that Dr. Cotterman who efficiently filled the position of 
supervisor of agriculture on a part-time basis since 1935 must 
devote his entire time to augmented duties at the University of 
Maryland. Supervision of agriculture now requires the services 
of a full-time supervisor. The Board appointed Harry McDonald, 
principal and teacher of agriculture at Sparks High School, 
Baltimore County and at Liberty High School in Frederick 
County since 1923, to become full-time State Supervisor of Agri- 
culture as of July 1, 1946. 

The Administrative Conference 

At the staff conference on June 11, Dr. Fox and Dr. Bish of 
George Washington University presented the need of getting 
everyone in the school system - county superintendent, principal 
and teacher - responsible for action to have a feeling for his 
responsibility. 

Pupils should be able to look on the schools as places of 
opportunity. Education must be developed from within the in- 
dividual. The teacher can only guide and develop. 

The universities and colleges have rendered teaching and re- 
search service. They need to keep close to the practical problems 
that are going on. George Washington University wants to 
develop a variety of services. They want to help in the field of 
research in the States. There are great obstacles in the way of 
doing the kind of research that needs to be done because research 
departments tend to become routine affairs. They need to be 
reorganized and look outside. 

In-service training does not require money, but the right 
attitude toward management. 

In attempting to put any school program into effect, it is 
necessary to determine needs, develop the program, and put it in- 
to operation. The administrative conference is designed to get 
cooperative action from those individuals who have the responsi- 
bility for putting the program into operation, to bridge the gap 
between planning and action. 

The small group conference method is used at each organi- 
zational level beginning at the State Department or County 
Superintendent level and proceeding through principals and 
teachers or others who will actually put procedures to work. 

A conference whose purpose is to obtain action emphasizes 
the downflow of information. A conference to reach a solution 
to a problem requires maximum opportunities for exchange of 
ideas. 

For a conference to obtain action, the following procedure 
is suggested : 



Agriculture Supervision; Administrative Conference; 159 



County Superintendents 

1. Preparation of conference material to impart information 
and to develop skilled conference leaders. This will in- 
clude careful planning of the conference agenda and of 
accompanying materials such as: Leaders' guide, film 
strips, sequence charts, mimeographed instruction forms, 
criteria for evaluation. 

2. Selection of the individuals who wil become skilled leaders 
at various levels, and to whom the responsibility for the 
program will be delegated. 

3. Adaptation of materials and procedures to meet a variety 
of conditions at county and school levels. 

4. Following through the program of action with staff assis- 
tance from State and county levels. 

5. Evaluation of results. 

The leader must have strong motivation, a clear understand- 
ing of purposes, a functional knowledge of the detailed steps to 
be taken. If he devotes time and effort to his task, he will be 
benefited in return by enhanced prestige and improved effective- 
ness. 

Examples are conferences for county superintendents, train- 
ing conferences for principals, principal-teacher conferences, 
principal-parent conferences and teacher-pupil conferences. 

County Administration 
Salaries of and Changes in Superintendents 

Required minimum salaries of Maryland school superinten- 
dents, increased for the first time since 1922 by Chapter 1074 of 
the Laws of 1945, vary with years of experience as a superintend- 
ent the size of teaching staff. Salaries for 1945-46 ranged from 
$3,864 in the county paying the lowest salary to $10,500 in the 
county paying the highest salary with the salary in Baltimore 
City, $12,000. In the counties the average salary was $5,568 
and the median salary, $5,000. In all except five counties and 
Baltimore City, the 1945-46 salary was higher than that for the 
preceding year. (See Table XIV, page 258.) 

There were ten counties with fewer than 150 teachers, four 
having from 150 to 199 teachers, and nine with 200 or more 
teachers. The smallest county had 69 teachers and the largest 
713. The average number of teachers per county was 249 and 
the median 152. In several counties the number of teachers was 
smaller than it should have been because there were not enough 
teachers available to fill all of the vacancies. (See Table X, page 
254.) 

A number of superintendents who have given many years of 
devoted service to the Maryland schools retired at the close of the 
school year 1945-46. Mr. George Fox from Anne Arundel, Mr. 
C. G. Cooper from Baltimore County, and Mr. Robinson from 
Kent were replaced by Mr. David S. Jenkins, Assistant Superin- 
tendent in Anne Arundel Mr. Raymond S. Hyson, Superintend- 
ent of Carroll County, and Mr. William Brish, Assistant Superin- 
tendent in Prince George's County, respectively. Mr. Hyson 
was succeeded by Mr. Samuel M. Jenness who had been supervisor 
of high schools and Mr. Brish by Mr. William S. Schmidt who had 



160 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



been a high school principal. Dr. David E. Weglein retired as 
superintendent in Baltimore City in June 1946 and was succeeded 
by Dr. William H. Lemmel, City Superintendent in Wilmington, 
Delaware. 

Conferences of the County Superintendents with the State Department Staff 
The conferences of the county superintendents with the staff 
of the State Department of Education were held October 25, 
November 16-17, 1945 and February 18, 1946. 

Certification Policies 

The discussions on extension of war emergency certificates, 
substitute, junior high school teachers' and principals' certificates 
and emergency certificates and contracts resulted in the following 
action by the State Board of Education. 

On September 25,1945 the State Superintendent was author- 
ized to extend the life of War Emergency Certificates when and 
if action becomes advisable in order to enable teachers with War 
Emergency Certificates to continue in their positions until the end 
of the school year. 

The Board approved the issue of Substitute and Non-Degree 
Certificates by passing the following by-law September 25,1945. 

BY-LAW 66-SUBSTITUTE TEACHERS' CERTIFICATES 
Upon request of a county superintendent, Substitute Degree and 
Non-Degree Certificates may be issued to the best qualified applicants 
available. These certificates shall be valid during one school year. 
Such a certificate does not entitle the holder to tenure or to member- 
ship in the State Teachers' Retirement System, however, and whenever 
during the year a better or fully qualified teacher is available, such 
teacher shall be appointed to the position temporarily filled by the sub- 
stitute. 

In accordance with requirements of Section 173 of Article 
77 enacted as Chapter 980 of the Laws of 1945 the following 
requirements for the certification of librarians was adopted by the 
State Board of Education, June 17, 1946. 

BY-LAW 67-CERTIFICATION OF LIBRARIANS IN COUNTY 

LIBRARIES 

A librarian's certificate, valid for three years in a county library 
in Maryland, may be issued to a graduate of a college which has been 
approved for the training of librarians by the American Library 
Association or by the Maryland State Board of Education, provided 
such applicant has completed a full year or thirty semester hours of 
work in library science and provided the applicant passes the special 
medical examination. The year of library science must include work 
in the following fields: 

CatoloRuing Reference Work 

Classification Book Selection! 

Bibliography Library Administration 

The librarian's certificate may be renewed for four years, then 
for six-year periods, upon evidence of successful experience and pro- 
fessional spirit. 

The Board on June 17, 1946 authorized the counties to make 
exceptions to By-Law 50 in the case of exchange teachers; that 
is, such teachers may be employed, although they will not bQ 
citizens of the United States. 



Certification Policies; Summer School; Five-Day Week; IGl 
Use of State Dept. Supervisors; Veterans' Education 

Summer School Attendance by Teachers 

Summer school attendance by teachers during the period of 
the present war and six months thereafter is governed by the 
provisions of Chapter 947 of the Laws of 1943 which permits the 
State Department of Education in its discretion to waive the 
provisions of Section 156 relating to the requirements as to the 
attendance of teachers at summer schools. 

Five-Day Week 

The State Department of Education office in accordance 
with regulations affecting all State Departments is operating on 
a five-day week from Monday through Friday. The following by- 
law requiring a six-day week in county offices was, therefore, 
repealed : 

BY-LAW 48-ADMINISTRATION OF COUNTY BOARD OFFICE 
The county superintendent shall have charge of the office of the 
county board of education and shall cause it to be kept open every day, 
except Sundays and holidays, from 9 A. M. to 12M, and from 1 P. M. to 
5 P.M., or an equal number of hours on such business days. On Saturdays, 
the office may be closed at 1 P.M. 

State County Supervision including Curriculum Laboratories 

According to the present supervisory plan for the State De- 
partment staff all State supervisors are on call for service desired 
by the county superintendents and supervisors. Any county 
which wishes to have an over-all study of its situation may ask 
for service from the Department which will send out a team of 
supervisors of high school, elementary school, special education 
and special fields to advise with the county staffs. 

The curriculum laboratories at Towson and Bowie have as- 
sembled curriculum materials which are being permanently 
housed and augmented. All of the book companies have been 
asked to send sample copies of their books and materials to the 
laboratories rather than to individual members of the department. 
Mr. Spitznas is in charge to help all of the counties on curriculum 
construction and revision. County teachers can come to work 
with the materials in the curriculum laboratories and Mr. Spitznas 
is on call to work with teachers and principals and supervisors 
in their own counties on curriculum problems. 

Veterans' Education 

Dr. Hawkins and Mr. Van Sant presented the problems in 
educating veterans, many of which were taken up at the Novem- 
ber staff conference summarized on pages 146-147. Present ex- 
perience indicates that 25 percent of the veterans have not fin- 
ished grade 8 and 38 percent have had at least high school grad- 
uation which would leave 37 percent who have not finished high 
school. Many want to prepare themselves further along the 
lines of what they did in the Army. They need help and en- 
couragement on the availability of educational opportunities. The 
monthly equivalence examinations are given to veterans with- 
out charge. Counties around Baltimore City can send their 
veterans to the Baltimore City Veterans Institute. 



162 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Study of Vocational Education 

Mr. Seidel presented to the county superintendents on 
February 18, 1946 a tentative plan for a cooperative study of 
vocational education in Maryland to be made in April 1946 by 
representatives of the various services in the U. S. Office of Edu- 
cation and the State Department Staff. This involved confer- 
ences in January by Dr. Pullen and Mr. Seidel with the heads of 
the various vocational services in the U. S. Office of Education, 
followed by one in February of the U. S. Office of Education 
Staff with the State High School Supervisors and vocational 
staff and the vocational teacher trainers in Maryland at the 
Maryland State Department Office. 

The State Department would select a very effective, moder- 
ately effective and an ineffective or inadequate program in each 
vocational service, develop statistics showing the status of the 
program for the past ten years, and arrange for visits by the 
U. S. Office of Education Staff of regional agents to the programs 
selected. After visiting and evaluating these programs the U. 
S. Office of Education regional agents would write a report in- 
dicating their findings together with recommendations for needs 
in the next five to eight years regarding personnel, facilities and 
curricula in each of the vocational services. Similar reports 
would be made on the teacher training programs and on the 
programs offered out-of-school youth and adults. 

The findings and recommendations would be studied and dis- 
cussed in May with the purpose of making plans for adopting the 
specific recommendations which could be put into effect in 1946- 
47. 

Pupil Transportation Policies 

In July 1945 superintendents were sent copies of By-law 65, 
Standard Rules and Regulations Governing Public School Trans- 
portation in Maryland adopted by the State Board of Education 
on May 29, 1945.^ These were included in the 1945 report of the 
State Department of Education on pages 159-167. 

In addition there were sent the following ''Suggested Rules 
and Regulations for Drivers and Pupils for County-Wide Adop- 
tion" which had been formulated by the County Superintendents' 
Committee on Transportation in an effort to make practice fairly 
consistent throughout the State. They are not to be considered 
mandatory in any way, but rather as a guide, in setting up safety 
rules and regulations. 

suggested rules and regulations for county-wide adoption 
A. Drivers 

1. The driver shall adhere to all the commonly accepted 
rules of the road. 

2. The driver shall not leave the bus without first stopping 
the motor and setting the brakes. 



Vocational Education; Pupil Transportation Policies 163 



3. The driver shall adhere as closely as possible to a time 
schedule arranged for his route or routes. The schedule 
of the school bus shall be posted in a conspicuous place 
so that the pupils are well informed as to the arrival of 
the bus at certain points along the route. 

4. Buses shall be brought to a full stop before taking on or 
discharging pupils. 

5. The driver shall have full charge of the front door of the 
bus at all times and shall operate the same. This duty 
should never be given to pupils. 

6. Buses shall not stop on heavy grade or at the top of a 
grade to take on or discharge pupils, without first driv- 
ing from the main road. 

7. Drivers shall approach hills at a moderate rate of speed 
and keep to the right side of the road in going up and 
down a hill. 

8. Buses traveling in the same direction shall be operated 
at least 75 yards apart. 

9. The driver shall not attempt to pass a standing bus on a 
public road without first bringing the bus to a full stop. 

10. The driver should never stop his bus to take on or dis- 
charge pupils at a point where the view of the road is 
obstructed in any way. 

11. No gasoline tank shall be filled when there are pupils 
in the bus. 

12. The driver shall test his service and emergency brakes 
every morning previous to the loading of the bus. 

13. Chains should be used on the rear wheels of the school 
buses when the condition of the road is dangerous due 
to ice and snow. 

14. The driver shall be held responsible for the conduct of the 
pupils on his bus. He shall report promptly to the school 
principal any violation of good conduct. 

15. Substitute drivers shall not be employed without the 
approval of the County Superintendent of Schools. 

B. Pupils 

1. Pupils should not extend their arms and heads out of 
bus windows. 

2. Pupils are to remain seated while the bus is in 
motion - they are not to get on or off the bus until 
the bus has come to a full stop. 

3. Pupils should not stand or play in the roadway while 
waiting for a bus. 

4. If pupils are required to cross the highway in order 
to board the bus in the morning or at any time they 
should cross over when traffic is not approaching and 
before the arrival of the bus. 

5. Pupils should look for traffic in both directions before 
crossing the highway. 

*6. Pupils who must cross the highway after alighting 
from the bus shall pass in front of the bus and not 
behind the bus. Pupils shall cross the highway only when 
the driver or "bus patrolman" signals all is clear. 

*Note above chnnpe considered more desirable than previous alternate pro- 
cedure which provided that pupils were to remain on the Bide of the road 
until the bus had proceeded at least 500 feet down the highway. 



164 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



7. The bus shall not be moved from the point of discharge 
until all passengers have crossed the highway. 

8. No pupil will be allowed to leave the bus at any place 
other than his regular stop without special permission 
from the principal. 

9. Smoking, vulgarity, or other improper conduct shall 
not be permitted on the bus at any time. Pupils who 
continue to misbehave will be denied the privilege of 
riding on the bus. Principals may arrange for a pupil 
on each bus who will cooperate with the driver in 
promoting safety. 

10. Pupils should assist the driver in keeping the bus clean. 

Superintendents were advised in August 1945 that they must 
issue tags to bus owners and operators in order that they may 
take busses to designated locations for the August school bus 
inspection. However, according to the requirements of the 
Department of Motor Vehicles, 'Tags for school busses must 
stay in the office of the county superintendent until an insurance 
certificate has been filed with the Department of Motor Vehicles." 
If the insurance certificate is not filed and there is an accident, 
the owner will have to be responsible. 

The second school bus inspection took place between Nov- 
ember 15 and December 15, and the third in March. Super- 
intendents were asked to notify the State Department of Educa- 
tion of the dates for inspections in their counties and to send a 
report of the inspections when completed. They were also asked 
to cooperate with the Department of Motor Vehicles in forward- 
ing duplicate yellow inspection forms promptly. 

Insurance on Motor Vehicles 

In November Mr. Wendell D. Allen, Vice President of the 
State Board of Education, suggested the following provisions 
regarding insurance of motor vehicles used in transporting 
pupils to and from school : 

All motor vehicles used by or through the direction of the Boards of 
Education of the Counties of Maryland for the purpose of transporting 
pupils to and from schools in the respective counties of Maryland, shall 
be covered by Bodily Injury Liability Insurance and Property Damage 
Liability Insurance while such motor vehicles are in use for or in 
connection with the transportation of such pupils. 

Such policies of insurance shall be carried with insurance companies 
authorized to do business in the State of Maryland, and such policies 
shall be on forms of automobile liability insurance policies (with appro- 
priate School Bus and Damage to Property of Passengers Endorsements) 
in customary and current use in the State of Maryland, and such policies 
shall insure the respective owners of such motor vehicles, and shall contain 
clauses so as also to insure the operators or drivers thereof and any 
person or organization legally responsible for the use thereof, provided 
the use of such motor vehicles is with the permission of the respective 
owners of the named insured. 

Each such policy of insurance as to each such motor vehicle shall cover 
liability for Bodily Injury (including resulting Death) in minimum amounts 
for each person and (subject to the minimum for each person) in minimum 
amounts for each accident, as follows: 



Transportation Policies; Insurance on Buses; Rehabilitation; Sur- 165 
PLUS Property; Unemployment Compensation; School Entrance Age 



MINIMUM limits OF LIABILITY 

Each person $ 5.000., 

and each accident $25,000. 

Each perfeon $ 5,000.. 

and each accident $50,000. 

Each person $ 5,000., 

and each accident $50,000. 
plus one-half of seating 
capacity, in excess of ten, 

times $ 5,000. 

Each such policy of insurance as to each such motor vehicle shall 
cover Property Damage Liability in an amount of not less $1,000. for 
each accident. 

Policies, or certificates thereof, shall be filed with the respective County 
School Superintendents. 

Mr. Zimmerman explained that if school busses were not 
painted orange and black as required by law, in case of accident, 
the county board of education and owner could be judged to be 
negligent. 

Also, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 1037, 
Section 360B, school busses used in charter service for pay must 
have a permit from the Public Service Commission. 

Vocational Rehabilitation District Office 

The expanded rehabilitation program as presented at the 
Staff conference on pages 147-148 with district offices in Hagers- 
town, Salisbury, Baltimore and Washington, D. C. are of direct 
interest to the local school systems. The district offices were 
approved by the State Board of Education on October 12, 1945. 

Purchase of Surplus Federal Property 

Mr. Seidel presented the plans being carried out by the 
Department to prepare information regarding surplus property 
available for purchase by the county boards of education and 
educational institutions of the State. **A11 equipment donated 
to schools by the Army is supposed to be used for instructional 
purposes." 

Unemployment Compensation for L'nemployed Youth Who Have Returned to School 

Dr. Pullen reported that in interpreting the unemployment 
compensation law, he had endorsed the payment of unemployment 
compensation to young people w^ho had left school to work in war 
industries and who are now entering school again because no 
work is available. The State Board approved his position on 
October 12, 1945. 

Age Required for Admission to First Grade by Counties 

Most of the counties permit children who will be six years 
old by December 31st or January 1st to enter the first grade in 
September. The exceptions are Carroll, Frederick and Mont- 
gomery which have December 1st; Kent which has December 
15th; and Harford, Queen Anne's, Washington, and Worcester, 
which have February 1st as the determining date. 



SCHOOL BUSSES 
Private Passenger Type: 

Commercial Type or Busses : 
Seating capacity of 10 or less 

Seating capacity of 11 or more 



166 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Death of Mr. Whiteford 

The superintendents were informed with regret of the death 
of Mr. H. C. Whiteford who had served as a member of the State 
Board of Education from 1938 to 1946. 

Frequency Modulation Radio Prog:rams 

Dr. Pullen reported to the State Board of Education on May 
26, 1946 that engineers who are surveying the State for FM 
radio programs have chosen a number of tentative sites for sub- 
stations, two or three being in the State forests. Permission 
to use these sites is being requested. 

Deductions for Absence of Teachers 

With regard to the salary deductions for teachers having 
sick leave beyond ten days in accordance with the revised By-law 
44 included in the 1945 report on page 158, Dr. Pullen interpreted 
it to mean for each school day lost beyond ten days, a deduction 
of the annual salary divided by 300. For unexcused absences 
the deduction was interpreted to be the annual salary divided by 
at least 300, but it could be the annual salary divided by 200 or 
by the actual number of school days, in accordance with the 
policy of the County Board of Education. 

Several counties permit a cumulation of days of sick leave 
before deductions are made and it was agreed that information 
on the county policies in this regard would be secured and sum- 
marized. 

Child Care Centers 

Since the Federal Aid from Lanham Act funds ceased on 
February 28, 1946, the child care centers would be discontinued 
unless aid from parents and in a few cases from county funds 
were forthcoming. (See pages 186 and 187.) 

By-law 45 regarding county support for kindergartens in 
the counties had been amended October 12, 1945 to apply to nur- 
sery schools as well. The amended by-law reads as follows : 

by-law 45-KINDERGARTENS AND NURSERY SCHOOLS 

County boards of education and the Board of School Commissioners 
of Baltimore City may at their discretion establish kinderj?artens and 
nursery schools, subject to such regulations as such boards may for- 
mulate, with the approval of the State Board of Education; provided, that 
the kindergarten and nursery school teachers in the counties shall hold 
kindergarten and nursery school certificates, respectively, issued by the 
State Superintendent of Schools on the basis of graduation from a four- 
year high school course, or the equivalent, and from a four-year (or, in 
the case of teachers in service in Maryland on November 24, 1933, a two- 
year) kindergarten-primary or nursery-school course, respectively, in a 
standard college, or the equivalent, the certificate to be valid for three 
years and to be renewable on evidence of successful experience and pro- 
fessional spirit; and, provided, further, that sufficient funds are specifi- 
cally appropriated in the annual school budget of the county boards of 
education and the Board of School Commissioners of Baltimore City for 
the teachers' salaries and for the maintenance of said kindergartens and 
nursery schools. 



FM Radio; Tkaciier Absence; (^hild C'ake; Committee Assignments; 167 

Retirement Policies 



Committee Assignments Revised as of April 1946 



1 Transportation 

Mr. B. C. Willis, Chairman 
Mr. W. T. Boston 
Mr. H. E. McBride 
Mr. H. R. HuKhes 
Mr. F. D. Day 

Mr. D. W. Zimmerman, Secretary 



2 Certification 

Mr. J. M. Bennett, Chairman 

Mr. C. W. Willis 

Mr. J. W. Davis 

Miss Lettie M. Dent 

Miss Merle S. Bateman, Secretary 



Records and Reports 

Mr. E. W. Pruitt, Chairman 

Mr. D. S. Jenkins 

Mr. F. E. Rathbun 

Mr. W. S. Fitzjrerald 

Miss Bessie C. Stern, Secretary 



Physical Education, Health, and 
Recreation, includinf; Libraries 

Mr. R. S. Hyson, Chairman 
Mr. H. C. Brown 
Mr. W. S. Sartorius 
Mr. G. G. ShuKart 
Mr. F. B. Gwynn 
Mr. T. C. Ferguson 
Miss Helen M. Clark 



Secretaries 



5 Curriculum and Supervision 

Mr. C. Jj. Kopp, Chairman 

Mr. W. M. Bri.sh 

Mr. C. A. Carlson 

Mr. E. T. Hawkins 1 

Mr. J. E. Spitznas > Secretaries 

Mr. E. C. Fontaine J 

6 Legislation and Finance 

Mr. E. W. Broome, Chairman 

Mr. B. C. Willis 

Mr. J. M. Bennett 

Mr. E. W. Pruitt 

Mr. J. W. Davis 

Mr. W. H. Lemmel 

Mr. T. G. Pullen, Jr.. Secretary 



Problems Connected with Retirement 

At the February conference the retirement status of teach- 
ers who elected not to enter the Retirement System in August 
1927 who reach 70 years of age was considered. It was recom- 
mended that about 50 of these teachers in service in the various 
counties be urged to join the retirement system. Lists of those 
affected were furnished to each of the superintendents. 

The State Teachers Association is working with the actuary 
and the officials of the City Employees' and State Employees' 
Retirement System to bring about reciprocity with the State 
Teachers' Retirement System so that City teachers who teach 
at the State Teachers Colleges and county teachers who take 
positions in Baltimore City will not lose credit for service in the 
system from which they transfer. It is hoped that legislation 
can be secured in 1947. The question of reciprocity with other 
States was raised. It is under consideration by the National 
Council of Teacher Retirement Systems but no satisfactory 
plan has thus far been devised. 

There was included in the State budget for distribution by 
the Board of Public Works a sum of $40,000 to be used to in- 
crease the allowances of retired teachers receiving less than $50 
per month by 20 percent and of those receiving $50 and less than 
$100 per month by 10 percent. This was to offset the rise in 
living costs. 

Work on Redistribution of State Revenues 

Dr. Pullen reported on the work being done with the Com- 
mission on Redistribution of State Revenues of which Judge 
Joseph Sherbow was chairman. The Department has been re- 
quested to furnish a statement of the bases on which funds are 
now being distributed and data are being complied. It is hoped 



168 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Educatio"N 



that recommendations for a simplification and reduction in the 
various forms of aid will be adopted together with the elimi- 
nation of all inequities in methods of distributing funds, and that 
some form of State aid for buildings will be recommended. 

Plans for 1946 Summer Workshop 

Consideration was given to the summer workshop programs 
of 1946. If the colleges and universities offer a three-weeks' 
conference or workshop, three semester hours credit might be 
allowed towards the master's degree. Some of the counties are 
planning their own summer programs. These programs might 
work on emphases such as conservation, safety, international 
cooperation, a furtherance of Dr. Prescott's approach on ''What 
the youngster is like and how he learns," a wider study of com- 
munity life, or what the community is like. 

The State program is for the purpose of reinforcing the 
counties and not to take away their leadership. Only those 
things that can be done best on the State level should be taken 
away from local government. 

The county superintendents find that teachers benefited from 
the 1945 workshop and, therefore, would like material prepared 
for Grade 8 in the summer of 1946. Should the 1945 group be 
brought back or should there be a new group? Should elemen- 
tary school teachers participate in 1946? 

Some superintendents found the 1945 material not sufficient- 
ly specific to be of help to some teachers, especially beginners. 
Some teachers do not know how to proceed with the core pro- 
gram. They do not understand the interaction of the various 
subjects when focused on solving a problem and the possibilities 
of integration. Some teachers do not know the difference be- 
tween a resource and a teaching unit. Teachers need to have 
a part in making the units to get the greatest benefit from them. 

Resource units should be developed at the State level and 
teaching units at the county or local level. State-wide commit- 
tees are needed. Most counties do not have the help to develop 
resource units. County teachers can come to the Towson work- 
shop or to the colleges and universities. There should be one or 
two people at Towson from each county to work on procedures 
or techniques. Some principals need help in making a good high 
school schedule. The larger schools certainly need clerical aid 
and non-teaching principals. Constructive criticism is needed 
from the field. 

Mr. Spitznas reported on assumptions and present plans 
for the curriculum laboratory. 

1. The form the curriculum center takes shall be determined 
by developments in the field. 

2. The primary and major aim is the gathering and evalua- 
tion of data on the child. What education is of most worth 
for him? A continuing study of the child and his en- 
vironment needs to be carried on. 



1946 Workshop; Library Extension 



169 



3. In the professional preparation of teachers, scientific 
diag'nosis is lacking. The child must understand what the 
curriculum is about. "Core" has different meanings. The 
child should see that the problems and activities in the core 
program have a relation and meaning for him. 

Dr. Alberti of Ohio State University is working with the 
core teachers in Harford County. Teachers who know how to 
use the core program or are interested in learning how to use it 
need an ample supply of resource materials. 

At the curriculum laboratory at Towson there can be de- 
monstrations of supplies and equipment, or kits can be made up 
and taken to the counties. There needs to be a list of source 
materials to be used in various grades so that superintendents 
will know what should be purchased. Diversified materials 
rather than one text book should be used. There should be books 
for the elementary school library and in various fields. The 
counties could probably use sample books to good advantage. 

The Division of Library Extension 

Miss Pratt who had been in library w^ork in Maryland since May 1927 
retired as Director of Public Libraries for the Maryland Public Library 
Advisory Commission as of December 31, 1945. The provisions of 
Chapter 980 of the Laws of 1945 took effect January 1, 1946. Miss Helen 
M. Clark who had formerly been with thie Pratt Library and had recently 
worked in Michigan was appointed Director of the new Division of Library 
Extension in the State Department of Education as of February 15, 1946. 

Section 165 Article 77 provides for the following powers and duties 
of the Division of Library Extension und'sr the contiol and direction of 
the State Boaid of Education: 

(a) To develop State-wide public and school library services 

(b) To provide a direct service of books, pamphlets, clippings 
and visual materials, and guidance in their use, to individ- 
uals, groups and schools 

(c) To provide a supplementary service as listed in (b) plus 
reading courses for the libraries of the State 

(d) To encourage the development of library services in 
State hospitals and institutions 

(e) To prepare and publish reports and bulletins on the 
status of libraries 

(f) To coordinate the services of the Division of Library 
Extension with those of other libraries and educational 
agencies 

(g) To cooperate with the library agencies of other states 
and with national library agencies 

(h) To give professional advice and assistance to all county 
libraries and to all other public libraries operating 
under this law 

(i) To establish professional standards for any county or 
other public library established or operating under these 
laws 

(j) To perform other duties necessary for the proper opera- 
tion of the division 

Under the provisions of Section 166 (a). Article 77, the Board of 
County Commissioners of any county is empowered to establish and maintain 
county public libraries, to be located in the county seat or any place 



170 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



determined by the Board of County Commissioners, with branch libraries 
and stations in such places as the Board of Library Trustees may deem 

necessary. 

Section 166 (b) provides that any library so established shall offer 
free service to the residents of the county, subject to reasonable rules and 
regulations to be adopted by the Board of Library Trustees and librarian. 

The County Commissioners may acquire property and erect thereon 
out of specially appropriated funds, buildings for use of the library, and may 
sell such property when no longer needed for library purposes. 

FINANCIAL PROVISIONS OF SECTION 167 (a) AND (b) OF ARTICLE 
77 AS PROVIDED IN CHAPTER 980 OF THE LAWS OF 1945 





167fa) 








Yield from 


167(b) 


Total 




2 cents 


General State Aid 


Available 




on 1944 


Fund for Books 


For 




Assessable 


Based on 1940 


Library 


Countv 


Basis 


Federal Census 


Service 


Countv Total 


$286,242 


$59,467 


$345,709 


Allegany 


19,097 


*5,218 


24,315 


Anne Arundel 


13,913 


4,103 


18,016 


Baltimore 


71 ,950 


*6,233 


78,183 


Calvert 


1 , 463 


838 


2,301 




3,249 


1,404 


4,653 


Carroll 


8,684 


2,343 


11,027 


Cecil 


10,739 


2,113 


12,852 


Charles 


2 , 587 


1,409 


3,996 




5,085 


2,240 


7,325 




14,431 


3,439 


17,870 


Garrett 


3,878 


1,758 


5,636 


Harford 


13,211 


2,104 


15,315 




4,260 


1,374 


5,634 


Kent 


3,712 


1,077 


4,789 


Montgomery 


36,249 


*5,035 


41,284 


Prince George's. . . 


28,330 


*5,369 


33,699 


Queen Anne's 


3,766 


1,158 


4,924 


St. Mary's 


2,015 


1,170 


3,185 




2 , 598 


1,677 


4,275 


Talbot 


4,666 


1 , 503 


6,169 


Washington 


20,315 


4,130 


24,445 




7,434 


2,072 


9,506 


Worcester 


4,610 


1,700 


6,310 


Baltimore City . . . 


268,212 


♦17,182 


285,394 


Entire State 


554,454 


76,649 


631,103 



* Maximum available in 1946-47 is $5,000. 

Harford, Howard, Garrett and Talbot Counties and Baltimore City 
are ready to qualify for State aid as of July 1, 1946 when an appropriation 
of $20,000 becomes*^ available. 

Section 167 provides that State funds shall be available for expend- 
itures authorized as follows: 

(a) Whenever a county library is established or operating 
and the County Commissioners levy a tax of not less 
than two (2) cents on each $100 of taxable property 
subject to the full rate, or appropriate an equivalent 
lump sum for the support of the library, the county is 



Library Extension; Conference oe School Officials and Architects 171 



clijrihle to receive an annual p:rant from the State aid 
fund for books. Funds now appropriated for Library 
Service may be credited toward the required annual 
appropriation. 

Subsection (b) of Section 107 provides for a general State-aid fund 
for books to be distributed on the followinji: basis in accordance with the 
latest regular Federal census: 

Annual Grant per 
Population of County Capita of Population 

(1) 30,000 or less 8 cents 

(2) 30,001 to 100,000 6 cents 

(3) 100,001 to 200,000 4 cents 

(4) 200,001 or more 2 cents 

Subsection (c) of Section 167 provides that money levied or appro- 
priated shall be added to the Public Library Fund and used for current 
operations of the county library and not for the purchase of land, the 
erection of buildings or for debt reduction. 

Conference of School Officials and Architects 

In November 1945 a two-day meeting of school officials, including 
superintendents and board members, and architects was held in Baltimore. 
After greetings by Mr. Lowndes, President of the State Board of Educa- 
tion, Mr. Leslie Cheek presented an address entitled, "How the Community 
May Express Itself in the Architecture of Its School Buildings". Beautiful 
one-story buildings with exits from each classroom, new types of lighting, 
attractive coloring on the walls, classrooms planned specifically to meet the 
needs of children and teachers, were exhibited in the slides which illustrated 
the types of buildings he was describing. Discussion was led by Mr. James 
R. Edmunds, President of the National Institute of Architects. 

Dr. Ray Hamon's talk on "How to Plan a School Building" was dis- 
cussed by Mr. F. Worth Jamison, Secretary of the Maryland Society of 
Architects, Mr. James M. Bennett, and Dr. Kinhart, principal of the 
Annapolis High School. 

A panel discussion on "School Obsolescence" had as participants Mr. 
R. E. Lee Williams, supervising engineer of the Baltimore City Public 
Improvement Commission, Mr. Edmunds, Mr. Jamison, Mr. Lucius White, 
President of the Baltimore Institute of Architects, and Mr. Kopp. 

Dr. N. L. Engelhardt's address on "How the Educational Program 
Should Affect the Architecture of the School" was discussed by Dr. Broome, 
Superintendent of Montgomery County Schools and Mr. D. K. Este Fisher, 
Architect. 

Mr. Cheek considered that with the exception of churches, architects 
had their greatest opportunity for expression in planning schools. 

One of the requirements in planning for school buildings is a survey. 
This involves a spot map, showing the location of the residences of children; 
data regarding the continuing school census, the anticipation of future 
growth or decline depending on birth rates and the holding power of 
the school; the length of the school program beyond twelve years - for the 
early years whether there is to be a pre-school program of kindergartens 
and nursery school education, and for the older youth who do not go to 
college whether there will be terminal junior college programs in the 13th 
and 14th years; what the offerings will be; the program in health, recreation 
and library service; whether there will be a program for adults; the criteria 
for the site; the size of the school,depending on transportation of pupils and 
the number of teachers needed to operate an effective elementary and high 
school. Need there be a teacher for each grade or can the school have a 
good program with two grades per teacher? Should the size of school be 
weighed against the time pupils must spend in travel to get there*^ With 



172 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



how many teachers can a high school be run effectively and economically? 
Should a high school be planned to have 50 in the graduating class which 
for a junior-senior high would mean an enrollment of 400? 

In the preliminary work there should be democratic planning through 
committees of teachers, principals and custodians. 

The conference brought out the idea that the architecture of a school 
building must be closely related to the needs of children and the functions 
for which the building is to be used; it must be tailor-made to fit the system 
of education. The school people must determine the space requirements 
for rooms of various kinds, the number of rooms needed, the toilets, the 
cafeteria, the office space and confer with the architect about these matters. 
In the preliminary sketches the architect takes the lead. He should know 
what manufacturers of building materials have to offer. The educational 
staff must review and study and if necessary, revise the preliminary plans. 

In the working drawings number of stories, height of stories, life of 
building, type of roof, the materials for floors, acoustical ceiling treatment, 
type of lighting, relation of windows to floor and ceiling, use of glass 
blocks for stairways and corridors, etc. must be considered. 

There is a trend toward one-story buildings which have many advan- 
tages. Stairways can be eliminated. Because children are close to the 
out-of-doors, one-story buildings can be built of less fire resistive construc- 
tion. Where it is not possible to secure a sufficiently large site, large one- 
story buildings cannot be used. 

If the building has two stories, it must be of Type B fire resisting con- 
struction. The expected life of the building will determine the type of con- 
struction used, which may be of a lighter type if the building must not last 
too long. In a multiple story building there is a saving on the roof. There 
is the question of a pitched roof vs. a flat roof. With modern insulation a 
flat roof is possible. 

Some buildings which violated every rule of lighting proved to be the 
best lighted. They fitted their situation. Unilateral lighting from east or 
west has been considered best. In California lighting from the north and 
south is used. Lighting from extensions from the roof is being experimented 
with. Adequate lighting on overcast days must be considered. 

Where should the bottom of the window be placed with relation to eye 
level? Should windows go to the ceiling? 

What kind of floors shall be used? Terrazzo floors, thick maple treated 
with penetrating oils, 13/32 maple floors sanded which insure against main- 
tenance neglect, linoleum which must be waxed and constantly maintained, 
asphalt tile which does not have to be waxed, mastic floors, are some of 
those to bo considered. 

As for windows those double hung with steel hollow metal sash are 
preferable. They must be kept painted. Weather stripping must also be 
considered. 

After the building is planned consideration must be given to the kind 
of equipment and furniture to be used. 

Estimated Cost of School Buildings 

A conference was held at the office of the State Department of Educa- 
tion on March 18, 1946, with Dr. Ray Hamon of the U. S. Office of Educa- 
tion to secure his advice in obtaining an estimate of the funds needed for 
capital outlay in the next ten years in view of the fact that State aid for 
school capital outlay might become available. 

Suggestions Regarding Calculation of Costs 

Under ordinary conditions one would first make a survey or inven- 
tory of all existing buildings to show their condition and facilities and to 
reveal inadequacies. Then with consultant services a detailed plan of the 
buildings needed in each county to meet educational requirements over a 
short and over a long term of years would be drawn up. Many of the 
counties have plans for such surveys. 



Conference with Architects; Cost of Building; Size of Sites; 173 

School Facilities 



In order to secure a rough approximation of total cost of entirely new 
facilities including land, equipment, and special facilities, it was suggested 
by Dr. Hamon tiiat a basic cost per classroom unit varying from $20,000 to 
$30,000 be used. For example, in an area where costs were at a minimum, a 
15 classroom school might cost $300,000 for land, building, and equipment, 
whereas in another area with maximum costs, such a 15 classroom school 
might cost $450,000. These figures would cover not only the classroom cost 
but also each classroom unit's share of the site, auditorium, gymnasium, 
library, cafeteria, offices, health rooms for teachers and pupils, and other 
facilities. 

The twelve-year program in counties now having the eleven-year pro- 
gram involving relocation of buildings, a richer offering and greater holding 
power of the improved program, smaller elementary classes, increased 
enrollment due to higher birth rates, are factors, some or all of which will 
have some bearing on the need for entirely new facilities. 

Size of Sites and Classrooms 

The following standards for the size of sites needed for new school 
buildings were suggested by Dr. Hamon: 

Elementary school - 5 acres plus one acre for each 100 pupils, pro- 
viding for expansion to the ultimate capacity. For example, the site for 
an elementary school which will house 500 pupils eventually would require 
at least 10 acres, and one for 1,000 pupils would require at least 15 acres. 

High school - 10 acres plus one acre for each 100 pupils providing for 
expansion to the ultimate capacity. For example, the site for a high school 
which will house 500 pupils eventually should contain 15 acres, and one 
which will eventually house 750 pupils, 18 acres. 

In a closely built up city, it may not be possible to find such sites and 
to adhere to these standards. 

Dr. Hamon suggests 24' x 40' as the appropriate size for elementary 
school classrooms, including cloak space, a work alcove, sink, built-in 
cabinets, and storage space. 

Estimates for additions needed to provide supplementary facilities 
such as auditoriums, gymnasiums, shops, libraries, etc., have to be made to 
fit each case. 

For deferred maintenance to provide for minor alterations, renovation, 
painting, etc., from $500 to $1,000 per classroom unit in the schools needing 
such services is suggested as a way of estimating costs. 

Dr. Hamon estimates that although the cost per unit of labor and 
for materials is likely to increase, the high bids for buildings now being 
received are likely to come down. At present materials are scarce and con- 
tractors must pay a premium to get them. When materials become abun- 
dant, bid prices will come down. 

The size of classes is estimated as 35 belonging per elementary school 
teacher and 30 per high school teacher, with an ultimate goal of 30 per 
elementary school teacher and 25 per high school teacher. With the class- 
room costs suggested before, this would mean a pupil capital outlay varying 
from $570 to $1,000 or with smaller classes an ultimate per pupil capital 
outlay of $800 to $1,200. 

The cost per cubic foot would be estimated after detailed plans become 
available. 

Combined Auditorium - G>mnasium 

Dr. Hamon suggested that an elementary school of 300 or fewer pupils 
can operate fairly well, though somewhat inconveniently, with an auditorium 
wnth a level floor and a stage, if the auditorium space is used for light 
recreation only. If basket ball is played, it is not wise to combine the 
auditorium and gymnasium. Elementary and junior high schools having 
more than 300 pupils should have separate auditoriums and gymnasiums. 



174 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Cafeterias and Kitchens 

The size of the cafeteria depends on the total number of pupils who 
use it, including those who bring their lunches and those who purchase them 
at the school, and also on the number of shifts. Some schools have as many 
as five shifts, which is too many. Three should be the maximum, while two 
shifts are ideal. The percent of pupils who eat in the cafeteria is an adminis- 
trative matter and depends on the length of the lunch period, whether pupils 
are allowed to leave the building, whether the school is in a residential area, 
and whether pupils are permitted to go home. Dr. Hamon suggested that 
an allowance of 12 square feet of floor space per pupil for the maximum 
number using the cafeteria at one time seems reasonable. There is some 
question regarding the advisability of having one big room for the cafeteria 
or several small rooms especially for elementary school pupils. Dr. Pullen 
told of the favorable experience at Catonsville with small rooms. 

The size of the kitchen should depend on the total number of meals 
served. 

Bulletins being published by the Department of Agriculture on the 
subject of industrial feeding will be helpful in planning the feeding of from 
100 to 800 pupils. 

Use of Plant by Community 

Dr. Hamon indicated that it was undesirable to have parts of the school 
plant set aside for exclusive use of adults, but that under proper supervision, 
the entire school plant should be available to community agencies. 

Shops, Cafeterias, Gymnasiums 

Mr. Willis suggested that shops, cafeterias, and gymnasiums be housed 
in separate prefabricated buildings with brick facing, to reduce building 
costs, avoid noise and provide the atmosphere of a shop. 

state Aid 

If State aid is given for capital outlay, it should be contingent upon 
plans for an adequate, county-wide school building program which will meet 
State standards. If a school is to meet the personal, social, educational, 
vocational, and avocational needs of all its pupils, it must be large enough 
and so designed as to make possilile the offering of varied curricula and 
services. No State aid should be given for any building unless it meets 
the standards for educational adequacy set up by the State Department of 
Education with the cooperation of the county superintendents as approved by 
the State Board of Education. In each year of the junior high school there 
should be an enrollment of at least 100 pupils. Any smaller enrollment 
would have to receive special consideration. 

What Other States Are Doing 

In the next issue of School Life Dr. Hamon will have an article on the 
States which are giving aid for capital outlay. Sixteen states give some 
aid, but in eight of them it is almost negligible. 

Alabama has the best plan thus far. An appropriation for buildings 
goes with the teacher allotment. An emergency fund from surplus intended 
to be spent during the present fiscal year, will have to be reappropriated be- 
cause its expenditure has not been possible. This fund is to be allocated by 
the State Department of Education. 

Mississippi has appropriated funds which are to be used chiefly for 
negro schools. 

Dr. Hamon thinks that a plan to pay a certain percentage of the cost 
of buildings is unfair to those units which are financially poor and must be 
economical, and favors those which are financially able and can, therefore, 
be more extravagant. He suggests a maximum amount or ceiling per pupil 
or classroom unit, in the cost of which the State will share. 

Dr. Hamon said that for the country as a whole debt service usually 
totals 15 percent of current expense. If State aid for the school plant had 
been part of the State aid program over a period of years, there would be 
no need for a special fund other than a regular per pupil or per teacher 



School Facilities; State Aid for Bldgs.,- Sale of Bldgs. Erected 175 



WITH Federal Funds; Tax Revenues for Schools 

allotment for capital outlay. However, because in most States no State 
aid has been available and a hu^e backlog; of constiuction is piled up, a 
special emergency fund to help the schools catch up on buildings is much 
needed. 

As a result of a questionnaire asking for estimated costs in the light of 
the above suggestions, a tentative total of $120, 000, 000 was indicated as the 
amount needed in the counties and Baltimore City to care for building needs 
in the ne5ct ten years. 

Sale of Buildings Erected with Federal Funds to Local Units 

The Federal Works Administration is asking bids on build- 
ings erected entirely from Federal funds available from the Lan- 
ham Act. Many have been sold at from 20 to 25 percent of the 
cost. It was suggested that the purchase of these buildings 
should not be made on a dickering basis. There should be a re- 
port on all transactions. Counties were advised not to pay over 

10 percent pending further information on Federal-State rela- 
tions. Maryland has not used any Lanham Act funds for main- 
tenance and operation 

REPORT OF THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON EDUCATION TO THE 
MARYLAND COMMISSION ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF 
TAX REVENUES MAY 13, 1946 

I The Problem 

The first problem confronting your subcommittee on education 
was to determine whether State school funds are distributed equitably 
to the various counties and Baltimore City. 

The second problem was to devise a plan whereby equitable distri- 
bution could be realized without destroying the efficiency of the school 
system in any political subdivision of the State; as a matter of fact, 
the subcommittee considered it its responsibility to recommend ways 
by which the present program might be improved throughout the State. 

The third problem was to recommend ways by which the present 
plan of distributing State school funds might be simplified. 

The fourth problem was to study in a limited way the financial 
needs of public education in the State, as any proposal for the redistri- 
bution of the State school funds must take into consideration the over- 
all financial program. 

11 The Background explained existing plans of local, State and Federal 
aid for schools. 

Ill Conclusions 

A Educational 

1. Universal enlightenment of a high degree is essential to the 
preservation of the democratic form of government and 
free enterprise. 

2. Due recognition is given to the splendid action of the 1945 
session of the General Assembly in providing for smaller 
classes in the elementary school, the inauguration of the 
twelve-year system throughout the State, the raising of 
teachers' salaries, the equalizing of the salaries of white 
and colored supervisors, and a system of county public 
libraries. 

3. Differences in educational opportunities exist among the 
counties due to lack of local financial ability to provide an 
educational program beyond the State minimum. Educa- 
tional opportunities should not exist at a "dead level" in 
even the poorest counties of the State. 

4. Public education is a State function and it is the State's 
responsibility to do all within its power to improve it 
wherever possible. 



176 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



5. The State minimum program should be expanded to include 
among other possibilities: 

a Even smaller classes in the elementary school 

b A visiting teacher program to supersede the present 

antiquated '^attendance officer" plan 
c Revision in the plan of supervision in order to provide 

adequacy in the elementary school field and for high 

school supervision, 
d Teachers' salaries more in line with the cost of living 
e Clerical aid and non-teaching principals in the larger 

schools 

f More facilities in radio and visual education 

g A limited program in junior college education in certain 

sections of the State, 
h Greater development in school and public libraries 
i Initial aid toward operation of kindergartens 

6. A comprehensive program of educational development 
should be projected over a long period of years, and the 
State should proceed gradually but as rapidly as possible 
to the realization of this program. 

7. Improvement in a State system of education is dependent 
in a measure upon the ability of certain local school 
systems to go beyond the State minimum. 

B Financial 

1. State aid for schools is inadequate for a sound program of 
education. 

2. The several counties and Baltimore City vary greatly in 
their ability to provide adequate educational opportunities 
for their children. 

3. Several counties without considerable additional State aid 
will never be able to raise their educational standards 
appreciably above the present State minimum. The State, 
through a special fund, should encourage the counties and 
Baltimore City to improve their educational programs. 

4. Several of the large counties and Baltimore City, because 
of the high rate of taxation and assessed value of real 
estate, will find it difficult to "maintain their own" and 
practically impossible to improve their present educational 
opportunities by additional local taxation. 

5. The distribution of State funds for school purposes con- 
tains certain inequities, some in favor of the counties and 
some in favor of Baltimore City. The greatest inequity 
will exist in 1949, when the State completes the amortiza- 
tion of the bond issue for relief and Baltimore City will no 
longer receive any benefits from this fund. 

6. Some inequity exists in the distribution of the equalization 
fund in that the property upon which the required 56 cents 
levy is laid is not assessed at the same percentage of its 
true value. The same inequity exists, however, in the flat 
State real estate tax of 11 cents. Since the total value of 
real estate in the equalization fund counties is only about 
30 per cent of the total for the State, and since some 
equalization fund counties assess their property near the 
true value, the amount of money involved in this distri- 
bution is not very high. The new plan of continuous as- 
sessments which will be fully in effect in ten years is im- 
proving the situation considerably, but nevertheless some 
inequity does exist. 



Recommendations for Changes in State Aid for Schools 



177 



7. The various funds used in aiding State schools are too 
numerous. 

8. An adequate State current operating minimum program 
of education should cost from $30,000,000 to $33,000,000 
annually. Approximately 300,000 pupils and 11,000 
teachers would be considered in the program. 

9. A superior current operating program of public education 

for Maryland should cost from $40,000,000 to $45,000,000 # 
annually. 

10. The cost of school buildings should be considered a part of 
the current cost of education and should be borne in part 
by the State. 

11. The equalizing principle is sound and should be retained. 

C Recommendations 

1. State aid for public schools should be increased greatly. 

2. The counties and Baltimore City should be required to 
levy only a reasonable tax in order to carry the State 
minimum program. 

3. State aid in so far as possible should be based on pupil 
needs. 

4. The funds through which State aid to schools are distributed 
should be reduced to only three or four. 

5. Increase in State aid should be gradual and taken in steps. 

6. The equalizing point should be gradually lowered so that 
eventually every county and Baltimore City would share 
in the equalization fund. The fund would then become 
simply another means of distributing State aid to all local 
units but in varying percentages because of varying 
financial ability to provide educational opportunities 
locally. 

7. State aid should be given toward the cost of school buildings. 
Building needs for the next ten years, including a back 
log of five years of building, are estimated at $120,000,000. 
Prior to the war about $3,000,000 were spent annually by 
the counties and Baltimore City. State aid for this pur- 
pose should consist of a large sum to help take care of the 
immediate needs and an annual appropriation based pref- 
erably on pupil needs. This annual fund, if sufficiently 
large, would encourage the pay-as-you-go-plan in school 
construction. 

8. State aid should be given as an incentive to all local 
units to encourage them to go beyond the minimum program. 

9. All State aid should be distributed to all counties and 
Baltimore City on exactly the same basis. The equali- 
zation fund, while following a principle, will vary in 
percentage because of the varying financial ability of the 
local units. 

D Specific proposals in respect to State aid 

1. Retain for the present the existing equalization point of 
ST) cents on the $100 assessable property 

2. Consolidate all present State aid into the following funds 
estimated to cost the following amounts: 

(NOTE - These proposals are consistent with the principles 
stated above.) 

Estimated Cost 

a Per pupil fund - $20 per pupil - 

belonging $6,000,000 

b Classroom unit fund (based on teacher-pupil ratio) - 
$400 per classroom unit 4.400.000 

c Equalization fund 3,000,000 

d Incentive fund 



178 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The purpose of the incentive fund is to encourage all counties and the 
City of Baltimore to spend more for education than the amount realized 
from the equalizing point of a 56-cent local levy. Theoretically, such a 
fund should be granted the counties and the City without any strings at- 
tached, but your committee believes that two financial problems are of such 
great concern that for the time being at least the proceeds from this fund 
should be devoted to these purposes. 

The proposals are as follows: 

(1) Teachers' salaries - $30 per teacher for each cent up 

to five over and above 56 cents $1,673,000 

(2) Capital improvement - $1 per pupil for each cent up to 

five over and above the 56 cents 1,500,000 

Total $3,173,000 

The net result of this incentive fund would be to increase the amount 
available from the State to the counties and Baltimore City by approximate- 
ly $3,000,000 for the purpose of increasing teachers' salaries and aiding in 
the cost of school building construction. During the past 23 years the counties 
and Baltimore City have spent approximately $73,000,000 for school build- 
ings, which represents an annual expenditure comparable with that pro- 
vided for in this fund. With the counties and Baltimore City putting up a 
like amount, the total available for these purposes would be approximately 
$6,000,000. 

The subcommittee, recognizing that not all counties assess property at 
its true value, thereby creating an inequity in the distribution of the equali- 
zation fund, proposes further that the incentive fund be distributed to the 
counties and Baltimore City on the basis of the percentage that assessed 
valuation is to true valuation, as certified by the State Tax Commission. 

The Committee realizes that there would be objections to this proposal. 
The most effective argument against it is that it penalizes teachers and 
children of a county in order to correct an inequitable tax situation. This 
argument has considerable merit. Furthermore, this proposal would not 
correct all the inequities existing in this field for the simple reason that the 
real estate tax is also responsible for an inequitable situation. A still 
further theoretical objection is that if real incentive is to be given, such 
funds should be more or less free and permitted to be used at the discretion 
of the county board of education. Another objection is that the continuous 
assessment plan appears to be working satisfactorily and may, in the course 
of time, remove this inequity. The chief argument against these objections 
is that this proposal might encourage counties to assess their property at 
its true value and thus realize more money both locally and from State funds, 
particularly from the incentive fund, for purposes of education. 

An alternate proposal in this connection is as follows: 

Any county which raises up to ten cents over and above the required 
minimum levy for receipt of the equalization fund as provided for in Section 
196 of Article 77 shall receive an equal amount from the State plus sufficient 
additional from the State to provide at least $30 per teacher for each cent 
levied over the minimum requirement up to a maximum of twenty cents. 

The chief virtue of this proposal is that it specifically recognizes the 
equalizing principle.* 

NOTE - It is quite possible that the incentive fund, with either proposal, 
could become a part of the equalization fund, thereby limiting the number of 
school funds. 

* If all units take acfvantage of the maximum provision of the 
proposed incentive fund, the local units would put up approximately 
$3,000,000 and the State, if such a fund recognized the equaliza- 
tion principle, would provide $3,500,000. 



Recommended Changes in State School Aid; Regional Meetings 179 

OF County Superintendents 



E Large building fund 

The funds recommended above constitute annual appropria- 
tions for current expense. It is estimated that Maryland will need 
to spend within the next ten years approximately $120,000,000 on 
school construction. This figure includes a backlog of approxi- 
mately five years, during which no buildings were constructed. 
The estimates are based upon a rather high cost per cubic foot, 
but a decrease in the cost of building construction would naturally 
lower this figure. The entire cost of school buildings in the past 
has been thrown upon the local units, some of which cannot possibly 
furnish adequate school buildings with the resources at hand. If 
it is sound to aid current costs, it is sound to aid in the cost of 
facilities that make current operation possible. In order to aid 
the counties in initiating a building program as soon as conditions 
make it possible and wise to build, your subcommittee recommends 
that a large sum be provided by the Legislature to assist the 
counties and Baltimore City in their immediate construction pro- 
grams. The committee is not prepared to make a specific 
recommendation at this time, but its proposal would probably fall 
between 25 and 50 per cent of the cost of construction covering a 
period to be decided upon later. 

CONCLUSIONS: 

The program as recommended by your subcommittee would mean 
a simplified equitable distribution of school funds to every county and 
Baltimore City. It would also enable the State to improve its educa- 
tional facilities and constitutes the first step toward the kind of educa- 
tional program the people of the State desire for their children. It 
would mean an increase of State aid (total increase in State aid in- 
cludes the additional funds given Baltimore City and the counties in 
basic aid, equalization fund, and incentive fund) to Baltimore City of 
approximately $3,200,000, and to the counties of approximately $3,200,- 
000, if the first incentive fund plan is used; if the alternate incentive 
plan is used, the State contribution would be slightly higher. This 
proposal would mean that the State would be carrying 37 per cent of 
the operating cost of education in Balimore City and 55 per cent of the 
cost of education in all counties, or an over-all percentage of 48. 
This percentage of State aid is in line with the educationally progressive 
states in the union. 



Regional Meetings of County Superintendents 

Through the courtesy of Superintendent James M. Bennett, chairman 
of the committee of county superintendents which included Mr. Kopp and Mr. 
McBride, information was furnished regarding the three regional meetings 
of superintendents. 

The first meeting on Conservation of Natural Resources was held at 
Solomon's Island, October 17-19, 1945 with the following program planned 
for Thursday and Friday: 

9:10 The Socio-Economic Implications of Conservation - Dr. R. V. Truitt, Director, 
State Department of Research and Education 
10:10 The Geolosic Aspect of Conservation in Maryland - Dr. Joseph T. Singewald, 

Director, State Department Geolofry, Mines and Water Resources 
11:15 The Conservation of the Blue Crab of Chesapeake Hay - Mr. Eugene Cronin, 
Crab Biologist, Department of Research and Education 
1:45 Hydrography and the Problems of Oyster Conservation in Maryland - Mr. 

G. Francis Beaven, Biologist, Department of Research and Education 
3:20 Boat trip to oyster bar and pound nets. 

6:00 Dinner Speaker, Dr. Hugh H. Bennett. Chief, U. S. Soil Conservation Service, 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

9:00 The Problems of Forest Conservation - Mr. Joseph Kaylor, Director, Depart- 
ment of State Forests an<l Parka 



180 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



9:40 The Status of the Fin-fish Industry of Chesapeake Bay - Messrs. Ralph 
Hammer and Richard Tiller, Biologists, Department of Research & Educa- 
tion 

10:30 Maryland's Conservation Picture - Mr. Edwin Warfield, Jr., Chairman, Board 

of Natural Resources, Director Department of Tidewater Fisheries 
11:10 Round Table Discussion, The Place of Conservation in an Educational Program. 

The second meeting on January 17, 1946 included a visit to the Bates 
High School at Annapolis where work in music, agriculture, home economics, 
industrial education, science and social studies was observed. During 
luncheon at Annapolis High School, the glee club of the school entertained 
the visitors. In the afternoon at Bowie Teachers College in the former 
auditorium which had been converted into a library, Dr. Henry, president, 
presented the objectives of the college, and its use as a curriculum laboratory. 

In the evening after dinner at the Emerson Hotel, Mr. Hamilton 
Owens, Editor-in-Chief of the Sun papers, discussed the master plan recently 
proposed for Baltimore City and the need of modern development for the 
blighted areas in order to provide better housing opportunities within the 
City for people who live on the outskirts and to enhance the taxable wealth 
of the City. 

On January 18th. at the Emerson Hotel, Dr. Pullen presented a 
mimeographed summary of 1945 and some 1946 data on white and negro 
county schools and the areas in which improvement was much needed. After 
discussion of the Maryland data, Dr. Clyde Erwin, State Superintendent 
of Schools in North Carolina and Mr. F. M. Alexander of the Virginia 
State Department of Education outlined progress in negro education in 
their states. 

The third meeting was held in Cumberland, April 25 and 26, 1946 with 
the following program: 

April 25 Morning Visits and Luncheon in Allegany County School Cafeterias 

Allegany Schools Having Cafeterias 

cafeterias built FOR PURPOSE 2 
Beall High School 
Fort Hill 1,300 Pupils 

adapted or CONVERTED CAFETERIAS IN 

Home Ec. Dept. Audi- Clasa- Cellar 12 

or Shop 2 torium 3 rooms 6 , 

Cresaptown Allegany Barton Carver La Vale 

Oldtown Eckhart Beall El. Central Midland 

Johnson Hts. Hammond St. Centre St. Mt. Royal 

John Humbird Corriganville Penn. Ave. 

McCoole Gephart Virginia Ave. 

Piney Plains Hill Street West Side 

Afternoon — School Administration Building — Charles L. Kopp Presiding 

Food is Health — Miss Flora G. Dewier - Nutrition Consultant, Cumberladn 
A County-Wide School Cafeteria Program — William P. Cooper, Director Allegany 

County School Lunch Program 
Building a Nutrition Program in The Elementary School — Miss Ruby M. Adams, 

Director, Elementary Education, Allegany County 

Discussion ■ — James M. Bennett, Leader 

Evening — Fort Hill High School Auditorium 

Music Festival — High Schools of Allegany County 

April 25 School Administration Building — David W. Zimmerman Presiding 

Transportation of School Children — Dr. Glenn Featherston, U. S. Office of Education 

H. E. McBride, Discussion Leader 
Dr. Thomas G. Pullen, Jr., Concluding Address 



Regional Meetings of County Superintendents; Supervision 181 
OF White Elementary Schools 

State and County Supervision of Elementary Schools for White Pupils 

Minimum salaries of white elementary school supervisors 
fixed by law had not been increased since 1922 until the new 1945 
legislation went into effect in September 1945, making the salary 
for the first four years of supervision $2400, the next three years 
$2700, and thereafter $3000. The number of positions not filled 
indicated that these higher salaries were not sufficient to attract 
those with the required training and experience and the type of 
desirable personality. Many of the counties paid salaries above 
the required minimum. 

The Lee-Clark Reading Readiness Tests financed by the 
State Department of Education were given all county first grade 
pupils in September 1945. Miss Alder presented a summary of 
the results of these tests to a staff conference in January 1946. 
See pages 155 and 156. 

Tests of mental ability and achievement in reading, arith- 
metic, and work study skills were given to grade 4 or 5, and/or 7, 
the State financing these tests for one of these two grades, and 
the county financing them for the other grade if they were given. 

Plans for a three-year child study program projected on 
pages 175-179 of the 1944-45 report were presented by Miss 
Alder at a staff conference in November 1945 and are sum- 
marized on pages 145 to 146 of this report. Miss Alder had 
complete responsibility for organizing and arranging for the 
child study program in all of its aspects, professional as well as 
financial. 

The chief purpose of the study-groups is to help those par- 
ticipating to understand better some of the problems which 
arise daily in contacts of teachers and children, how children 
grow and develop, why they behave as they do, and how they can 
best be helped. The work done will not be entirely theoretical, 
but very practical, based upon the procedures of those participa- 
ting and their observations of children. 

The State Supervisor and nineteen county elementary school 
supervisors from fourteen counties participated in the 1945 sum- 
mer workshop at Towson and served on committees which pre- 
pared reports. See page 189. 

Six of the counties having the largest staffs of white elemen- 
tary teachers, except Washington County, employed fewer su- 
pervisors of elementary schools in 1945-46 than the number for 
which they were eligible to receive State aid. In five of these 
six counties, the number fewer was one or less, but in Baltimore 
County only one half of the seven for which it was entitled to re- 
ceive State aid was employed. See Table 123. 

In 1945-46 it w^as possible for the five counties having the 
largest number of white elementary teachers to employ in addi- 
tion to general elementary school supervisors, full or part time 



182 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 123 — Number of Supervisors in Maryland Counties for Varying 
Numbers of White Elementary School Teachers, 1945-46 



Number of 


Number of 


Number of 




White 


Supervisors 




Names of Counties 


Elementary 


Allowed 


Counties 




Teachers 


by Law 






Less than 80 


1 


13 


Calvert, Caroline, Cecil, Charles, Dorchester, Howard, Kent, 
Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, Wicomico, 

Worcester 


80-119 


2 


3 


Carroll, Garrett, Harford 


120-185 


3 


2 


Anne Arundel (2.5), Frederick (2) 


186-235 


4 


1 


Washington (5)*t 


236-285 


5 


1 


Allegany (4) 


286-335 


6 


2 


Montgomery (5)*tt, Prince George's (4.83)* 


336-385 


7 


1 


Baltimore (3.5) t§ 



The number of supervisors actually employed in October, 1945 is shown in parentheses for counties 
which employed other than the minimum number allowed by law. 
* Includes a supervisor of music, 
t Includes a supervisor of art. 
t Includes a supervisor of physical education. 

§ Includes a half-time supervisor of art, of music, and of curriculum. 

supervisors of music for elementary schools, and for all of these 
except Allegany, to employ full or part-time supervisors of art 
for work with elementary school teachers and pupils. Only 
Montgomery County employed a supervisor of physical education 
for work with elementary school pupils. In Baltimore County, 
the assistant superintendent in charge of curriculum gave some 
time to elementary schools. 

The Child Study Progrram 

Miss Alder sent the following suggestions to leaders of the 
child-study groups in November, 1945: 

Organizing the Study Groups 

Organize only one group at this time for this year. Have as members 
teachers and principals who are interested and who can attend regularly. 
Have teachers of all grades in junior and senior high, as well as elementary 
schools represented, in order to get information about children of all age 
levels. 

Groups may vary in number from six to eighteen - but eighteen is a 
very large group and discussion will be much more informal and natural in 
a group of ten or twelve. 

New members should not be admitted after the second or third meet- 
ing - nor should there be visitors, except other leaders of study groups or 
the county superintendent. 

The Group Meetings 

The group will need to meet every two weeks for a period of about two 
hours. Until January interest can be centered upon - 

a. Description of the program 

b. Deciding upon ethical principles involved and formulating a 
code 

c. Selection of child for study 

d. Description of child 

e. Anecdotes brought in by different teachers read and discussed 

f. Analysis of anecdotes. Are they facts or opinions? What do 
we need to know to have more facts? In what other situations 
do we need to see this child, etc.? 



Elementary School Supervision and the Child-Study Program 183 



As anecdotes become more numerous, it may not be possible for all 
members to participate at each meeting. Perhaps you will have volunteers 
for each meeting and will eventually get around to each member of the group. 

By about January we can begin to concentrate on anecdotes of one 
case only and learn to form tentative and alternative hypotheses. Altho 
we shall be doing this from the beginning to a limited extent, there will be 
more emphasis on this later in the year as we get more facts. 

By spring our meetings will place more emphasis on "spotting re- 
curring patterns" in the child's behavior. By this time we shall have many 
anecdotes about a variety of situations over a longer period of time. 

All this and more will develop as we go along. 
Bibliography 

We shall do reading later. Just now we do not know what we need. If 
we place our reading on a functional basis, as we are trying to do in our 
school work with the children, reading will be done as information is needed. 
The early months of the study are devoted to first-hand observation of the 
child. A copy of Helping Teachers Understand Children may prove help- 
ful to some of your teachers early in the year. However, you will need only 
one or two copies for your group, not individual copies for each member. 
Later, we shall need to build a small library on Child Growth and Develop- 
ment. Some of these books you may wish to order this year, and we are 
therefore sending you a list, starring those especially recommended. 

Dr. Dorothy G. Howard, Professor of English at the State Teachers 
College at Frostburg, has organized a list of books "Children in Fiction," 
which you may want to recommend as pleasure reading, not study. It is 
an exceptionally good list. 

Preston's The Substance of Mental Health, Farrar and Rinehart, 
1943 has much to contribute to our study. 

The following material was sent to Child Study Members 
in February, 1946 : 

I On Discussing Events in Anecdotes 

a. The timing of dramatic events in a child's life are very im- 
portant. What was his age? With whom did he live? What 
changes did the dramatic events bring in his living? Some 
events mentioned in anecdotes were: The death of a parent; 
the remarriage of a parent; the separation of parents; moving 
to a new community; the birth of a baby brother or sister. 

b. Encourage the teacher to put himself in anecdotes by telling 
what he did. Avoid criticism of methods of teaching, curric- 
ulum, ways of expressing opinions, and of types of punishment, 
lest the teacher will not feel free to describe what actually 
happens. 

c. The atmosphere in group meetings is important. Members of 
the group should feel free to question others and express their 
own opinions. Free discussion should not be shut off by leaders 
who approve statements as right or wrong. An hypothesis may 
be right - observations seem important. 

II On Broadening the Scope of Anecdotes 

a. Have you observed the child in different situations? At home? 
At parties? With small groups? In large groups? At 
different times during the day? In the community? 

b. Do you note other persons present in the situation recorded? 
Adults? Peers? Friends? 

c. Are we recording changes in behavior as well as consistencies? 

d. Are we recording a description of the situation as well as the 
child's behavior? Who was there? When? What was the 
emotional tone of the situations? Do we then give the behavior 
that grows out of the situation? 



i84 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



e. Are we recording "good" behavior as well as unusual or problem 
behavior? We need to know why children are "good". What 
makes one child a leader? What seems to make a boy a good 
student? 

f. Do we note other things in addition to activity and conversation, 
posture, facial expression, tone of voice, mannerisms, habits, 
etc.? Much can be communicated without a word being spoken. 

III On Making Hypotheses 

a. Always go back to something in the anecdotes or observation 
which seems to prove assumptions made. 

b. Watch for changes in cumulative records. Is the change in the 
child's behavior or the teacher's? 

c. Forming an opinion too early is not fair. Behavior should be 
observed over a long period. 

d. Constantly question what other factors may have caused the 
child to act as he did. We do not want to base opinion on one 
cause. "Causes are multiple." 

e. Try to keep away from making a complete diagnosis of be- 
havior. We need many samples before we form opinions of 
causes. Substantiate opinions by facts. 

f. In the analysis of a situation we should consider the child's 
group. Is the child accepted more or less than the rest of his 
peers? 

g. Do not grope too hard for answers. There is danger of 
taking a piece of behavior and reading things into it. Behavior 
takes on patterns. Persons have habitual ways of reacting. 
These ways are important in understanding the child, but we 
need to wait for more observations. One happening may not 
be important. 

h. In writing the anecdotes, the teacher may wish to make some 
hypotheses as he goes along. It was suggested that these 
could be recorded by questions or opinions put in ( ) during 
the writing and inserted in the anecdotal material, and then 
taken up at the group meeting when the anecdotes are read. 
It was also suggested that groitp opinions could be recorded in 
the left hand margin if and when anecdotes were read at group 
meeting and when the group suggested hypotheses as cause of 
behavior. Some such method as this will get the teachers to 
forming some hypotheses and also keep some record of the 
group's beliefs and opinions. 

IV On Need for More Scientific Information 

Reading should be in response to a need for more infor- 
mation. In any discussion of anecdotes and in forming 
hypotheses for causes of behavior, a number of instances will 
arise when the answer to many questions is "I just don't know." 
It's then that we go to authorities. The books are not "read 
through" and reported on. Parts which contribute information 
on questions raised may or may not be discussed by members of 
the group. Individuals may want to read extensively to find 
answers to their own questions. 

Miss Adler and Mr. Huff ington sent the following suggestions 
to members of child groups in April, 1946: 

In the third and last stage of our child-study program for this year, 
members of the groups which started early in the year will devote the 
rest of the meetings to discovering particular recurring patterns of be- 
havior in individual case studies. Groups which started later will 
continue to write anecdotes, to broaden the scope of their anecdotes and 
to make hypotheses. However, each group is to move at its own pace. 
This is not a timed program, but a developmental one. 

The following suggestions were given to us at the last series of 
meetings : 



Child-Study Program Procedures 



185 



1 All groups will have their last meeting for this year near or before 
the middle of May. 

2 Try to have one meeting in which the leader works with the group 
to find recurring patterns in one case. Chapter VII in Helping 
Teachers Understand Children will give much help. The procedure 
used at the meetings was as follows: 

List the continuing behavior in the case 
Select the particular recurring patterns 

Try to interpret three or four of these recurring patterns in 
terms of (a) the adjustment problems of the child and (b) his 

developmental tasks 
When Dr. Prescott discussed the above procedure, he suggested 
that we do the following: 

Make a list of the things which keep happening throughout the 
anecdotes Try to see the day in school and the year in the school 
through the child's eyes Interpret the happenings by using these 

questions : 

(a) What is the child up against? To what does he have to 
adjust? What are the problems he faces? 

(b) On what developmental tasks has he been working? 
Developmental tasks are fundamentally related to growth. Adjust- 
ment problems can get in the way of developmental tasks. 

If you have the bulletin Child Growth and Development Emphasis 
in Teacher Education, American Association of Teachers Colleges, 
State Teachers College, Oneonta, New York, you can get some help 
from Part IV, "What Are Developmental Tasks." 

3 Have each member of the group discover the recurring patterns as 
he sees them in his own case, and write out an interpretation. This, 
then, closes his record for the current year. 

4 At the last meeting have one of the members give a complete case, 
with the analysis and interpretation. 

5 The group leader will collect each member's case record and 
any mimeographed records used in the study this year. It is most 
important that these records he stored in a safe place during the 
summer and that no one has access to them. All records of all 
groups, regardless of progress made, should be collected. This is 
definitely the responsibility of each group leader. 

Plans for Next Year 

The second year of the program involves doing many of the same 
things done this year. There will be more reading and more scientific con- 
cepts will be given. 

The study groups may continue the second year with the same per- 
sonnel. In some cases the members may wish to continue the study of the 
same child selected this year. For other members of the group this will not 
be practicable and different children will be taken for next year's study. 
In any case, the reason for choosing the child will be the same as this year - 
a child in whom the group member is interested. 

New study groups will be started in most counties. There are per- 
sons in your group this year who will be interested in meeting with a begin- 
ning group, following the plan we have used this year, and can arrange to 
do so. 

A number of persons who have participated in groups this year have 
attended three leaders' meetings and now have background for starting 
other groups. 

Many of the group leaders of this year may lead two or more groups 
next year, a beginning group and a second-year group. 

Groups which were started later during this year will continue their 
study next year. 

Specific plans for next year will be sent to your superintendent early 
next fall. 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Child-Study Program; Child Care Centers; 1945 Towson Workshop 187 



We feel the Child-Study program will have far-reaching results in 
our schools — in curriculum-making, in school policies, and in classroom 
procedures. The comments on your report blanks show your interest and 
zeal in carrying: out the plans for this year. You have done an excellent piece 
of work. It has been a real privileg-e to work with you on the program. 



The program grew during the year more rapidly than was 
anticipated. By April there were more than 1300 white and 
negro county elementary and high school teachers participating, 
not counting teachers and students at the teachers colleges and 
teachers in Baltimore City. Fifty-nine county groups were led by 
persons from elementary schools and twenty-nine by high school 
teachers, counselors, or principals. 

Miss Alder indicated that if the child-study program was to 
become more effective, trained leaders were required. As Child 
Study continues and develops into a strong in-service training 
program, each county needs on its teaching staff a number of 
persons from the high as well as the elementary school field who 
have had specific work in the field of Child Study. Courses and 
workshops available in Human Growth and Development at the 
University of Chicago and other universities in the summer of 
1946 were recommended. It was hoped that sufficient Maryland 
leaders would attend so that a special workshop could be arranged 
for them at the University of Chicago. 



When the federal funds made available by the Lanham Act 
were discontinued February 28, 1946, only those child care centers 
were continued for which sufficient fees from parents and other 
local funds became available. See Table 124. 



The 1945 Seventy-ninth Annual Report of the State Depart- 
ment of Education included on pages 185 to 192 a summary of 
materials sent out prior to the launching of the 1945 Summer 
Conference at Towson held from July 2 to 14. As a result of the 
work of the various committees including approximately 140 per- 
sons there became available fourteen mimeographed bulletins 
with the following titles : 



Growth of The Program During The Year 



Child Care Centers in the Counties 



The 1945 Summer Conference At Towson 



Bulletin No. 



Title 



Number of 
Members of 
Committee 



1 
2 
3 



<< 



'An Introductory Curriculum Manual for Teachers 
'Report of Committee on the Language Arts" 
Report of Committee on the School's Program in 
Social Education" 
'Report of Committee on Science" 
'Report of Committee on Mathematics" 



>» 



♦24 
12 



4 

5 



10 
11 
9 



♦ Bulletin Number 1 was revised by the Committee on Implementation which prepared 
Bulletin Number 12. The committee which prepared Bulletin Number 1 included 14 
individuals who also worked on other committees. 



188 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



6 "Report of Committee on Health Education, 

Physical Education and Recreation" 11 

7 "Report of Committee on the Fine Arts" 9 

8 "Report of Committee on Practical Arts and Vocational 

Education" 13 

9 "Report of Committee on Guidance" 8 

10 "Report of Committee on Points of Special Emphasis 

in the Senior High School (Grades 10-12)" 8 

11 "Report of Committee on Resources" 6 

12 "Report of Committee on Implementation" 10 

13 "Report of Committee on the Junior High School" 15 

14 "Report of Committee on Experimental Practices" 11 



On the fourteen committees, county teachers and principals, 
and supervisors and superintendents from both County and State 
represented the entire school program. 

The committee set out to restudy and modify the curriculum 
of all grades from one to twelve, but priority was given to the 
formulation of the framework for the new seventh and possibly 
the eighth grade to be used in September 1945. A tentative 
plan was suggested which could be used as a guide in developing 
the program to fit the specific needs of the schools of each county. 

The elementary school receives all the children of all the 
people, the junior high school takes care of adolescent youth, and 
the senior high school provides general and vocational education 
for those who are completing their formal school education and 
for the small proportion who plan to continue further education 
in higher institutions. 

Much of the material included in the first Bulletin was sum- 
marized in the 1945 Annual Report. Only the outline of Bulletin 
No. 1 is included here. 

1. An Introduciory Curriculum Manual for Teachers 
Introduction 

Maryland Looks Ahead in Education 
Education in a Democracy 
The Ends for Which We Educate 
Basis for Building a Curriculum 

Chart I - The Individual and His Educational Program 

Chart II - Types of Skills, Abilities, Understandings, 
Attitudes, Appreciations through Which the 
Ends of Education May Be Realized. 
Types of Curriculum Organization 
Subject Matter Organization of Curriculum Content 
The Functional vs the Academic Viewpoint in Education 

Chart III - A Typi'cal Subject - Matter Curriculum 

Organization 

The Core Curriculum 

Chart IV - A Type of Core Curriculum Organization 
Purposes of the School 

Some Developmental Characteristics of the Child and Impli- 
cations for Education 

Chart V - Developmental Characteristics of Child Growth 
The Nature of Learning 
Life in the United States Today 
Roads Toward Desirable Educational Goals 
Some Selected References 



1945 Summer Workshop at Towson 



189 



COUNTY MEMBERS OF COMMITTEES — 1945 TOWSON WORKSHOP 

ALLEGANY *Pos. Com. Nos. HARFORD 'Pos. Com. Nos. 



Ijcwyn C. Davis 


P 


10 


Benjamin S. Carroll 


a 


13 


Edward Finzell 


T 


6 


Hazel L. Fisher 


S 


6 


Margaret E. Hamilton 


1 


10 


John J. fisher 


T. 


6 


Marie D. Ingles 


1 


4 


Mary L. Grau 


8 


1,14 


Richard T. Rizer 


S 


1.4 


L. F. High 


P 


13 


Leah Stakem 


rp 


1 A 

14 


Hazel U. Malles 




o 
a 


Nellie S. Wilhson 


T 


2 


Mary A. Powell 


T 


9 


ANNE ARUNDEL 






Nan Webster 
CnarJes VV. WiIUs 


rp 
i 

c 
o 


o 

1 R 


ui(->riuuo lj, x\ nurcws 


1 


4 


HOWARD 






Huth J . BnchErEch 


rp 


o 






Nancy P. Hopkins 


T> 

r 


11 


Frances L. Brown 


T 
X 




David S. Jenkins 


Q 

O 


IZ 


William B. Jones 


V 


1 9 
Xi. 


Howard A. Kinhart 


T > 

r 


f\ 

y 


Kuth b. JVlacvean 


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oO 


1 ou lYiotiey 


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1 


KENT 






Mabel H. Parker 


P 


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Alfred C. Roth 


S 


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Wilbur J. Stenger 


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BALTIMORE 






J. . i>tiy<irci /\yrt;3 
M ildrcd Hoy le 


p 

X 

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A 

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Marguerite S. Davison 


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MONTGOMERY 






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NpIUp V flrav 


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Harry McDonald 


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Alice L. Rawson 


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CALVERT 






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PRINCE GEORGE'S 








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CAROLINE 






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C. Paul Barnhart 


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T. Conover Crouse 


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Paul D. Cooper 


p 


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Dorsey Donoho 


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M. Gladys Dickerson 


o 

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so 


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Mr<? T, F. Rtr)ne 


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Elmer D. Zeller 


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William G. Eaton 


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QUEEN ANNE'S 






Willard L. Hawkins 


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Raymond S. Hyson 


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XViro, ivi. VV . Xxabtllli^S 


T 

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ST. MARY'S 






Gerald E. Richter 


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George N. Shower 


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Lettie M. Dent 


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John F Wooden .Tr 


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LaVerne Fenwick 


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SOMERSET 






Mrs Mildred K BalHntr 


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Alice Mae Coulbourn 


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Maurice A. Dunkle 


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TAT ROT 






Olive Reynolds 


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Mary Jane Wood 


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wiiiiam r>. r inK 


P 


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CHARLES 






Lucy Impaciatore 


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X 


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Marlin V. Zimniernian 


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Milton M. Somers 


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WASHINGTON 












DORCHESTER 






Douglas M. Bivens 


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W. Theodore Boston 


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Innes Boyer 


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Albert b. rarver 


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1. Wilson Canall 


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1 ^ 
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HiveJyn E. Johnson 


s 


2 


W iliiam C Uienl 


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1 11 
1,11 


Paul Jones 


p 


13 


Katherine L. Healy 


o 


7 


Mary E. Mahaftey 


p 


5 


Miriam Hoffman 


s 


7 


Otis M. Trice 


p 


5 


WICOMICO 














FREDERICK 






C. H. Cordrey 


p 


4 


Frances B. Allis 


T 


14 


Lester A. Hall 


S 


13 


Elmer Chandlee 


P 


12 


Mary C. Hill 


p 


2 


Harry 0. Smith 


P 


13 


Mrs. L. M. Phillips 


S 


3 


Mrs. L. F. Thompson 


S 


14 


WORCESTER 






A. D. Worthington 


s 


7 






GARRETT 






Mrs. G. L. Lankford 


T 


9 






Margaret liaws 


S 


1.3 


Kate Bannatyne 


s 


5 


Mrs. L. S. Pilchard 


s 


6 


Merle D. Frantz 


p 


13 


Mrs. Nellie C. Post 


T 


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Frank J. (Jetty 


p 


9 








Gladys B. Hamill 


p 


4 








Mrs. Caroline Wilson 


s 


1 









S — Sup't, Aes't Sup't or Supervisor P — Principal T — Teacher 



190 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The Outline of the contents of the report of the Committee 
on the Junior High School No. 13 is shown below: 
Introductory statement 

The junior high school - A — Definition, B — Purpose, C — Trends in 
purpose and practices 

Some developmental characteristics of junior high school pupils and 
implications for the school program including important aspects of 
A — Physical development, B — Mental development, C — Social develop- 
ment, D — Over-all personal development 
Some important behavior characteristics of adolescents 
Suggestions for a junior high school program 
Some patterns of organization for the core program 
Types of organization for junior high school 
Admission to the junior high school 

Grouping children in the junior high school — A for teaching, B for 
homerooms 

Specialization in the junior high school 
Socializing activities 
Evaluating pupil growth 

Promotion policies in the junior high school 
Reporting to parents 
The library in the junior high school 
Selected references 



The outline of the contents of the report of the Committee on 
Experimental Practices No. 14 is included below: 
A Challenge and Introductory Statement 

A Basis for Improving the Educational Program 

Outlining Desirable Goals 

Improving the Program in Your School 
Practices That Point the Way to Desirable Goals 

Goal 1. A Continuous Program 

Goal 2. Organizing Learning Experiences 

Criteria for the selection of core experiences 
Procedure steps in setting up a core program 
Goal 3. Teacher-Pupil Planning 
Goal 4. The School as a Place Where Pupils Grow 
Goal 5. An Adequate Public Relations Program 
Goal G The Interrelation of the Community and the School 
Goal 7. A Program of In-service Training for Teachers 
Goal 8. A Report of Pupil Progress 
Goal 9. An Improvement in Meeting Individual Needs 
Goal 10. The Organization of Work Experiences 

Evaluation of Experimental Practices 

Bibliography 

Appendix 

A sample Core Unit - MYSELF AS A CONSUMER 
Art Opportunities in a Subject Matter Unit 
Language Opportunities in a Subject Matter Unit 
Science Opportunities in a Subject Matter Unit 

The Committee on Resources, No. 11, included helpful 
bibliographical material on 

1. Courses of Study 

2. Resource Units 

3. Books for Pupils and Teachers 

4. Bulletins, Magazine and Newspaper Articles, Pamphlets mA 
Periodicals 



1945 Workshop Bulletins on Junior High School, Experiments, 191 
Resources, Implementation, Senior High School 



5. Audio-Visual Aids 

a. Blackboard and bulletin board 

b. Dramatics - pa^^eants, plays 

c. Films - silent, sound 

d. Graphs - line, bar, pictorial statistics 

e. Maps and charts - flat, relief 

f. Models - objects, specimens 

g. Pictures - photographs, prints 

h. Posters and cartoons 

i. Radio 

j. Records and transcriptions 
k. Slides - filmstrip, glass 

6. Free and Inexpensive Teaching Aids 

7. Tests and Measuring Scales 

8. Community Resources 

a. People 

b. Places of historical, industrial, civic, social or other interest 

c. Materials of unusual interest 

d. Exhibits 

e. Excursions 

The Committee on Implementation, No. 12, included sug- 
gestions to county units for carrying forward the State program 
with respect to : 

County Workshops 

General Meetings of Teachers 

Faculty Meetings 

Meetings of Laymen's Group Including PTA'S 

as well as recommendations to the State Department of Edu- 
cation. 

The Report of the Committee on Points of Special Emphasis 
in the Senior High School, No. 10, dealt with the following 
matters : 

Introductory General Statement 

I — A Improvement of Senior High School Program during Transition Period 
B What is a Good High School? 

1 Efficient Organization and Administration 

2 A Comprehensive and Well Organized Guidance Program 

3 A Community Center for Adults as well as Youth 

4 Adequate Library Facilities and Resources to Meet the Needs of 
Youth and Adults 

5 A Comprehensive and Well Organized Student Activities Program 
to Train for Democratic Group Living and Provide Opportunities 
for Developing Initiative, Leadership, Followership and Good 
Citizenship 

6 Capable and Alert Teachers 

7 A Professionally Minded and Professionally Equipped Principal 

8 Adequate Enrollment to Provide Program Fitted to the Needs of 
Every Pupil 

II — A Securing Needed Emphasis Through the Introduction of New Courses 

1 Consumer Education 

2 High School Psychology 

3 Global Air Age Geography 

4 Conservation 



192 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



B Securing Needed Emphasis by: 

1 Introducing New Units in Existing Courses 

2 Giving Increased Emphasis to Units Now Being Taught 

3 Appraising Relative Importance of Topics and Units 

C Problems That Need Increased Attention in Maryland's New Program 

1 Consumer Problems 

2 Conservation 

3 International Relationships 

4 Intercultural Relationships 

5 Health and Physical Fitness (including Mental Health) 

6 Vocational Education 

7 Air-Age Education 

8 Home and Family Life 

9 Individual Differences 

10 Maintaining Skills in the Tools of Learning 

III — Possible Contributions of the Major Academic Subjects Towards 

Securing These Emphases 
A English, including Language Arts and Reading and Literature 
B Social Studies 
C Mathematics 
D Science 

IV — Increasing the School's Services to the Community 

A A program of Adult Education (General as well as Vocational and 

Technical Courses) 
B Making the School a Community Center with the Following Ob- 
jectives in Mind 

1 Bringing the School and the Home Closer Together 

2 Educating the Public to the Importance of Education 

3 Making the Public Conscious of the Relationship of Education 
to Community Welfare and Progress 

C A Well-Planned Program of In-Service Training for Teachers 

V — The Functional Viewpoint in Education 

A As applied to the Selection of Subject Matter 

B As applied to all Projects Undertaken by the School 

The Report of the Committee on Language Arts, No. 2, is 
summarized below: 

The language arts include the fields of reading', oral and written com- 
munication, spelling and handwriting. (Literature is assigned to the field 
of Fine Arts.) Success in the life of an individual and his personal satis- 
faction from life are conditioned by the degree to which he learns to use 
skills in the language arts. Emotional stability is aided or hampered by 

the ease with which he fits himself into his world through use of these 
skills. 

The language arts must be taught functionally as a continuous pro- 
gram in every subject and grade from 1 to 12. This applies to the correc- 
tion of errors in language usage, spelling, writing, and reading, all of which 
must be linked to all activities where reading, writing, composition and 
language are employed. Errors are corrected by specific remedial work 
planned for the individual child who needs it, who must learn by use of 
the correct forms and not by memorizing rules. 

In writing, legibility in all written work in all subjects is the goal 
rather than the adoption of specific systems of arm or finger movement. 



1945 Workshop Bulletins on Senior High School, Language 193 

Arts, and Social Education 

Remedial instruction in reading may be needed for individual pupils 
at all age and grade levels in high as well as elementary school and re- 
quires that content material be suited to the interests and level of the in- 
dividual pupil at his particular stage of development. In the reading pro- 
gram a wide variety of material will be used, including newspapers, mag- 
azines, cartoons, and radio guides. Oral reading will be emphasized be- 
cause of its use in radio broadcasts and audience situations. 

The bulletin includes suggestions of opportunities for pupils in Oral 
and Written Communication and Reading on the Primary and Intermediate 
Levels and specific suggestions for Grades 7, 8, and 9 and the Senior High 
School. 

The Report of the Committee on the School's Program in 
Social Education, No. 3, dealt with: 

The Importance and Purpose of the School's Program in Social Ed- 
ucation 

The Teacher in the Program of Social Education 
The Public and Its Schools 
Current Trends in Social Education 

Criteria Which Should Be Used in Selecting Subject Matter from the 

Social Environment 
Does the Subject Matter 

1. Come within the capacity of the individual and his under- 
standing of its worth? 

2. Involve the application of controlling considerations which 
should operate in all democratic group situations? 

3. Represent an area of living in which this individual can 
live most profitably now? 

4. Develop the individual in the direction of the desired ends 
of social education? 

History in the Course 

Subject Matter Logically or Chronologically Organized 

Progressive or Cumulative Learning within the Cyclical or Spiral 

Arrangement of Subjects 
Flexibility of the Program 
The Core 

Maryland History - Maryland the Nation in Miniature 
Other Social Study Offerings 

Psychology Integrated With the Social Studies Program and Not an 

Independent Course 
Further Development of the Program 

1. Interrelationships between the Personal Qualities of the 
Individual and the Social Institutions (Home, School, 
Church, Economic System, Political System, Recreation 
System) to Which He Must Adjust 

2. Other Objectives 

3. The Unit Pattern 

Charts Showing the Overall Content Design of the School's Program 
in Social Education for the Primary Grades, the Intermediate Grades, the 
Junior High School, the Senior High School 

References 

The Report of the Committee on Science, No. 4, is outlined 
as shown below: 

The Place of Science in the School Program 
Human life consists of an interplay between the individual and the 
resources of his environment. An understanding and control of certain 
basic asi>ects of his environment have enabled man to live a more satisfy- 



194 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



ing and longer life, free of many fears and superstitions he had in earlier 
years. In order that progress in understanding and control of environ- 
ment and self may continue, children and youth must be taught scientific 
methods of thinking and solving problems. 

Science definitely overlaps, contributes to and draw^s from the fields of 
health, physical education, social studies, home economics, mathematics, and 
many others. Each school must work out a functional program best suited 
to the development of its pupils, coordinating and correlating those experi- 
ences which will contribute most to the "all" of living. 

Some Recent Trends in Teaching Science with Implication 
for Content, Organization, Procedures, Resources 

Scope and sequence charts include the content of science to be pre- 
sented as questions or problems needing answers under the following eight 
major threads for primary grades, intermediate grades, grade 7, grade 8, 
grade 9, and for the senior high school: 

I Interdependence of living things 

II Conditions essential to life 

III Adaptations of living things 

IV Conservation of natural resources 

V Conservation of human resources (health and safety) 
VI Man's use of energy 
VII Man's use of chemical changes 
VIII Man's place in the universe 
References 



The Report of the Committee on Mathematics, No. 5, was 
outlined as follows: 

I. Introduction — Importance of Mathematics to the Individual and 
Civilization. 

II. Purposes of Mathematics in the Educational Program. 

III. Recent Trends in Mathematics in the Educational Program. 

IV. Explanation of Chart 

V. Grade Placement Chart - Subject Matter Content and Suggested 
Activities. 

A. Primary Grades 

B. Intermediate Grades 

C. Junior High School - Grade 7 

D. Junior High School - Grade 8 

E. Junior High School - Grade 9 

VI. Grade Placement Chart of Senior High School Subjects. 
VII. Suggested Mathematical Attainments at Completion of Grade 6, 

Junior High School, and Senior High School. 
VIII. The Teaching of Mathematics-Development of Understandings, Drill 
IX. A Maintenance of Skills Program 
X. A Course in Consumer Mathematics for Grade 12 
XI. Bibliography 

XII. A Unit in 7th Grade Mathematics 
History of Numbers and Measures 

The Report of the Committee on Health Education, Physical 
Education and Recreation, No. 6, included a statement on the 
need for an adequate, appropriate, flexible program accepted by- 
all, placed on a parity with other school programs, to aid in the 
health development of all pupils. 



1945 Workshop Bullf:tins on Science, Mathematics, Health 195 

AND Physical Education 

Trends in the Health Education, Physical Education and Recreation 
program were listed. 

Charts showing knowledge, attitudes and habits to be developed in 
primary grades, intermediate grades, junior high school and senior high 
school dealt with the following areas in 

Health Education: Cleanliness, Clothing and Shoes, Posture, Safety, 
Disease Immunization, Sleep and Rest, Dental and Medical Care, 
Social Health, Narcotics and Alcoholics, Body Structure and Func- 
tions; Care of Eyes, Ears, Speech, Organs; Nutrition 
Physical Education: Rhythms, Games, Team Games, Individual Ath- 
letics, Self Testing, Formal Floor Activities 
Recreation: Manual Arts, Music, Physical Education, Communica- 
tion, Fellowship, Nature, Social Relationships 
Health education and recreation will be an integral part of arts and 
crafts, home economics, industrial arts, agriculture, science, social studies, 
physical education, art, music, language arts and other subjects. There 
should be a high degree of coordination, integration and correlation if the 
program is to be effective. 

But all of health and physical education and recreation and all educa- 
tion if it is v.tal must touch the child's life not only in school, but also at 
home and in the community. To this end the following recommendations 
should be carried out: 

The health, physical education and recreation program should be 
flexible to meet all challenges and situations. 

All children should participate in accordance with their individual 
need. 

The guidance, selection, appointment, teaching load, and in-service 
training of the teaching staff for health and physical education 
must be planned as carefully as for the rest of the teaching staff. 

Every pupil should be given a periodic dental and medical examination 
with results kept as part of a permanent health lecord and with 
plans for a follow-up remedial program. 

The school plant should have adequate facilities for the health, phys- 
ical education and lunch programs, and should be inspected and 
appraised regularly so that unhealthful conditions may be speedily 
remedied and eliminated. 

There should be a committee on healthful living for each school, for 
the county and for the State. There should be a county and State 
board of control to supervise interscholastic competition. 

An adequate county budget should be available for leadership of a 
recreation program including dance and play activities for youth 
and adults. This should include an adequate water safety program. 

Report of the Committee on The Fine Arts - Art, Literature, 
Music, No. 7 presents the following point of view: 

Since all living has need for expression and the arts offer the media 
for it, they should be included for all children throughout the entire school 
program. Wide and varied experiences will be necessary to touch many 
interests and abilities. Whether they be organized as separate subjects or 
as an integral part of the entire school program, the content must be drawn 
from life experiences. 

The individual is both a producer and consumer of the fine arts. 
Certain skills are necessary before the fine arts can become functional. 
Creative expression in the fine arts should be encouraged as well as appre- 
ciation of the creative expression of others. 

The development of personality takes place in art when the individual 
acquires intellectual, spiritual, and aesthetic satisfactions, acquires skill in 
the use of media and techniques, increases his self-confidence while becoming 
less self-conscious, releases his creative and imaginative powers, finds re- 



196 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



sources for the use of his leisure time, and finds emotional therapy; in 
literature when imagination permits escape from the world of reality into 
the world of make believe and fantasy, when understanding of stories, 
poems and biography promote idealism, hero worship and ethical values, 
when appreciation ol humor helps over many difficult situations, and when 
the delights of friendship and romance through selfless devotion are experi- 
enced; and in 7niisic when one sings, plays, dances or carries out rhythmic 
movement alone or with others, to recreate the works of great composers, 
to express emotion or to unify experience for the individual or group. 

Appreciation of our natural environment, the source of all art princi- 
ples, expands and enriches our cultural background, is a means of self- 
expression which promotes more effective learning, contributes to the power 
of critical thinking, planning and executing, and develops a good social 
balance. Those who have expressed their appreciation of the beauty and 
inspiration of nature in literature add to our delight in and awareness of 
the natural world around us. In the struggle for food, shelter and life 
itself, primitive people experience many emotions that can be expressed only 
through 7niisic. Man has learned to fashion crude instruments and to imitate 
rhythmic movements found in Nature. Through music man has become 
aware of and responsive to sight, sound, movement and beauty in Nature. 

Art appreciation helps us to become design conscious, to experience 
emotional release, to a "Way of Life" which includes aesthetic contributions 
and understandings, to meet human needs in home, community, religion, and 
business, to do creative productive work in which ability can be demon- 
strated, to enlarge our cultui'al background, and to understand the necessity 
of give and take in social relationship. Through literature we enlarge our 
experience about the contributions of our own and other people, their mode 
of life, their foims of government, their love of country, the realization 
that the common people of all lands desire adequate food, shelter and cloth- 
ing and an opportunity to bring their young to maturity, with an under- 
standing of the culture they have inherited. Fear and prejudice are banished 
when we know about the history and appreciate the customs and cultures of 
people of whom we were ignorant. As an individual grows in knowledge 
and control of himself, he grows socially. Music activities deepen an indi- 
vidual's insight into and mastery of the environment in which he lives. 
Sharing experiences with others democratically builds democratic under- 
standing of human relationships. Music, among the oldest means of com- 
munication, provides a way of unifying groups. Learning to know great 
music brings the individual and group in contact with all forms of human 
expression. 

The report provides for each field in the Fine Arts an overview, design, 
sample unit and resources. 

The Report of the Committee on Practical Arts and Voca- 
tional Education, No. 8, presents the following: 

A comprehensive program of practical arts and vocational education 
incorporates basic concepts of the contributive values of educational and 
training activities which prepare pupils to live and to work together effec- 
tively. Both the practical arts and general vocational courses are now 
recognized as core phases of the whole pattern of public education. They 
function in any broad program of studies as integral parts, without which 
the common education of all youth would be void of understandings of and 
abilities for successful participation in our modern industrial society. They 
continue liberal learning but also provide the basis for desirable vocational 
placements. 

The practical arts as well as general vocational education constitute 
indispensable subject matter content. They may provide educational ex- 
perience for all, to be interwoven into the curriculum of the first six grades 
in the form of work activities or applied art. In the seventh year the home 



1945 Workshop Bulletins on thk Fine Arts, Practical Arts, 197 
Vocational P]ducation and Agriculture 

arts and industrial arts may assume an arts and crafts pattern conducted 
by regular qualified subject matter teachers, or by art teachers who give 
emphasis to applications as well as to design, or by teachers especially 
ti ained in the arts and ci-afts. The practical arts should be rc(iuired in the 
junior high school yeais in varying degrees as to time allotment and con- 
tent, but they should be elective in all senior high schools. 

Specific vocational training opportunities in varying degree must be 
provided for the many who may profit thereby. 

8a Ag^riculture 

Instruction in agriculture is found at all levels. In the first six 
elementary school grades, activity units in agriculture are usually correlated 
with social and natural science studies in order to stimulate interest in 
growing plants and animals, acquaintance with one's environment, and 
knowledge of the control of plants and animals to meet man's needs. Trends 
are to emphasize soil, water and wild life conservation and to recognize 
the part agricultuie plays in day to day living. 

At the seventh and eighth grade levels of the junior high schools the 
objectives are the development of interest in plant and animal life both at 
school and at home, education in terms of the natural environment includ- 
ing the vocabulary of natural and applied science, and experiences in the 
control of plants and animals to meet man's needs. At this level agriculture 
is taught to all pupils for two periods a week in grade seven and from two 
to three periods a week in grade eight either by a teacher trained in agri- 
culture, or by a natural or social science teacher who has a special flair 
for agriculture. 

At the ninth grade level, on an elective basis for from three to five 
periods a week, the economic aspect is expanded in the direction of produc- 
tion of plants and animals for home consumption and sometimes for sale. 
This involves an economic approach to soil fertility, management, produc- 
tion in terms of family diet, control of plant and animal diseases and pests, 
harvesting, preservation and storage, and construction of simple production 
equipment. Production is taught in terms of needs and standards to reveal 
new concepts of product, to stimulate future efforts by comparisons in school 
exhibits and fairs, and to develop abiding interests in phases of nature as 
they touch daily living. 

At the senior high school level agriculture is studied systematically 
in an intensive integrated curriculum for three years ten periods a week by 
those who elect it as an education for farming and related occupations. 
Home and school production projects are required activities of each pupil. 
The school furnishes the necessary science, farm mechanics and laboratory 
equipment; the home furnishes the land, seed, livestock, farming equipment 
and necessary capital. Related biology in the tenth year and related physics 
in the eleventh or twelfth year are optional. 

The objective is the completion of the consideration of plants and 
animals as biological processes with the economic motive dominant. Train- 
ing in the correction of deficiencies in farm skills revealed through the use 
of check lists is required. Managerial decisions in supervised farming 
programs are given attention as well as construction of small farm equip- 
ment and re: air of farm tools. Participation in the "Future Farmers of 
America" gives training in working together in groups and committees and 
as leaders in considering the problems of farmers. 

For older farm youth who have graduated or left school, for two-hour 
periods once or twice a week in late fall or early spring, courses are ofll'ered 
in farm machinery reconditioning or repair, or technical problems such as 
reports on production, prices, use of fertilizers, feeding experiments, cost 
accounting, sources of credit, crop insurance and systems of farming. 

For adult farmers who are owners or renters, unit type courses are 
offered for short periods during the winter or non-producing seasons. 



198 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



8b Home Economics Education 

The scope of home economics education for youth has broadened from 
the original areas of food and nutrition, textiles and clothing, housing and 
shelter, formerly designated as domestic science, domestic arts or house- 
hold arts, to include all phases of wholesome home and family life. Since 
successful family living depends on the mutual understanding of all members, 
boys as well as girls should study those areas of home economics in which 
they participate now and will later in their own homes, such as home 
management of time, energy, money and human resources, home furnishing, 
budgeting and consumer education, child care and training, home and family 
living, and human relationships in home and community. In this way they 
will enrich their individual way of life, become the best possible members 
of their famil.es and communities, establish the best possible homes of their 
own, and adjust to changing living conditions. 

Since there is a trend toward a curriculum with home economics as 
a major subject for girls who will use it soon after graduation as a 
contributing factor on a job or in a home, it is desirable that the school 
have a house or apartment comparable with an actual home in order to 
provide real training. Real life situations for teaching home economics 
should be used whenever possible - for example, a play school with young 
children from the neighborhood conducted lor from s x to twelve weeks in 
which the girls take charge of the children and plan for their play, health 
habits and rest; projects with teacher supervision and parent cooperation 
carried on at home with home equipment during the school year and in 
the summer to provide opportunity for practice in planning, managing, 
executing and judging; work in homes for pay under teacher supervision 
to furnish tests of skills, management ability and standards of work. 
Work experiences in dry goods and grocery stores, hotels, restaurants, 
cafeterias, hospitals, laundries and the like, furnish guidance in job selec- 
tion, check on need for further training, and give experience in working 
for a manager in out-of-school situations. 

In the primary grades learning for the child centers about the home 
and family, its activities and relationships as part of the regular school 
program. Food and health habits are formed in childhood so that nutri- 
tion education is particularly important in the elementary school and should 
be correlated with the school lunch program. 

In the intermediate grades homemaking problems such as food selec- 
tion, consumer buying, cleanliness as related to health and homemaking 
duties such as table setting, bed making and cleaning, help the pupil to 
be a desirable member of the family. 

In the seventh grade of the junior high school the transition begins 
from home economics activities in a core program to home arts as a separate 
area. A course in arts and crafts related to home economics and industrial 
arts correlated with the rest of the seventh grade program for boys and 
girls in groups not exceeding 30 taught in an arts and crafts room by an 
arts and crafts teacher is recommended three periods a week. Until the 
special arts and crafts room and teacher are available, the class may be 
conducted in the homeroom by the aits and crafts, applied arts or homeroom 
teacher; or the girls and boys may be taught separately by the home 
economics teacher, and shop teacher respectively in their respective rooms. 

The individual seventh-grade pupil should learn to: 

1. Develop finger dexterity and manipulative skill 

2. Develop accuracy in measuring, cutting and fitting 

3. Interpret and follow directions 

4. Get acquainted with simple tools 

5. Understand the basic principles of color and design 

6. Work with other pupils 

7. Feel satisfaction in creation 

8. Develop ingenuity 

9. Formulate ideas for leisure time activities and hobbies 

10. AssuniQ, responsibility in proper use and care of materials 



1945 Workshop Bulletin on Home Economics 



199 



Suggested arts and crafts projects are: 

1. WeavinK 8. Costume jewelry 13. Ruk weaving 

2. Seasonal activities (shell craft) 14. Patchwork 

3. Papercraft 9. Woodcraft 15. Wall Paper 

4. Lettering 10. Leathercraft Dcsiprn Work 

5. Stenciling 11. Basketry IG. Fabric c-raft 

6. Block printing 12. Metalcraft Spatter craft 

7. Hand sewing 

With junior high school classes in general home economics or home 
arts the trend is to provide laboratory work for family groups, while with 
senior high school classes in homemaking having a major in vocational home 
economics, individual woik and responsibility with teacher-pupil planning 
is gradually developed. Class enrollment should be suited to the amount of 
equipment provided, preferably 24 pupils. Visual aids can be used to great 
advantage. 

In areas of mutual interest (housing, home and yard improvement, 
etc.) joint classes in home economics and agriculture, or home economics 
and industrial arts may be carried on, or classes may be exchanged so that 
girls may understand about gardening, poultry raising, dairying, etc. or 
renovation of furniture, electrical or plumbing repair, etc., while boys may 
learn to understand the home-making areas in which they participate now, 
or will when they establish their own homes. 

Intensive courses in the areas of food and clothing for ten periods a 
week should be offe' ed for over-age girls in junior high school who are apt 
to drop out of school before graduation. Part-time classes may be provided 
for those girls who have dropped out of school to work who will be or are 
home makers. 

Since eighth and ninth grade Home Arts is the only required course 
in home economics in the entire high school program, the subject matter 
will be general in scope so that if no additional work is elected in the senior 
high school, the pupil will have received the basic elements necessary for 
hom-emaking and for home and family living. Since eighth grade pupils 
have a short interest span and a desire for much activity, foods and related 
units may be taught, while clothing and related units may be offered for 
ninth grade pupils. The time allotment for the eighth and ninth grade 
junior high school classes is 3 to 5 single 60 minute periods per week or 
one double period plus one single 45 minute period per week. 

In the senior high school, home economics is entirely elective. Two 
courses are offered - one in general home economics, the other in vocational 
home economics-homemaking. 

The general home economics course is offered from 3 to 5 one-hour 
periods per week to any non-vocational pupil who elects it. Designed for 
academic and commercial pupils, the areas included are those of general 
interest, such as clothing, foods, etc. which serve to train pupils as con- 
sumers. Personal living as well as home and family living is emphasized. 

Homemaking (vocational home economics) is set up as a definite 
curriculum with a home economics major leading to a vocational diploma. 
This course should be offered five or more one-hour p^iods per week for 
three consecutive years. One unit of credit is earned for each scheduled 
five-hours per week plus two home projects per year. Since this course 
develops definite skills in homemaking activities and consumer education, 
the pupil receives training as a producer. 

Membership in the national organizations - Future Homemakers of 
America for white girls and New Homemakers of America for negro girls - 
is strongly recommended for the personal development of girls in Vocational 
Home Economics (Homemaking) classes. 

The report includes the subjects offered those majoring in homemaking 
with number of periods offered in grades 10, 11 and 12 as well as units in 
vocational home economics for these grades. Suggestions for units for 
general home economics are also included. 

The report also includes topics suggested for adult education and 
out-of-school youth. 



200 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



8c Industrial Arts Education 

Industrial arts should provide exploratory experience in a variety of 
occupational areas with the aim of: 

Satisfying the natural creative interest in maki'ng practical things 
Developing knowledge and appreciation of natural resources and 

industrial products 
Developing desirable personal and social habits 
Encouraging pursuit of worthwhile leisure time projects 
Developing healthy attitude toward and practice of good work 
habits 

Developing ability to purchase and use materials and services wisely 
Developing functional skills to maximum capacity 
Developing appreciation for craftsmanship and good design in in- 
dustrial projects 

Developing craftsmanship in all trades and occupations and a whole- 
some respect for the workers at all levels in all occupations 

Industrial arts in the first six grades as in the case for home economics 
(see page 198) is part of the general educational program. In the seventh 
grade or first year of junior high school, arts and crafts are offered from 
the social and consumer points of view for both boys and girls. For sug- 
gestive projects see page 199 under home economics. 

Industrial arts is required in grades eight and nine of the junior high 
school for boys only for from 3 to 5 periods a week. Single class periods of 
60 minutes are recommended for fundamental tool operations, consumers' 
and general information related to four or five recommended areas: Wood- 
work, Electricity, Sheet Metal, Bench Metal, Drawing, (Functional in grade 
8 and Mechanical in grade 9.) Home Mechanics should be stressed. In the 
one-room general shop program, classes should be divided into groups equal 
in size for each area and should bo required to rotate at equal intervals for 
the four or five areas offered during the year. In larger schools having unit 
shops, classes should spend an equal amount of time in each area and be 
rotated through the various unit shops. 

In the eighth gi ade, the projects mad<i should involve the use of hand 
tools only, while more mature pupils in the ninth grade should be given 
instruction in the use, care, and operation of power machinery. 

Slow learners and pupils likely to leave school before or upon the com- 
pletion of the ninth grade should be given additional time in the industrial 
arts program. 

The size of shop, the amount of equipment and the number of work 
stations should determine the numl>er of pupils who may be taught effec- 
tively at one time. In grades 8 and 9 the enrollment should not exceed 30 
and preferably 25. 

8d Trade and Industrial Education 

Trade and industrial education offered in the senior high school is a 
cooperative enterprise involving educators, labor and management. Indus- 
try must supply information regarding new training programs needed or 
improvement of those in existence. Recruitment, placement, pre-service 
and in-service training of competent instructors is essential if the school 
is to do its part. Adequate physical facilities in accord with accepted in- 
dustrial practices should be provided. The employment of a full-time county 
supervisor of vocational education helps in promoting, developing and 
improving the offerings, placement, followup, and relationships with labor 
and industry. 

The offerings should provide training for opportunities, if available 
in the locality, in some of the following: auto maintenance, aircraft manu- 
facturing and maintenance, wood industries, metal products, electrical 
construction and maintenance, building construction, textiles and garment 
trades, food trades, transportation, graphic arts, floriculture, cosmetology, 
mining, commercial art, industrial chemistry, and other manufacturing and 
commercial industries existing. 



1945 Workshop Bulletins on Industrial Arts, Trade and 201 

Industrial Education 



For the vocational industrial education program, out of a six-clock- 
hour day at least two hours shall be p^iven to shop and laboratory work 
to develop skills and good work habits and attitudes, and at least one hour 
shall be devoted to related instruction in applied mathematics, applied 
science, mechanical drawing or applied art or other courses which provide 
technical knowledge necessary to the development of intelligent workers. 
English, social studies, and health education are non-vocational subjects 
taken during the remaining hours. 

General industrial courses, operated in a general shop in a small high 
school organized for a series of experiences in shop practices and related 
subjects, or in large schools by a rotation among available unit shops, pre- 
pare for "families" of occupations in trades and industry. Their purpose 
is to develop skills and knowledge transferable among specific jobs within 
a particular occupation on quick and effective adjustments into kindred 
occupations. 

Part-time cooperative programs in which pupils spend part-time 
(usually half-time ) in remunerated jobs with an employer and part-time 
in school subjects related to their work experience are carried on under 
the supervision of a coordinating instructor. Some of these courses are 
described as "diversified occupations" which are available to girls as well 
as boys who spend half-time in remunerative employment in a diversity 
of jobs, and the other half in school under a coordinating teacher who 
unifies and secures effective outcomes in both in-school instruction and 
outside work experience. 

Apprenticeship may be another form of a part-time cooperative pro- 
gram in which the learner participates in the actual work of various recog- 
nized trades and industrial occupations, under the direction of skilled 
workers, and also receives related instruction. 

The physical arrangement of the shop is important. Lighting, venti- 
lation, adequate unimpeded floor space, arrangements of machines for in- 
structional purposes, foi' servicing, oiling .and repair, for loading and un- 
loading, for safety and health, and space for storing equipment and tools 
and for planning are important considerations. 

Trade extension short-unit intensive courses for out-of-school youth 
and adult workers may be organized to supplement the skills and knowledge 
of the daily occupation of those employed in industrial pursuits, for the 
purpose of improving knowledge and skills on the job or to prepare the 
worker for advancement. These courses can be given either as adult 
education courses in the school or in the industrial plants. 

Trade preparatory pre-employment training of out-of-school youth and 
adults for a specific trade or industrial occupation may be given as adult 
education courses. 



8e Business and Distributive Education 



Grade 9 



Grade 10 



English 
Social Studies 
Business Arithmetic 
Office Practice 



Salesmanship 
Record Keeping 
Office Procedures 
Duplicating-Typing-Stenography 



Grade 11 

English 

U. S. History 



Secretarial 

Typing 

Stenography 

Bookkeeping 



General Business 
Typing 

Bookkeeping or 
Consumer Education or 
Salesmanship 



Distributive Education 

Consumer Education 
Salesmanship 



202 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Grade 12 
English 

Problems of Democracy 

Secretarial General Business Distributive Education 

Typing Office Practice Store English 

Stenography Typing Merchandising 

Bookkeeping or Job Problems 

Elective Actual selling 15 hours 

per week 

The Report of the Committee on Guidance, No. 9 is outlined 
below: 

Each school needs a guidance service to give individual pupils help 
on such problems as: 

How to orient to a new school situation and choose courses and 
subjects 

How to become a more efficient learner and determine reasonable 
goals of school achievement 

How to adjust socially to school 

How to recognize personality difficulties and to deal with home and 
environmental problems 

How to secure the aid of specialists or special agencies where their 
services are needed 

How to secure information on occupational opportunities, require- 
ments and trends 

How to make a realizable vocational choice and qualify for the vo- 
cation chosen 

How to select and evaluate exploratory experiences 

How to get a job and make progress in it 

How to make best use of part-time and vacation employment 

Essential services of a guidance program 

1. Cumulative Data on Each Individual Pupil 

a. Inventory of assets and limitations in record folder for each in- 
dividual pupil 

b. Cumulative pupil record card up to date in the following areas: 
school attendance; achievements; test scores in intelligence, read- 
ing and arithmetic; home conditions; hobbies, extra curricular 
activit.es, wo k, and out-ol-school experiences; relation to peers 
and adults. The above information to be secured and recorded 
periodically through the year. 

c. Interest inventories, anecdotal records, autobiographies 

2. Occupational Information Program on the World of Work 

a. Six-week unit on occupations in grade 9 of junior high school in 
connection with social studies 

b. Formation of interest groups for those planning to enter the 
same vocation to meet with counselor for woU-planned meetings 
once each semester in junior high school years, twice each se- 
mester in years 10 and 11, and once a month in senior year 12. 
Outside speakers, former pupils in the vocation, trips, displays 
on bulletin board and assembly programs will be used as part 
of the activities of each interest group 

c. A well-organized file of information on occupations obtained from 
magazines, newspapers, pamphlets, professional, business and 
trade journals, classified according to occupation. A shelf of 
books on occupations 



1945 Workshop Bulletins on Business Education and Guidance 203 



3. Counseling Service 

a. A well-trained and experienced teacher with special preparation 
in g:uidance 

b. One period of counseling? time per day per 100 pupils 

c. An attractive private office for the counselor well-equipped with 
nriU'r als on counseling: well or^ranizod and filed 

d. Arrangements for orientation and articulation of pupils starting 
elementary, junior or senior high school, or college, or work ex- 
perience. The sending school prepares for the next step by 
having a plan of articulation and the receiving agency orients 
to the new situation quickly and intelligently. 

e. Interviews for teachers and pupils, with the counselor, should be 
made rossible by appointment. 

f. Long-time educational and vocational planning by the counselor 
with pupil and parent is needed at the beginning of the senior 
high school for tentative educational and vocational choices. 

g. Identifi-^'at'on of pupil-:; w^th unusual talents and interests and 
unusual problems within first month after entering school 

h. Work with failing pupils should be done by classroom and home- 
room teachers, arid if additional help is necessary, by the coun- 
selor. 

4. Training Opportunities 

a. Each school should try to broaden offerings to meet ever-widen- 
ing needs of pupils. 

b. Pupih should be given adequate information followed by discus- 
sion and cJireful supervision in making a choice of courses and 
subjects. If time for individual counseling is not available, this 
sei v'ce must be arranged for groups. 

c. Work-exper'ence in distributive education, dive-sified occupations 
or other work opportunities may provide valuable training if 
carefully planned and supervised. Suitable part-time and vaca- 
tion employment should be encouraged by the school. 

d. Cataloc:ue'== of colleges and schools in the area offering higher 
education or specialized training should be available. The possi- 
bilities and limitations of correspondence courses should be ex- 
plained. 

5. Placement 

a. Graduates and others leaving school should be encouraged to 
register with the United States Employment Service in the area. 

b. Vocational teachers should aid their pupils to secure satisfactory 
work. The counselor should help non-vocational pupils. 

c. Counselor should have, study, and know laws of State and Federal 
Governments regarding employment of minors. 

d. Definite information on job getting and job progress should be 
given for the first time in the "Occupations Unit" in grade 9. 
(See 2a on page 202.) 

6. Follow-Up 

Systematic data on occupations and recommendations of pupils 
who have left high school should be secured at intervals of one, 
three and five years after departure. This may be done by letter, 
personal contact with the individual or some member of his 
family. School censu-; data may furnish clues. This follow-up 
may be done by faculty members or senior pupils. Results when 
tabulated and interpreted should be discussed by faculty and 
pupils. 

Specific responsibilities of school personnel, i. e.. superintendent, 
principal, counselor, classroom teacher and homeroom teacher, for the guid- 
ance program are outlined in the report. 



204 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



High School Supervision in Maryland Counties 
In 1945-46 supervision of high schools was carried on by 
the State staff: Dr. Earle Hawkins who acted as director of 
instruction as well as high school supervisor in Baltimore and 
Harford and the extreme western counties, Mr. E. Clarke 
Fontaine who continued work with the high school staffs on 
the Eastern Shore, Dr. Wilbur Devilbiss who had the southern 
and central Maryland counties, Mr. James E. Spitznas who served 
as supervisor in charge of the curriculum laboratories central- 
ized in rooms set aside at the State Teachers Colleges at Towson 
and Bowie, Mr. Paul E. Huffington for the colored high schools, 
the State vocational staffs in agriculture, home economics, in- 
dustrial education, and educational and vocational guidance. 

County supervision of high schools had been provided for 
a number of years in Allegany, Baltimore, Carroll, Harford, 
and Montgomery. With the beginning of the twelve-year pro- 
gram at the junior high school level several counties felt a need 
for county supervision in this area. This was the case in Balti- 
more County and Wicomico. 

In addition, there were special supervisors of industrial 
work in Allegany, Anne Arundel, Montgomery, Prince George's 
and Washington ; of home economics in Montgomery, Prince 
George's (part-time), and Washington; of music in Baltimore, 
Carroll (part-time) , Washington ; of art in Baltimore ; of guidance 
in Montgomery; of health and physical education in Baltimore, 
(part-time) . 

A large part of the emphasis was placed on help in putting 
into effect the 1945 legislation making possible the beginning of 
a twelve-year program for the twenty counties which had been 
operating on an eleven-year plan. 

The year started out with the 1945 State two-weeks' summer 
workshop conference. 

There were general sessions and meetings of 14 committees. 
The entire State supervisory staff acted as leaders and consul- 
tants for the 1945 summer conference. (See pages 187 to 203.) 
The Child Study Program 

The State high school supervisors arranged for a three day 
meeting with Dr. Prescott in Deceml)er 1945 for junior high 
school principals and teachers interested in learning more about 
pupils of junior high school age. The purpose was to bring about 
a better understanding of some of the problems met daily in con- 
tacts of teachers and children. Practical work based on actual 
procedures and observations of children dealt with how children 
grow and develop, why they behave as they do, and how they 
can best be helped. 

A principal and teacher from each county who were work- 
ing with boys and girls on the junior high school level were in- 
vited with the thought that they might organize groups to study 
junior high school boys and girls. 



High School Supervision ; Child-.Study; Principals' Conference 205 

The child study program is closely allied with the eventual 
development of a more functional twelve grade program and 
should be considered an important phase of curriculum develop- 
ment. 

Third Annual State-Wide Conference of High School Principals 

The State-wide high school i)rincipals' conference not held 
in 1945 because of restrictions on travel, was resumed May 2-4, 
1946, with the following program : 

Thursday, May 2, 1946 

12:00 Luncheon 
1:00 Opening of the Conference, E. C. Fontaine, Chairman 
Welcome— Dr. T. G. Pullen 

Address — The Philosophy Underlying the New Program — Dr. 

Earle T. Hawkins 
Announcements 

2:15-5:00 Discussion Group Meetings— First Session 

The Principal's Responsibility in the New Program 

I Organizing the School for the Best Functioning of the New 
Program 

II Providing Effective Means for Teacher Growth and Under- 
standing 

III Helping Teachers Better Understand Children through the 

Child-Study Program 

IV Obtaining and Using Effectively Adequate Library and Re- 

source Materials 
V Evaluating the Program as It Evolves 
VI Developing an Effective Public Relations Program 

6:00 Dinner 

7:00 Evening Program — James E. Spitznas, Chairman 

Address — Facts, Fallacies and a Functional Program — Dr. Harold 
F. Clark 

8:00 Meeting of Department of Secondary School Principals of the 
Maryland State Teachers' Association 

Friday, May 3 

9:00 Discussion Group Meetings — Second session 

12:15 Luncheon 

Chairman — Wilbur Devilbiss 

Address — Discovering the Adolescent — Dr. Daniel A. Prescott 
1:30 Discussion Group Meetings — Third Session 

Saturday, May 4 

9:30 Panel discussion- Dr. Pullen, Moderator. Members: Dr. James 
H. Fox, Dr. Harold B. Alberty, Dr. Daniel A. Prescott, Miss 
Helen M. Clark, Dr. Harry A. Jager, Mr. Clark Hobbs, con- 
sultants to the six discussion groups. 
11:00 Chairman- Dr. Hawkins 

Address- The Principal as a Professional Leader— Dr. C. Leslie 
Cushman, Assistant Superintendent of Schools, Philadelphia. 



206 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Mr. Fontaine opened the conference with the theme **As 
is the principal, so is the school. He is the attorney for the 
school with the public, pupils, teachers, patrons and community." 

In Dr. Pullen's welcome to the principals, on Thursday he 
said that the essence of democracy lies in the local community. 
We must solve our problems on the local basis. The State Depart- 
ment of Education does not wish to dominate, but to exercise 
leadership in an effort to bring to you and the public what is good. 
The program we are seeking is not new and is not completed. 
Intelligent people are constantly increasing their horizons. The 
public w^ill not let us go too far. We must find the solution to the 
problem of offering the children of the State the best opportunities 
we can afford. 

The curriculum laboratory established at Towson State 
Teachers College is potentially one of the most effective instru- 
ments in the program of building a new curriculum and in im- 
proving instruction. Mr. Spitznas, supervisor in charge, is sub- 
ject to call anywhere in the State. The facilities of the laboratory 
are available to teachers throughout the State. 

Announcements were made regarding the availability of material for 
distribution sent by Mr. Clinton Anderson, U. S. Secretary of Agriculture, 
on the need of conserving fats, oils and whe^t, and of the program on 
Tuesdays and Thursdays at 11 on Radio Station WBAL dealing with the 
opportunities in teaching. It brings out the need for an increase in the 
number of youth going into the teaching profession. It is not a plan for 
recruiting anybody, but only the best. It brings out the facts about the 
profession. Since the teacher is the soul of the school, the quality of the 
teacher is most important. It is suggested that seniors and juniors be 
permitted to listen to these programs and the guidance counselor may want 
to follow them up. 

Dr. Hawkins developed the underlying philosophy which is 
basic in rebuilding an eleven grade into a twelve grade program 
as a result of the 1945 Maryland legislation. 

In their deliberations the six discussion groups were unified 
by the following: 

THE PRINCIPAL'S RESPONSIBILITIES IN THE NEW PROGRAM 
Theme-The principal is responsible for utilizing wisely teacher, 
pupil, and parent resources in initiating, planning, and 
developing the program of the individual school. 

Guiding Principles 

1 The success of the new program in Maryland depends greatly upon the 
intelligent enthusiasm each principal exhibits for the program and the 
steps he takes to become well informed on every aspect of it. 

2 The principal has a direct responsibility for providing in his school the 
organization that will most effectively facilitate the best functioning of 
the new program. 

3 The new program will move foward just as fast as the teachers working 
in the program become aware of, and enthusiastic about, its potentiali- 
ties. The principal needs to develop with his teachers an in-service 
training program which will insure each teacher's growth in, and under- 
standing of, the total school program. 



High School Principals' Conference; 194G Towson Workshop 207 

4 The principal should exercise leadership in obtaining adequate library 
and resource materials for all his teachers and in constantly evaluating 
with the teachers the ways the materials are being used and the possi- 
bilities for wider use. 

5 The principal should play a dynamic role in encouraging the teachers in 
his school to experiment with new practices and materials and helping 
them evaluate their work in terms of the ends for which we educate. 

6 The success and understanding of any program of education depends 
to a gieat extent upon how well the public is informed as to what the 
school is trying to do and how effectively it is accomplishing its purposes. 
The principal therefore has the responsibility for developing an effective 
public relations program in his school. 

Planning for the Towson Workshop of 1946 

Dr. Hawkins reported to the county superintendents at the 
end of April 1946 that the steering committee was planning a 
two-week workshop at Towson from June 17 to 29, 1946. This 
would leave the month of July open for county wwkshops and 
would permit the members of the staff of the State Department 
to be available for work with the county workshop groups in 
supplying actual teaching units. 

Productive intensive work on resource units suitable for 
grades 7, 8 and 9, containing data which can be used either in 
a subject or core curriculum was being planned. Each county 
would be asked to send at least one and in some cases two or 
three of their most competent people to help develop effective 
methods. 

Superintendents were asked to check among 36 titles of re- 
sources units those most useful and of special concern to junior 
high school boys and girls. Decision would be made on building 
the units in which there is most interest. If well-constructed 
units are in existence they will be recommended. 

Each of the 36 resource units was broken down into tenta- 
tive questions which might be raised by junior high school pupils 
to help superintendents in making their selection of those which 
would be most useful if developed at the 1946 Towson Workshop. 

The ten which were desired by the largest numbers, listed 
below, became the Resource Units which were developed by the 
members of the county and State staffs w^ho participated in the 
1946 Towson and Bowie Workshops. 

No. Resource Unit 

1. Guarding against Accident and Disease 

2. Learning to Live with Others 

3. Discovering Maryland as America in Miniature 

4. Relating Our Land and Our Resources to Our History 

5. Keeping Physically Fit 

6. Our Environment Shaping Our Living 

7. Con&erving Our Natural Resources 

8. Exploring My Educational Opportunities 

9. Our Shrinking World 

10. Finding Fellowship witli Americans North and South 



208 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



COUNTY PARTICIPANTS IN 1946 TOWSON WORKSHOP 



ALLEGANY Pos. Res. Un. 

Richard T. Rizer S 6 

Nellie S. Willison T 2 

ANNE ARUNDEL 

Mrs. Jetta Corkran T 10 

Mrs. M. L. Hopkins P 4 

Mabel H. Parker P 4 

BALTIMORE 

Olive Jobes S 

M. Lucetta Sisk S M 

James B. O'Toole S 1 

C. J. Velie S 

CALVERT 

Thomas V. Warthen P 1 

CAROLINE 

Mrs. Ellen B. Nichols T 8 

A. May Thompson S 8 

Fred G. Usilton P 2 

CARROLL 

Mrs. Lillian Martin T 8 

Mrs. Eatelle Yingling T 10 

CECIL 

Mrs. Mildred K. Balling T 9 

Maurice A. Dunkle P 6 

Mary Jane Wood T 7 

CHARLES 

Edward C. Turner VP 4 

DORCHESTER 

Albert Farver S 7 

Mrs. M. W. Hastings T 9 

FREDERICK 

Eugene W. Pruitt S 3 

Marion Curling T 10 

Frank H. Lewis P 9 

GARRETT 

F. D. Bittle P S 

Frank J, Getty P 8 

S — Sup't. or Supervisor P — Principal 



The number represents the Resource Units 



HARFORD Pos. Res. Un. 

Charles W. Willis S M 

Allen B. Amoss S 3 

R. Bovven Hardesty P 6 

Clark Jones T 6 

HOWARD 

Frances L. Brown T 1 

Emma Jean Gerwig T 3 

KENT 

William M. Brish S M 

Catherine E. Newton T 2 

MONTGOMERY 

Maxwell E. Burdette P 6 

Mrs. Fern Schneider S M 

Willard G. Schumaker T 6 

Elizabeth Stickley L 

PRINCE GEORGE'S 

Mrs. Leo L. Gleaves S 5 

Dorothy A. Mudd T-L 10 

William S. Schmidt S 6 

QUEEN ANNE'S 

Harriett Walls T 4 

Sara E. Whaley T 1 

ST. MARY'S 

Mrs. Mary E. Ware T 2 

SOMERSET 

Alice M. Coulbourne S 8 

TALBOT 

Bradford Corry T 7 

Mrs. Eva Jones Corry T 6 

WICOMICO 

Mrs. Beulah N. Allen T 6 

WORCESTER 

Irene J. Jester T 7 

Mrs. Nellie C. Post T 8 

T — Teacher L — Librarian M — Manual 
they are numbered on page 207. 



The 1946 Manual 



In addition to the resource units a manual was prepared 
with the following table of contents. The State supervisors of 
high schools, Dr. Devilbiss and Mr. Fontaine, worked with the 
county members whose participation is designated by M. 

Philosophy Underlying Maryland's New Educational Program 
What We Mean by a Philosophy 

The Kind of Philosophy of Education Needed for America 

Criteria for the Selection of Curriculum Content 

The Common Educational Needs of Youth 

Chart - The Individual and His Educational Program 

The Learner And The Learning Process 
The Nature of the Learner 
The Nature of Learning 



1946 TowsoN Workshop; 1945 Bowie Workshop 



209 



The Basic Principles of Learning 

Environmental Factors Important in Learning 

Economy in Learning 

Points of Emphasis 
Some Developmental Characteristics of Junior High School Pupils 
Some Important Behavioi- Characteristics of Adolescents 
Core Program 

Some Suggested Program Patterns - Patterns A to D 

Suggested Themes and Units 
How To Use Resource Units 
Group Planning 

Teacher Pre-planning 

Teacher-Pupil Planning 

Cautions 
Implementing a Core Program 
Suggestions for County Workshops 



1945 Summer Planning Conference at Bowie July 1945 



Through cooperation of State and County staffs, the 1945 
summer planning conference which met for two weeks at Bowie 
State Teachers College developed the general frame work within 
which each county might build a curriculum best suited to the 
needs and abilities of its colored pupils. The conference had the 
benefit of talks and discussions with the following State officials 
who participated in the Towson Workshop: 



Mr. Tasker G. Lowndes 

Dr. Thomas G. Pullen 
Mr. John J. Seidel 

Miss Grace Alder 
Dr. Earle T. Hawkins 
Dr. Wilbur Devilbiss 
Mr. E. Clarke Fontaine 
Mr. James E. Spitztias 
Miss Elisabeth Amery 
Dr. H. F. Cotterman 
Dr. R. F. Cromwell 
Mr, Glen D. Brown 

Dr. T. C. Ferguson 



President of the State Board of Educa- 
tion 

State Superintendent of Schools 
Assistant State Superintendent for Vo- 
cational Education 
State Supervisor of Elementary Schools 
State Supervisor of High Schools 
State Supervisor of High Schools 
State Supervisor of High Schools 
State Supervisor of High Schools 
State Supervisor of Home Economics 
State Supervisor of Agriculture 
State Supervisor of Guidance 
Assistant Director of Vocational Educa- 
tion 

State Supervisor of Physical Education 
and Recreation 



The following County officials also participated: 

Mr. Charles W. Willis Superintendent of Schools - Harford 

County 

Dr. Fern D. Schneider Supervisor of High Schools - Montgomery 

County 

Mr. William C. Diehl Supervisor of High Schools - Washington 

County 

Mr. J. Walter Huffington, State Supervisor of Colored 
Schools ; Dr. William F. Henry, President of Bowie State Teach- 
ers College; and Mr. W. H. Fauntleroy, Supervisor of Colored 
Schools, acted as General, Conference, and Coordinating Chair- 
men, respectively. 



210 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Committee reports were prepared on all topics prepared at 
Towson except Numbers 1, 10, 11, 13, and 14. (See pages 187-8.) 
Since these reports covered most of the material included in the 
reports of the Towson Conference, the content is not repeated 
here. 



COUNTY MEMBERS OF COMMITTEES 1945 BOWIE WORKSHOP 



ALLEGANY 

Earl Bracey P 

ANNE ARUNDEL 

Lulu Hardesty T 

R. Harold McCann S 

Douglass S. King P 

Mrs. A. W. Taylor T 

Frank B. Butler T 

BALTIMORE 

C. W. Fletcher P 

CALVERT 

J. P. Lane S 

CAROLINE 

Cleo M. Whitley T 

CARROLL 

George W. Crawford P 
Mae E. Prince S 

CECIL 

Edward S. Barnes S 
Charles W. Caldwell P 

CHARLES 

Joseph C. Parks S 

DORCHESTER 

Viola Comegys S 

HARFORD 

Leon Roye P 



KENT 

Jessie M. Drummond T 

Evelyn Johnson T 

Elmer T. Hawkins P 

MONTGOMERY 

Edward U. Taylor S 

PRINCE GEORGE'S 

Agnes M. Edwards P 
Doswell Brooks S 

QUEEN ANNE'S 

Larry S. Jones P 

ST. MARY'S 

Ralph Waters S 

SOMERSET 

Kenneth Cottman P 

TALBOT 

Edward Dobson T 
W. H. Fauntleroy S 

WASHINGTON 

Charles E. Hodges P 

WICOMICO 

Marie A. Daslii.li S 



Supervision of Colored Schools 
The State Supervisory Staff 

The school year 1945-46 started out with the retirement of 
Mr. J. Walter Huffington who had devoted his life to work as 
State Supervisor of Colored Schools since 1917. The following 
resolution adopted by the State Board of Education on Sep- 
tember 25, 1945 expresses their appreciation for the excellent 
work done by Mr. Hufhngton who was untiring in his efforts to 
improve the work in the schools for the colored children of the 
counties of Maryland. 

The meeting of the State Board of Education of September 
25, 1945 adopted the following resolution: 

RESOLUTION 

It is with deep regret and with genuine appreciation of the admirable 
work done by Mr. J. Walter Huffington as State Supervisor of Colored 
Schools from^ 1917 to 1945 that the State Board of Education accepts his 
resignation and approves his retirement. 



Supervision of Colored Schools; J. Walter Huffington 211 



A graduate of St. John's College, with a Master's degree from Co- 
lumbia University and \v;th extensive additional study at the University 
of Virginia, University of North Carolina, University of Tennessee, Co- 
lumbia, Harvaid, Yale, and Johns Hopkins University, Mr. Huffington was 
admirably equipped from the standpoint of training as well as native ability 
and temperament for leadership in the public school system. 

Mr. Huffington began his experience in 1898 as principal of a gram- 
mar school. Within a few years he became first an assistant in and then 
a principal of a high school, and later, successively, a college teacher and 
a superintendent of a small school system. In 1916 he was appointed 
Teacher of Education at the State Normal School, now the State Teachers 
College at Towson, and the following year became State Supervisor of 
Colored Schools. 

Under Mr. Huffington's inspiration and active leadership the one- 
teacher colored schools in the State have been leduced to a fraction of their 
previous number, and transportation has been provided for 10,000 pupils 
to attend consolidated high and elementary schools. Under his stimulus, 
also, the counties have rebuilt a very large part of the colored school plants, 
with aid from the Rosenvvald Fund coveiing buildings, transportation, and 
libraries. He has interested many qualified teachers from out of State to 
come to Maryland and has been instrumental in changing the former Nor- 
mal School at Bowie from a four-year combined secondary and teacher- 
training institution to a four-year professional college. He has guided 
the counties in the establishment of accredited colored high schools, of 
which there were none when he began his work in Maryland. He has co- 
operated with the superintendents and has guided the county supervisors 
of colored schools in furnishing greatly improved and extended educational 
opportunities to the Negro youth of Maiyland. 

The best wishes of the State Department of Education go with Mr. 
Huffington in the leisure which he will now enjoy and which he so richly 
deserves. 

Mr. Huffington was honored at a testimonial dinner attended 
by members of the State Board of Education, of the State De- 
partment Staff and the county superintendents on October 25, 
1945 when he was presented with a watch and a bound volume 
of testimonial letters. 

Mr. Paul E. Huffington, peculiarly fitted by temperament, 
background, professional training and experience, was appointed 
by the State Board of Education to the position of State Super- 
visor of Colored Schools as of October 8, 1945. Mr. Paul Huff- 
ington since 1927 had served as a teacher and principal in the 
elementary and high schools of Prince George's and Talbot Coun- 
ties, as attendance officer in Talbot County, and as registrar at 
the State Teachers' College at Salisbury. 

The Testing Program 

All counties gave State-financed Reading-Readiness Tests, 
to first-grade pupils soon after opening schools in September 
1945. Each county sent summaries of test results and plans for 
follow-up to the State supervisor. Analysis of the scores showed 
the advantage of using the test to aid in grouping pupils so that 
the needs of pupils of varying levels of reading readiness could 
be effectively met. The desirability of keeping the groups flexi- 



212 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

ble so that they would take care of changes in pupil responses 
was stressed. Test results were discussed with supervisors and 
teachers to present specific activities and techniques to be used 
with groups differing in their readiness for reading. 

Most counties gave tests of mental ability and achievement 
tests in reading, arithmetic and work-study skills to either grade 
4 or 7 or to both grades. Emphasis on remedial work was 
stressed. 

All county high school seniors were given a Psychological 
Test in April, 1946, results of which were used as one factor in 
determining eligibility to enter the State Teachers College at 
Bowie. 



Participation of Colored Teaching Staff in Child Study Program 

1945 - 46 



County 

Total and Average 

Queen Anne's 

Cecil 

Talbot 

Kent 

Carroll 

Howard 

Montgomery 

Wicomico 

Calvert 

Frederick 

Dorchester 

Caroline 

St. Mary's 

Worcester 

Charles 

Harford 

Prince George's. . . 
Anne Arundel .... 

Washington 

Allegany 

Somerset 

Baltimore 

Bowie S. T. C. . . . 

Grand Total 



Groups 
Organized 

22 

3 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 

2 
2 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 

1 



Teachers Participating 



No. 

248 

23 
9 
18 
10 
7 

10 
26 
20 
14 
10 

16 
9 
11 
12 
15 

6 

18 
14 



Percent 

29 

100 
*60 
55 
50 
+ 50 

46 

43 
*'43 
43 
40 

40 
39 
38 
33 
SO 

18 
16 
12 



Grades 
Represented 



_11 

.6 

_11 

_11 

.8 

_11 
_12 
_11 
_11 
.11 

_11 
_11 
.11 
.11 
.11 

.11 
-11 
.11 



1 

23 



13 

261 



100 
30 



1-7 



* 100 percent of elementary school group 
+ 87 .5 percent of elementary school group 
° 40 percent of elementary school group 



Testing; Child-Study; Twelve Year Program; Conferences 213 
The Child-Study Program 

The Child-Study Program, a most promising phase of in- 
service training, was initiated for leaders of the county colored 
staff under the guidance of Dr. Daniel Prescott and consultants 
with a four-day session from October 11-14, 1945 at the Bowie 
State Teachers College. This was followed by two-day sessions 
in January and March for approximately 30 group leaders and 
participants from nineteen of the counties. See pages 182-185. 

The table on page 212 shows the participation of the county 
colored teaching staff in the child-study program for 1945-46. 

Five of the colored high school principals who had acted as 
group leaders in the Child-Study Program in 1945-46 attended 
a six-week summer session at the Institute for Child Growth 
and Development at the University of Chicago in the summer of 
1946. 

The Twelve- Year Program 

The Twelve- Year Program, as a result of 1945 legislation, 
was initiated for grades 7 and 8 in Anne Arundel, Frederick and 
Prince George's Counties, while Wicomico and most of the other 
counties anticipated the extended program by including the 
seventh grade in the high school organization or by reorganizing 
and enriching the seventh-grade program in the elementary 
schools where facilities would not permit transfer of pupils to 
the high school. Several high schools initiated the core program 
as a result of the curriculum workshop held at Bowie in the 
summer of 1945. 

Conferences 

In January 1946 a two-day conference on problems of Negro 
education was held by the county superintendents who invited 
members of the staff of the State Department of Education to 
share their deliberations. Statistical data on pupils, teachers, 
finances and schools as they related to white and colored pupils 
in Maryland counties were presented. Dr. Clyde Erwin, State 
Superintendent of Schools in North Carolina and Dr. Fred Alex- 
ander, State Supervisor of Virginia told of progress in develop- 
ing the program for their Negro pupils. 

The group visited Bates and Annapolis High Schools as 
guests of Mr. Fox and the Anne Arundel County Board of Edu- 
cation the morning of the second day and spent part of the 
afternoon at Bowie State Teachers College in the remodelled 
library at which time Dr. Henry described his plans for new 
developments. At Bates High School the agriculture, home 
economics, music, science and social studies programs were 
exhibited. 

Miss Amery planned a two-day conference with county 
colored teachers of home economics at Princess Anne College 
in March 1946. Plans and progress in the housing study made 



214 194G Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



in cooperation with agriculture teachers were presented by East- 
ern Shore Teachers. Problems of school cafeterias were pre- 
sented and discussed with Mrs. Bowie, State Supervisor. 

The objectives of the national and State organization, New 
Homemakers of America, were presented as a means of inter- 
esting girls more vitally in the home economics program. In- 
dividual growth in poise and confidence, better home living, 
wholesome recreation activities, service to school, community, 
State and Nation, and development of mutually satisfying 
mother-daughter relationships were indicated as the purposes 
of the program of work. The conference closed with Miss 
Amery's presentation of ''Emphases in The Home Economics 
Program to Meet Present Day Problems." 

Dr. Cotterman State Supervisor of Agriculture met with 
colored teachers of agriculture at Bates High School early in, 
April. Problems in the teaching of agriculture, judging contests 
and the objectives of the organization, Negro Farmers of Amer- 
ica, were the topics discussed. 

Dr. Cromwell held five regional conferences of principals 
and guidance counselors to develop procedures and techniques 
in guidance services. Dr. Ferguson held a conference of prin- 
cipals and physical education instructors of five counties for 
the purpose of improving and coordinating the school health 
services. 

Regional conferences of county supervisors and high 
school principals from two or three adjoining counties were 
held by the State Supervisor during April on the general theme, 
'*My Responsibilities in Helping Develop Maryland's New Edu- 
cational Program". Such subjects as school organization, the 
curriculum fitted to the needs of junior and senior high school 
pu|)ils, means of promoting teacher growth and understanding, 
eflfective use of facilities and materials of instruction, helping 
teachers to understand children (the Child-Study Program), 
informing i)atrons about the new program and local problems 
and needs, and encouragement of experimentation in offerings 
and classroom practices, and in their evaluation were presented. 

The State Supervisor of Colored Schools arranged for a 
conference of Maryland County colored high school principals 
at Bates High School, May 10, 1946 on the Theme, "The principal 
is responsible for utilizing wisely teacher, pupil and parent re- 
sources in initiating, planning and developing the new program 
of the individual school". Dr. Earle T. Hawkins presented the 
philosophy underlying the new program. Dr. Ferguson showed 
the need for continued emphasis on health and physical fitness 
in the new program. Miss Helen Clark illustrated the utiliza- 
tion and extension of the service of the school library. Reports 
by principals on topics discussed at the April regional conferences 



Conferences of the ('ounty Colored Staffs; Attendance 215 
Workers; Equivalence Examinations 

touched on in the preceding paragraph were presented by colored 
high school principals from Salisbury, Denton, Bel Air, Loveville, 
and Frederick. The conference closed with an address on Guid- 
ance and Personnel Problems in the High School by Dr. Am- 
brose Caliver, Senior Specialist in the Education of Negroes, 
the U. S. Office of Education. 

The School Attendance Service 

The attendance service was carried on in the 23 counties 
by nine men and fifteen women. Of the men, two in Anne 
Arundel and Garrett also supervised transportation services, and 
three in Cecil, Howard and Somerset also acted as supervisor 
of schools for colored children. Two of the women in Queen 
Anne's and Worcester, also acted as supervisor of schools for 
colored children. Prince George's and Washington County each 
employed an assistant to the attendance worker. 

1945-16 POLICIES FOR EQUIVALF:NCE EXAMINATIONS 
In August 1945 the State Department announced the offer- 
ing on an experimental basis of a series of comprehensive general 
development tests in written English, literature, social studies, 
mathematics and science with the intent of testing power or 
comprehension rather than knowledge of specific facts or data. 
Very little specific preparation for these comprehensive tests 
can be made but the reading and thinking a person has done 
will be revealed. Only when all parts of the examination were 
passed successfully would the Certificate of High School Equiva- 
lence be awarded. The fee for the six parts of the general test 
was fixed at $15.00. However, in May 1946 the State Board 
of Education eliminated all fees for the Equivalence Examina- 
tion. 

Candidates who had already accumulated a considerable 
number of regular high school units were advised to secure 
the certificate through the customary procedure of taking sepa- 
rate subject examinations. If they desired, however, they were 
permitted to make application for the general comprehensive 
test in lieu of the separate subject examinations. 

In November 1945, the dates for the high school equivalence 
examinations which had previously been given in April and 
October were changed to the second Friday and Saturday in 
January and in July. For servicemen and veterans examinations 
were offered the second Friday and Saturday of each month. 

These changes in policy explain the number of candidates 
taking and passing the tests at various dates as they appear in 
the upper left hand corner of Table 125 on page 216. Monthly 
tests taken by an increasing number of veterans appear for the 
first time in 1945-46. The number of veterans and others seek- 
ing guidance regarding the taking of the tests and plans for 
further education increased so greatly that various members 



216 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 
TABLE 125 — High School Equivalence Examinations in Maryland 



Date 



Octobpr 1941. . . 

April 1942 

October 1942. . . 

April 1943 

October 1943. . . 

April 1944 

October 1944. . . 

April 1945 

September 1945 
October 1945. . . 
November 1945 . 
December 1945. 
January 1946 . . 
February 1946 . 
March 1946. . . . 

April 1946 

May 1946 

June 1946 



Total 



Candidates Examined 1941-1946 



Total 



W 



27 
37 
39 
31 
29 
26 
36 
36 
52 
20 
48 
70 
134 
144 
125 
156 
176 
179 



1389 



Examinations 



Taken Passed 



W 



82 
115 
114 
86 
71 
76 
86 
72 
79 
21 
48 
70 
140 
144 
126 
156 
176 
179 



1868 



W 



57 
94 
96 
76 
59 
59 
68 
56 



49 
8 
20 
37 
74 
72 
63 
80 
106 
79 



1161 



Cer- 
tificates 
Issued* 



W 



1 

5 
7 
7 
7 
2 

10 
16 



21 
7 
12 
26 
57 
68 
54 
70 
79 
78 



532 



1945-46 



County 



Allegany and Garrett 

Anne Arundel 

Calvert 

Carroll 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

M ontgomery 

Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcest<>r 

Baltimore County & 
Baltimore City ... 

In Service 

In Other State 



Candidates 



White Colored 



8 
3 
1 
6 
2 
2 
6 
1 
1 
2 
21 
5 
1 
1 

27 
16 
2 

983 
15 
1 



♦ Excludes 5 who took subject examinations and received high school diplomas. The difference be- 
tween the number of examinations passed and the number of certificates issued is due in large 
part to examinations which were given at the requj-st of colleges to high school graduates who al- 
ready had high school diplomas. 



Number 
of Exam- 
inations 


Number 
of Candi- 
dates 


Namber Who Passed Following Number of Subjects — 1945-46 





1 


2 


3 


4 


Comp. 


White 


Col. 


w 


C 


w 


C 


w 


C 


W 


C 


W 


C 


W 


C 


4 

3 
2 
1 

Comp. 


5 
4 
14 
22 
1059 


1 

23 


•J 

t") 




•> 

3 
16 




1 

9 




3 

2 


1 


1 




528 


5 



Subjects in Which 
Examinations Were 
Taken, 1945-46 

English I 

English II 

English III 

English IV 

English Literature. . . . 
Gen. Mathematics. . . 

Algebra I 

Algebra II 

Geometry 

Trigonometry 

Ancient History 

U. S. History 

Problems of Democracy 
General Science 



Whit( 



P.t F.t 



1 
1 

2 

12 
1 
4 

5 
1 
3 

1 

9 
3 
4 



Colored 



P.t F.t 



Subjects in Which 
Examinations Were 
Taken, 1945-46 

Biology 

Chemistry 

German I and II. . . . 

Spanish II 

Stenography I and II 

Bookkeeping 

Business Training 
Business Arithmetic 

Salesmanship 

Economic Geography 
Home Economics .... 

Agriculture 

Comprehensive 

Total 



White 



P.t 

1 
1 
1 



2 
2 
1 
1 
3 

1 

528 
588 



F.t 



1 

529 

551 



t P.— Passed F.— Failed 



Equivalence Examinations; Training of Veterans 



217 



of the supervisory staff were assigned a day a week in the offke 
to give them the necessary advice and information. Later an 
assistant supervisor of guidance, Mr. Arthur Benson, was ap- 
pointed to take care of this service so much desired, especially 
by veterans. 

The change in the number taking the comprehensive exam- 
inations instead of separate subject examinations appears in 
the center and lower part of Table 125 on page 216. 

In order to check on the effectiveness of the general develop- 
ment tests as compared with the usual achievement tests as 
revealing power in the various high school subjects, all of the 
high school seniors in Carroll County took a series of compre- 
hensive tests and of regular achievement tests. The correlations 
between the comprehensive test and the achievement test in 
the various subjects was high enough so that continued use of 
the comprehensive tests seemed justified for the purpose of 
awarding the high school equivalence certificates. 

APPROVAL OF SCHOOLS FOR TRAINING OF VETERANS 

The State Department of Education prepared a mimeo- 
graphed list of MARYLAND SCHOOLS APPROVED FOR THE 
TRAINING OF VETERANS as of March 1, 1945 which was 
followed by Supplement Number 1, approved October 15, 1945. 
This was compiled for the use of the Veterans Administration, 
the various Separation Centers and Redistribution Centers, and 
the education officers in various units of the Armed Services. 

Institutions included on the lists came from one or more of 
the following classifications: 

Officially accredited by the State Department of Education 
Officially accredited by recognized regional or national accrediting 

agencies 

Investigated by the State Department of Education and approved 
for veterans' training 
Non-inclusion on the lists may m^an that a particular institution is not 
worthy, or that it has not as yet been considered for inclusion on the list, 
or that it will likely have little part in the role of training veterans. 

The schools and institutions were arranged alphabetically 
under the following headings: 

Colleges and Universities - Four Year, Teachers, Junior - for Men, 

Women and Co-educational 
Vocational Schools - Public 
Trade and Technical Schools - Private 
Business Schools 

Public High Schools - ai ranged by county and Baltimore City 
Public Evening High Schools - Baltimore City 

Non-Public Secondary Schools for Boys, Girls and Co-educational 

Professional Schools 

Art Medicine 
Business Administration Music 
Dentistry Nursing 
Engineering Pharmacy 
Law 

Law Review Courses 
Miscellaneous and Special Schools 



218 11)46 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



ON-THE-JOB-TRAINING 

The educational and training provisions of the Federal Serv- 
icemen's Readjustment Act (Public Law 346) provided an oppor- 
tunity for each veteran to resume his education or training as a 
trainee thus enabling him to attain knowledge or skills which 
he could have attained but for his service in the armed forces. 

Since the responsibility for approving establishments for 
training veterans on-the-job was delegated to the States, the 
Governor of Maryland designated the State Department of Edu- 
cation as the approving educational agency. 

Supervisors and staff members of the State Department 
of Education and several vocational teachers from the Baltimore 
City Department of Education made the necessary investigations 
during the early stages of the program. 

Firms desiring to participate in the training of veterans 
were required to submit an application giving the following 
information : 

1. Title of job objective 

2. Length of training period 

.3. Wages at the beginning and end of the training period and a 
schedule of wage increases 

4. Training outline listing the major kinds of work to be learned 

5. Name and experience of the trainer 

With the return of a large number of veterans early in 1946 
the demand for approval to set up veteran training programs in- 
creased greatly. 

In April, 1946, an appeal was made to Governor O'Conor 
for State aid in carrying on the program. Through budget 
amendment, §7,980 was made available to employ three coun- 
selors and one stenographer to June 30, 1946. 

In June, 1946, when Federal funds amounting to $33,000 
became available, plans were made to api){)int additional full- 
time counselors and clerical assistants to carry on the fast grow- 
ing on-the-job program. 

By June, 1946, the number of firms approved for On-the-Job 
training averaged 96 per week. 

After the required investigation by the State Department 
of Education each firm was notified whether it was or was not 
approved for veteran training. 

The Veterans Administration was also informed of the re- 
sults of each investigation. On the basis of these reports the 
Veterans Administration carried out their responsibility for the 
payment of subsistence allotments to each veteran trainee as 
provided by Public Law 346 (later amended). 

State Department of Education approval for On-the-Job 
training programs was needed to provide the following safe- 
guards : 



On the Job Training; Junior Colleges; School Lunches 219 

1. Guarantee to the Veteran that the program of training-: will quali- 
fy him directly for appointment to the position for which the train- 
ing is being given. 

2. Protection of the Veteran from exploitation and low wages. 

3. Protection of the Federal Government from paying subsistence 
allotments to veterans taking t aining of a non-educational nature 
and beyond the proficiency level. 

4. Protection of establishments from offering training leading to 
positions which cannot be guaranteed. 

JUNIOR coll?:ges 

The state Superintendent indicated the need for establish- 
ing self-supporting junior colleges, (operating at night in the 
beginning) , with the exception of administrative costs, in several 
centers of the State. The academic program offered in such 
schools should correspond with those offered in standard colleges 
and universities, and taught by qualified instructors on the staff 
of the local school systems or cooperating colleges and univer- 
sities of the State. Technical and vocational courses of a ter- 
minal nature should be offered. In this way students can work 
and study through the first two years of college. Many students 
unable financially to spend four years in college might be able to 
do so by this method. Immediately, however, the program is 
operated mainly for veterans. Montgomery County has pioneered 
in Maryland in establishing a junior college at Bethesda in one 
of its high school buildings. 

SCHOOL LUNCHES 

The school lunch receipts amount to a million dollars or more 
annually. Definite standards in respect to operation and nutri- 
tion are needed and wider extension of the service to all schools 
in which children eat their lunches at school. With the provision 
of Federal aid for school lunches the State appointed Mrs. Ger- 
trude Bowie as Assistant State Supervisor of Home Economics. 
Mrs. Bowie had been supervisor of school lunches in Montgomery 
County. During the year 1945-46, the federal funds were dis- 
tributed through agents of the Department of Agriculture in the 
State of Maryland. Allegany County was in a position to take 
advantage of the federal funds available. (See regional program 
of county superintendents described on page 180.) 

THE STATE TEACHERS COLLEGESS 
Payment of Tuition Fees 

On May 26. 1946, the State Board of Education approved an inter- 
pretation of the law eliminating tuition at the Teachers Colleges. The 
State Superintendent took the position that the law does not apply to stu- 
dents who are willing to promise to teach in high school and who expect 
to transfer to colleges of liberal arts for the last two or three years of 
work. Only students who promise to teach in the elementary schools, the 
field for which the Teachers Colleges prepare, shall be exempted from 
payment of tuition. Refer to Chapter 6 of the Laws of 1945. 



220 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Graduates of the State Teachers Colleges 



221 



TABLE 127 

Distribution of 1946 Graduates of State Teachers Colleges by Home and 

Teaching County 



Home County and Teaching County 1946-47 of 1946 Graduates 





All 1946 White 


Towson 


Frostburg 


Salis 


bury 


Bowie 




Graduates 


Graduates 


Graduates 


Graduates 


Grad 


uates 


County 


























Teach- 




Teach- 






Teach- 




Teach- 




Teach- 




Home 


ing 


Home 


ing 


Home 


ing 


Home 


ing 


Home 


ing 




County 


County 


County 


County 


County 


County 


County 


County 


County 


County 


Counties: 


87 




26 




30 




31 




30 




Teaching 


73 




22 




24 




27 




27 


Not Teaching 




11 




2 




5 




4 




3 


Allegany 


19 


9 






19 


9 






1 




Anne Arundel.... 


3 


8 


3 


3 








"6 


4 


■ 4 


Baltimore 


16 


14 


16 


12 




"2 






2 


3 


Calvert 


1 


1 


1 


1 










1 


1 


Caroline 


1 












1 






Carroll 


3 


4 


"2 


1 




"2 


1 


1 


"2 




Cecil 


1 


1 










1 


1 






Charles 


















i 


1 


Dorchester 


"2 


"2 










'2 


"2 


1 




Frederick 


4 


2 


3 


"2 


1 










1 


Garrett 


3 


3 






3 


3 










Harford 


2 


5 


1 








1 


5 






Howard 




















1 


Kent 


















1 


1 


Montgomery 




"2 








1 




i 


1 


1 


Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. .. 




4 




"2 




1 




1 


6 


5 


"2 


1 










2 


1 


1 


1 


St. Mary's ... 






















Somerset 


6 


3 










6 


3 


3 


"4 


Talbot 


2 












2 








Washington 


6 


"7 




1 


6 


6 






6 




Wicomico 


15 


4 










15 


•4 




Worcester 


1 


2 










1 


2 




"4 


Out of State 


2 


3 








1 


2 


2 






Baltimore City 


18 


.... 


18 
















Teaching 




15 




15 














Not Teaching 




5 




5 














Entire State 


107 




44 




30 




33 


29 


SO 


27 


Teaching 




91 




37 




25 






Not Teaching 




16 




7 




5 




4 




3 



222 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 128 — Enrollment at Maryland State and Coppin Teachers Colleges 





Towson 






Total 
White Students 






Fall of 


City 


County 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


County 


State 


Bowie 


Coppin 



Regular Day Enrollment 



1 QOrt 




^ Q A 
lis4 


57 






O J 1 

^41 




124 


1 QO 1 

1 






101 




498 


498 




185 


1 Q99 




nUb 






640 


640 






1 Q9Q 




oby 


IOC 




694 


694 


11 


225 


1^^4 


Oio 


bU^ 


^ Ad 

i4y 




TC 1 

751 


1 O fi 


OO 


1 1 

Jl 1 


1 QOa 


Alt 


CIO 
old 


197 


1 AT 

107 


81 / 


1 *)0 


O 42 
OO 


Ibl 


1 09^ 


Z / O 


A'7 K 

4/0 


on 1 
^01 


ICQ 

Ion 


OO A 

ocj4 


1 , 109 


81 


117 


1927 


268 


402 


192 


170 


764 


1 . 032 


104 


121 


1928 


315 


359 


178 


186 


723 


1 .038 


128 


99 


1929 


346 


368 


173 


174 


715 


1 ,061 


120 


125 


1930 


298 


348 


161 


165 


674 


972 


109 


171 


1931 


348 


306 


111 


127 


544 


892 


106 


145 


1932 


289 


257 


136 


101 


494 


783 


122 


127 


1933 


230 


230 


116 


114 


460 


690 


99 


282 


1934 


178 


193 


124 


108 


425 


603 


100 


111 


1935 


193 


147 


137 


185 


469 


662 


96 


112 


1936 


284 


175 


131 


201 


507 


791 


116 


141 


1937 


290 


186 


170 


210 


566 


856 


138 


163 


1938 


340 


222 


212 


239 


673 


1.013 


177 


168 


1939 


322 


249 


223 


273 


745 


1.067 


131 


164 


1940 


277 


234 


221 


221 


676 


953 


150 


156 


1941 


210 


209 


195 


209 


613 


823 


155 


161 


1942 


172 


162 


145 


159 


466 


638 


120 


154 


1943 


141 


146 


96 


*154 


*396 


*537 


109 


130 


1944 


103 


134 


*83 


*120 


*337 


*440 


110 


134 


1945 


101 


166 


*150 


*163 


*479 


*580 


121 


122 


1946x 


204 


251 


*329 


*248 


*828 


♦1,032 


129 


125 



Summer Enrollment 



1942 


136 


137 


t217 


173 


:527 


t663 






1943 


119 


115 


154 


142 


411 


530 






1944 


77 


tl38 
°73 


76 


91 


t305 


t382 






1945 


45 


88 


79 


*»240 


"284 






1946 


36 


64 


130 


130 


324 


360 







♦Includes evening and extension students. {Includes 22 taking Spanish. 

tincludes 60 high school students having six weeks instruction before teaching with special supervision, 
xincludes students enrolled in Junior College: 109 at Towson - 67 City and 42 County; 122 at Frost- 
burg; 124 at Salisbury: and 5 at Bowie. "Includes five 6 - week cadets. 



TAHLE 129 — Distribution of Knrollnienj in Maryland State Teachers Colleges 
and Coppin Teachers College by Class, Fall of 1946 













Total 








Towson 






White Students 












Frost- 


Salis- 






Bowie 


Coppin 




City 


County 


burg 


bury 


County 


State 




Freshman 


125 


*130 


152 


tl56 


*t438 


*t563 


47 


42 


Sophomore 


37 


*65 


43 


52 


*160 


197 


35 


23 


Junior 


24 


*33 


15 


19 


*67 


91 


20 


35 


Senior 


18 


23 


17 


14 


54 


72 


27 


25 


Total 


204 


*251 


227 


t241 


*t719 


*t923 


129 


125 


Extension or Evening 






102 


7 


109 


109 






Resident Students 


37 


*179 


74 


84 


*337 


*374 


127 




Day Students 


167 


72 


1,53 


157 


t382 


t549 


2 


125 


Elementary School 


85 


152 


184 


95 


431 


516 


99 


704 



♦Includes out-of-state students. 

tincludes 11 nurses from the Peninsula General Hospital. 



Enrollment at the State Teachers Colleges 



223 



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224 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 
TABLE 131—1946 White Entrants to Teachers Colleges 



State 
Teachers 
College 


Total 
Num- 
ber 


Percent Having Had Various 
High School Courses 


Percent from High, Middle, and 
Lower Third of Class 


Aca- 
demic 


Gen- 
eral 


Equiv- 
alence 


Com., 
Voc, 
Unclas- 
ified 


High 


Middle 


Low 
Unclas- 
ified 


Equiv- 
alence 
Tests 
Vet. 
Insti. 


Towson 

City 

County 

Frostburg... 
Salisbury 


255 
125 
130 
152 
al56 


70.2 
70.4 
70.0 
55.9 
58.0 


11.4 
4.0 
18.5 
21.1 
32.0 


5.5 
8.8 
2.3 
1.3 


*12.9 
tl6.8 
t 9.2 
x21.7 
ylO.O 


35.3 
20.0 
50.0 
35.5 
38.7 


32.2 
39.2 
25.4 
34.9 
32.0 


b25.9 
c31.2 
d20 . 8 
e28.3 
f29.3 


6.7 
9.6 
3.8 
1.3 









♦Commercial except advanced college preparatory 2.7, technical 1.6, and vocational .8. 

fCommercial except advanced college preparatory 5.6, technical 2.4, and vocational .8. 

^Commercial except vocational .8 and technical .8. 

xCommercial except vocational 5.9, technical .6, and unchussified 5.3. 

y Commercial 7 percent and vocational 3 percent. 

a Includes 11 cadet nurses. b Includes 3.9 unclassified. c Includes 4.0 unclassified, 
d Includes 3.8 unclassified e Includes 3.9 unclassified. f Includes 3.0 unclassified. 



TABLE 132— White Freshmen Who Entered Maryland Teachers Colleges 
in September, 1945, Who Withdrew at the Reque.st of the School, 
or Voluntarily, before September, 1946 





Towson 








(-ity 


County 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Freshman Enrollment, September, 1945 


47 


78 


36 


t91 


Withdrawals for R«'moval, Transfer, Death, or 

Military Service 


3 


5 


3 


10 


Withdrawals at Request of School 


2 


8 




1 


Voluntary Withdrawals 


11 


12 


■■"4 


t40 


Percent* Withdrawn at Request of School 


4.5 


11.0 




1.2 


Percent* of Voluntary Withdrawals 


25.0 


16.4 


12.1 


49.4 




29.5 


27.4 


12.1 


50.6 











* Excludes withdrawals for removal, transfer, commitment, military service, or death, 
t Includeds 24 cadet nurses and one-year pre-nursing transfer enrollees. 



TABLE 133 

Faculty and Staff at Maryland State Teachers Colleges, 1945-46 



Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Bowie 


Coppin 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


21.1 


8 


10.5 


9 


6 


3.6 


2 


2.5 


1 




9 


6 


4 


2.9 


17 






7 


5 




*7 










8 


2 


2 


2.8 


1 


3 


1 


1 


2 





StafT 



President 

Instructors 

Library 

Campus Elementary School 

Training Centers: 

County 

City 



Office StafT 

Dormitory. 



* These 7 teachers are in 4 different schools. 



TABLE 134 225 
Total and Per Regular Student Costs at State Teachers Colleges, 1930 to 1946 



Year 


Total 
(/Urrent 
Expenses 


Fees 
Paid 
by 
Students 


('ost 

to 
State 


College 
Enrollment 


Percent 
Elemen- 
tary is of 
('ollege 
Enroll- 
ment 


Average Annual Cost per 
College Student 


Average 


Percent 
Resident 


Total 
k 


in 
Fees 


to 
State 
k 


TOWSON 


1930 


$314,699 


$64,660 


$250,039 


604 


49 


43 


$.521 


a$107 


$414 


1932 


277,642 


57,201 


220,441 


582 


43 


46 


447 


a98 


379 


1934 


210,135 


79,108 


131,027 


4.50 


36 


54 


487 


bl96 


291 


1935 


192,873 


58,317 


134,556 


354 


31 


71 


545 


bl65 


380 


1936 


179,751 


50,286 


129,465 


330 


25 


75 


.545 


bl53 


392 


1937 


184,263 


65,395 


118,868 


438 


23 


54 


420 


bM8 


272 


1938 


217,359 


70,312 


147,047 


455 


26 


54 


478 


bl55 


323 


1939 


218,699 


81,737 


136,962 


.531 


25 


47 


412 


bl54 


258 


1940 


224,929 


88,414 


136,515 


535 


31 


46 


420 


bl65 


255 


1941 


219,112 


82,597 


136,515 


482 


34 


49 


455 


bl71 


284 


1943 


tl87,934 


53 , 264 


134,670 


*292 


38 


79 


644 


bI83 


461 


1944 


1208,906 


43 , 145 


1165.761 


*234 


39 


103 


892 


bl84 


708 


1945 


f211,981 


46,227 


f 165, 7.54 


*222 


50 


91 


955 


b208 


747 


1946 


250,048 


32,550 


217,498 


264 


54 


92 


947 


ml23 


824 



Frostburg 



1930 


$76,581 


$13,221 


$63,360 


161 


43 


65 


$476 


a$82 


$394 


1932 


75 . 575 


9,809 


65,766 


113 


50 


166 


669 


a87 


582 


1934 


61,359 


21,545 


39,814 


115 


49 


171 


.533 


bl87 


346 


1935 


56,780 


23,230 


33,550 


117 


49 


171 


485 


bl99 


286 


1936 


59 , 558 


22,415 


37 , 143 


130 


42 


161 


4.59 


bl73 


286 


1937 


64,087 


23,444 


40,643 


131 


45 


153 


489 


bl79 


310 


1938 


77,755 


29,625 


48,130 


167 


44 


123 


466 


bl78 


288 


1939 


82,025 


33,895 


48,130 


204 


39 


93 


402 


bl66 


236 


1940 


80,919 


37,869 


43,0.50 


214 


46 


86 


378 


bl77 


201 


1941 


82,220 


36,535 


45,685 


210 


41 


85 


392 


bl74 


218 


1943 


t69,071 


20,757 


48,314 


*116 


41 


167 


595 


bl79 


416 


1944 


t85,257 


13,536 


ni,72i 


*75 


40 


216 


1,136 


bl80 


956 


1945 


185,601 


14,573 


171.028 


*73 


41 


221 


1,173 


b200 


973 


1946 


108,882 


11,281 


97,601 


91 


44 


179 


1,197 


ml24 


1,073 



Salisbury 



1930 


$98,930 


$27,456 


$71,474 


168 


88 


53 


$589 


a$163 


$426 


1932 


88,197 


20,475 


67,722 


124 


85 


79 


711 


al65 


546 


1934 


66,144 


24,267 


41,877 


114 


71 


102 


580 


b213 


367 


1935 


59,435 


20,706 


38,729 


109 


40 


121 


545 


b252 


293 


1936 


67,672 


32,289 


35,383 


184 


41 


69 


384 


bl92 


192 


1937 


70,185 


34,801 


35,384 


200 


40 


61 


351 


bl74 


177 


1938 


87,595 


36,608 


50,987 


210 


39 


58 


417 


bl74 


243 


1939 


89,119 


41,787 


47,332 


228 


49 


52 


391 


bl83 


208 


1940 


93,633 


48,746 


44,887 


268 


51 


49 


350 


bl82 


168 


1941 


84,281 


40,444 


43,837 


211 


55 


57 


400 


bl92 


208 


1943 


t68,922 


23,185 


45,737 


*143 


36 


59 


482 


bl62 


320 


1944 


t87,428 


22 , 572 


t64,856 


*114 


50 


67 


767 


bl98 


569 


1945 


193,031 


21.157 


J71.874 


*103 


53 


92 


903 


b205 


698 


1946 


104,121 


22,184 


81 ,937 


153 


45 


61 


681 


ml45 


536 



Bowie 



1930 


$57,004 


$14,799 


$42,205 


108 


97 


61 


$528 


d$137 


$391 


1932 


47,790 


13.600 


34,190 


97 


97 


71 


492 


dl40 


352 


1934 


39,082 


13,385 


25,697 


89 


97 


65 


439 


el50 


289 


1935 


46,817 


14,723 


32,094 


87 


98 


68 


538 


el69 


369 


1936 


42,965 


13,571 


29,394 


86 


97 


79 


500 


el58 


342 


1937 


47,601 


17,673 


29,928 


111 


92 


59 


429 


el59 


270 


1938 


59,589 


19,275 


40,314 


128 


92 


75 


466 


el51 


315 


1939 


62,910 


19,069 


43,841 


1.58 


97 


65 


399 


fl21 


27o 


1940 


57,695 


17,098 


40,597 


121 


98 


93 


477 


gUl 


336 


1941 


60,295 


19,270 


41,025 


140 


99 


86 


431 


gl38 


293 


1943 


t56 , 693 


15,960 


40,733 


104 


99 


106 


545 


gl53 


392 


1944 


n2.307 


14.939 


157.368 


103 


100 


108 


702 


gl45 


557 


1945 


J76 . 536 


15,099 


J61,437 


103 


98 


103 


743 


gl45 


.598 


1946 


93,004 


17,055 


75,949 


121 


98 


81 


769 


ml41 


628 



a Day students paid $20, women residents $200, and men boarders $72. 
b Day students paid $100, women residents $316, and men boarders $128. 
d Resident students paid $120, day students $9. Service rendered by students, 
e Resident students paid $164, day students $19. 

f Resident students paid $110, day students $15. Service rendered by students. 

g Resident students paid $140, day students $20. 

♦ Each cadet teacher is included as one-half a student. 

t Expenditures for ten month period from Sept. 1, 1942, to June 30, 19 t3. 

k Entire cost of educating elementary school pupils is charged against college students. 

t Includes bonus payments by State. 

m Chapter 6, Laws of 1945, eliminated tuition fees at teachers colleges for white students. 



226 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 135 — Receipts and Expenditures at State Teachers Colleges from 

July 1, 1945 to June 30, 1946 

RECEIPTS 



College 


Average 
Enrollment in 


Receipts for 
Instruction from 


Average 
Resident 
Enroll- 


Receipts for 
Dormitory from 




College 


Ele- 
mentary 
School 


Students 


State 


ment 


Students 


State 


Regular Session 


Towson 

Frostburg 

Salisbury 


264 
*91 
153 


242 
163 
94 


$534.00 
t3,866.50 
6.781.06 


$184,987.17 
76.121. 19 
°6i.267.71 


142 
40 
69 


$32,016.00 
7.414.00 
15.402.94 


$32,510.70 
21.480 29 
17.669.44 


Total White 
Bowie 


508 
121 


499 
98 


$11,181.56 
Jl.291.95 


$325,376 07 
53,225.83 


251 
119 


$54,832.94 
tl5.763.45 


$71,660.43 
22,723.17 



EXPENDITURES 



College 


Total Expenditures 


Expenditures for Instruction 


Expenditures for Dormitory 


c 

o 

'w 
ei 
u 

CO 

C 

E 

< 


e 

o 

' 1 

CO 


6 ^ 


Operation, 
Maintenance, 
Transportation 


a 
o 
♦J 

A 

.2 
'c 

6 
< 


Operation, 
Maintenance, 
Transportation, 
Health 


O 

o 


Reg^ular Seuion 


Towson 

Frost burg 

Salisbury 

Total White 
Bowie 


$250,047.87 
tl08.881 .98 
104.121.15 


$23,322.17 
11.718.71 
8.388.79 


$105,937.94 

t45.280.78 
49.482.28 


$8,393.88 
7.234.84 
5.730.82 


$47,867.18 

15.753.36 
7.446.88 


$5,851.47 

2.237.82 
5.899.44 


$44,533.83 

20.966.89 
18.947.26 


$14,141.40 

5 , 689 . 58 
8,225.68 


$463,051.00 
93.004.40 


$43,429.67 
4,712.28 


$200,701.00 
31,987.32 


$21,359.54 
5,942.33 


$71 .067.42 
11,875.85 


$13,988.73 
4,245.88 


$84,447.98 
1 20,136.06 


$28,056.66 
14,104 68 



1945 Summer Session 



College 


Total 
Enrollment 


Receip 
Students 


La From 
State 


Expenditures 


State Aid 
Ter Student 


Towson 

Salisbury 

Total 


§118 
88 
75 


$6,147.38 
3.378.00 
2.304.18 


$4,156.18 
2.995.94 
3,918.62 


$10,303.56 
6,373.94 
6.222.80 


$35 22 
34.04 

52.25 


281 


$11,829.56 


$11,070.74 


$22,900.30 


$39.40 



* Includes 100 students enrolled for evening cla.sses, counted as 17 students. 

t Excludes receipts of $631.00 from 15 students for private vocal and piano instruction. 

X Includes overdue receipts for precodinj? years. 

° Excludes $4,427.12 which reverted to the Slate and $7,008.49 forwarded to the 1947 fiscal year. 
§ Includes 59 resident students. 



Financing the State Teachers Colleges 



227 



CHART 32 

1945-46 Cost per Teachers College Student — Regular Session 



1945-46 COST PER TEACUERS COLLEGE STUDENT - REGULAR SESSION 
TOTAL COST OF INSTRUCTION PER STUDENT 



State 

Teachers 



Average 
Number of 
College College Elem. Total 
at Students Pupilst Cost 



Total Cost 



Pai d by 
State I I Btudent 



Frostburg t* 91 



6 837 



TowBon 



S64 



Salisbury t 153 



Bowie 



121 




[] t»4a 



TOTAL COST PER RESIDENT STUDENT 



State 
Teachers 



Resident 
Students 



College 


Average 


Per 


Total 


at 


Number 


Cent 


Cost 


Frostburg 


40 


44 


$1601 


Towson 


142 


54 


1157 


Salisbury 


69 


45 


944 j 


Bowie 


119 


98 


774 1 



Total Cost 



Pai d by 

State I n 



Student 



8 1373 



930 



fe76 



S228 



t Excludes receipts of $631.00 from 15 students, paid for vocal and piano instruction. 

* Includes 100 students enrolled for evening classes, counted as 17 students. 

t Includes 3 cadets, 6 special, 11 extension, counted as half students, i.e., as 10 students 

° Includes not only receipts from students for the year 1945-46 but also back payments 
for preceding years. 

NOTE: On Chart 32 in the Seventy-Ninth Annual Report, page 207, the cost per resident 
student paid by the student at Towson, was given as $408 when it should have been $3 lb. 



TABLE 136 

Inventories at State Teachers Colleges and State Department of Education 

as of June 30, 1946 



College or Department 


Land and 
Improvements 


Buildings 


Equipment 


Total 


Towson State Teachers College 

Frostburg State Teachors College 

Salisbury State Teachers Colh'g<' 

I3owi(' State Teachers College 

State Departnwnt of Education 

Vocational Rehabilitation 

State Teachers Retirement System. . . . 
Division of Library Extension 

Totals 


$127,970.00 
80. 591 .00 
20.498.00 
30,396.00 


$1,302,348.00 
354.718.00 
700.046.00 
454.285.00 


$226.341 .00 
57.949.00 
109.945.00 
76,636.00 
27.073.00 
7 . 592 . 00 
6.246.00 
76.203.00 


$1,656,659.00 
493,258.00 
830. 4 S9. 00 
561.317.00 
27,073.00 
7 , 592 . 00 
6,246.00 
76.203.00 


$259,455.00 


$2,811,397.00 


$587,985.00 


{13.658.837,00 



228 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 137 

Contributions by Teachers to the Annuity Savings Fund of the Teachers* 
Retirement System of the State of Maryland for the Year Ended July 31, 1946, 
Number and Percent of May 1946 County Teaching Staff Who are Members in 

Active Service 







Members 


in Active 




Amount Contri- 


Service in May 1946 


County or Institution 


buted Year 








T^^nHino' Julv i^l 








1946 


Number 


Percent 


County: 










$43,391.82 




89 1 




29,876. 14 


322 


72.9 




60,469.24 


533 


71.9 


Cal vprt 


4 Q4rt 69 


58 


78.7 




8.073.87 


oo 




Carroll 


18,643.28 


202 


84.7 


Cecil 


11,187.87 


125 


76 . 7 


Charles 


7 253 69 


83 


61.3 




10,414.40 


118 


74. 1 




23 , 292 . 62 


242 


83.0 




10,338.62 


115 


72.7 




17,739.08 


196 


80.9 




8.509. 16 


96 


77.7 


Kent 


6.868.36 


74 


84.9 


Montgomery 


48,295.57 


448 


70.7 


Prince George's 


48,865.90 


50fi 


71 5 


Queen Anne's 


7.369.78 


76 


81^5 




5,008.46 




64 9 


Somerset 


10.376.85 


101 


88^5 


Talbot 


7! 106 '86 


81 


75.3 


Washington 


40,612 55 


384 


87.3 


Wicomico 


1 5 '. 683 ' 84 


162 


86.1 




9.658.95 


111 


88.8 




$453,980.60 


4.600 


77.0 


Teachers Colleges: 










6.370.62 


44 


95.7 




2,492.92 


17 


77.3 




2,686.00 


tl9 


95.0 




1,907.57 


tl6 


100.0 


Department: 








Education 


7,958.20 


t45 


95.7 


Retirement 


228. 10 


3 


100.0 


Other Schools and Services: 










2,091 .69 


17 




Montrose School for Girls 


869.67 


7 




Maryland Training School for Colored Girls 


498.40 


5 




Rosewood State Training School 


1,412 38 


10 




Maryland School for the Deaf 


2.655. 10 


24 




Department of Forests and Parks 


1.702.02 


14 




Weather Service 


117.00 


1 






538. 10 


3 




M organ State College 


4,084.38 


25 




Total Schools and Departments 


$35,612.15 


250 




Grand Total 


$489,592.75 


4,850 





t Excludes staff members who belong to the State Employees Retirement System: 1 at Salisbury State 
Teachers College, 2 at Bowie State Teachers College, and 7 at the State Department of Education 
and 1 staff member who belongs to the Baltimore City Employees Retirement System. 



Teachers' Retirement System ; Library Service to County 229 

White Schools 



TABLE 138 



Books and Pictures Supplied by Division of Library Extension Directly to 
County Schools for White Pupils in 1945-46 



County 


Total Number Supplied 


TravolingLibraries (4 months j 


Package Libraries (1 month) 


Books 


Pictures 


Volumes 


Schools 
Supplied 


Volumes 


Schools 
Supplied 


Elem. 


High 


Elem. 


High 


Elem. 


High 


Elem. 


High 


Elem. 


High 


Elem. 


High 


Total Counties 


3.623 


2,872 


47 


175 


3,365 


1 ,260 


13 


7 


258 


1,612 


17 


27 


Allegany 


4 


98 








70 




1 


4 


28 


1 


1 


A. Arundel .... 




115 
















115 




2 


Baltimore 


1,730 


395 


19 


34 


1,695 




6 




35 


395 


2 


4 


Calvert 


























Caroline 




12 
















12 




1 


Carroll 


141 


209 






140 


70 


i 


1 


1 


139 


1 


4 


Cecil 


17 


201 








140 




1 


17 


61 


1 


1 


Charles 


























Dorchester. . . . 


112 


1 






60 




1 




52 


1 


' 4 


1 


Frederick 


4 
















4 




1 




Garrett 


70 


37 






70 


35 


1 


1 




2 




1 


Harford 


244 


909 


28 


141 


140 


455 


1 


1 


104 


454 


4 


3 


Howard 


21 


30 














21 


30 


1 


1 


Kent 


























Montgomery. . 


910 


247 






910 


140 




** 




107 




2 


Prince George's 


350 


331 






350 


315 


3 


1 




16 




1 


Queen Anne's. . 




35 








35 




1 










St. Mary's. . . . 




79 
















79 




1 


Somerset 


1 


16 














1 


16 


1 


1 


Talbot 




133 
















133 




1 


Washington. . . 


























Wicomico 




16 
















16 




1 


Worcester ... 


19 


8 














19 


8 


1 


1 



** All Traveling Libraries for Montgomery County borrowed by the School Board and re-circulated by 
that office; therefore, the number of schools supplied is not available. 

Above figures exclude circulation to schools of books from county and public libraries shown in 
Table 141 and their branches located in the following centers not shown in Table 141.: 



Allegany County 

School Board Office 
Anne Arundel 

♦.Tessups 

♦Bookmobile 

Baltimore County 

School Board Office 

*Essex 
Cecil County 

School Board Office 

♦Bookmobile 

Harford County Branches 
♦Aberdeen 
♦Aldino 
♦Black Horse 
♦Church ville 
♦Darlington 

♦Havre de Grace (Concord 
Fields) 

♦Edgewood Heights 
♦Free public library. 



Harford County Branches 
♦Jarretts ville 
♦Norrisville 
♦Shawsville 
♦Street 
♦Taylor 
♦Bookmobile 

Howard County Branches 
♦Alpha 
♦Dayton 
♦Glenolg 
♦Elkridge 
♦Highland 
♦Lisbon 
♦Savage 

Montgomery County 

School Board Office 

Prince George's County Branches 
♦Cheverly 
♦Bookmobile 



Talbot County Branches 
♦Longwoods 
♦Oxford 
♦Royal Oak 
♦Trappe 
♦Wye Mills 
♦Bookmobile 

Washington County Branches 
♦Boonsboro 
♦Funkstown 
♦Hancock 
♦Indian Springs 
♦Keedysville 
♦Maugansville 
♦Ringgold 
♦Rohrers ville 
♦Sharpsburg 
♦Smithsburg 
♦Williamsport 
♦Blue Ridgo-Summit 
♦Brownsville 



230 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 139 — Books Sent by the Division of Library Extension to Maryland 
County Colored Elementary and High Schools, 1945-46 



County 


Volumes 


Colored 
Elementary 
Schools 


Total 


34 


3 


Anne Arundel 


10 


1 


Calvert 


19 


1 


Harford 


5 


1 



County 



Total. 



Anne Arundel. 
Montgomery . 

Talbot 

Wicomico. . . . 



Volumes 



47 

14 
19 
9 



Colored 

High 
Schools 



In addition to school libraries, books are available to colored children and adults through the follow- 
ing public libraries or branches: 



Allegany- Cumberland Public Library 

Anne Arundel- CMay Street School (Branch), 

Annapolis and Anne Arundel County Library. 

Baltimore- 

C'atonsville Colored School (Branch) 
Sparrows Point Pulilic Library 
Towson Public Library 
Turners Station (Branch of Dundalk) 

Cecil- Cecil County Library, Elkton 

Dorchester- Cambridge Public Library for Negroes 

Frederick- C'. Burr Ariz Library, Frederick, 
lends books to colored schools. 



Garrett- Garrett County Library, Oakland. 

Harford- Harford County Library, Bel Air. 

Howard- Howard County Library, EUicott City. 

Montgomery- 
River Road School (Branch of Belhesda) 
Silver S|)ring lends to schools 
Rockville li'nds to schools 

Prince George's- Prince George's County Library, 
Hyattsville 

O'leen Anne's- Queen Anne's County Library, 
Ceiitreviile 

Talbot- County library lends to colored schools. 



Washingfon- Washington Co. Library, Hagers- 
tcwn' 



TABLE 110 

Books Sent by the Division of Library E.xtension to Individuals and Public 

Libraries, 1945-46 



Number of 


Volumes 


Lcjaned to 


Publir 




Libraries 


Indi viduals* 


58 




124 


248 


1,854 


3,545 


3 


35 


75 


94 


202 


732 


38 


1 




70 


.39 


253 


1,476 


12 


64 


1,138 


301 


168 


28 



County 



County 



Number of 
Volumes Loaned tr 



i'ublic 
I ibraries 



Individuals* 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel 
Baltimore .... 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . 
Frederick. . . . 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 



K..nt 

M (>ntgomery . . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington. . . 

Wicomice 

Worcester 

Sufr 

Total 



4 


35 


255 


79 


1,008 


28 


15 


22 


2.062 




577 




32 


17 


78 




9 





8.. 57 7 



16 

80 



6,296 



♦Includes books leaned to libraries in summer camps. 



Service of Div. of Library Extension; Statistics of Public Libraries 231 



istered 


Per 
cent 


1-H QQ 


o 


oc 


iO o 

CO rH 


■ O OJ O OJ 

rH ^ eg eg 


^ f-H 




lit 'f t"- 

m eg 


O". "1" to * 
•»r m t- 


to 'O 




























be 


Number 


O O 

00 o 
00 


o • 
■ 


in 


lo eg 00 

rH O rH 

rH X 05 


■ O 'O iC 

• o «o eg CO 
eg 00 o 


o o 
o 

rH 


rH <£> 

t- lO 

eg 


X I- e-i 
1' to 
eg rH 


a. 0-. rH 
rH 01 05 to 

Ol 0) X 


X t- 
co to 
eg 






00 


CD 


lO 


lO CO 








rH 








Circu- 
lation 


129.321 
7,026 


49,711 


2,863,005 


44,404 
34,444 
6,769 


■ O X O rH 

• O X X X 

05 CO O rH 

CO O t~ 'O 

rHTf 


* O 

o 

00 
CO 


597 
12,134 


1 , 105 
1 , 567 
2,120 


X to X i.O 
rH m CO 

05 rH CO O 

00 ^ eg rH 


47.129 
1.758 


01 

to 


lumes 


Added 
During 
Year 


3 , 5.56 
443 


o • 


62,504 


>o o o 'C i.T V 
o o o ■ t- to t- 
y-(Oit£i ^ eg t- <x> 

rH rH 


o o 
o> o 

rH 


CO !0 
t- Oj 

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rH rH i-H 


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05 rH 


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Vol 


-4-) 


^ o 
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If: 
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rH if. 

to eg 


X 
to in 
Ti< eo 


t - tr 

rH -r CO 

CO eg X 


e ) oj X * 

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to 05 


.839 
.336 


t- 
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l- 




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E- 


00 

CO 


CO 

r-( 


lO 

00 




rH 00 rH 
rH 


rH eg 


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in 'ti* 


e>j 


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•V 




OS 


o o 
oa 


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00 


o 00 >n 

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Tj< Tj< ifS «0 

• o o eg CO 


^ CO 

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05X 

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rH ,H m 


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o 


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Capi 


o o 


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o o o 


c — d 


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City 
City 


Co & City 


City 


000050 S 


Subsc 
Subsc 


Subsc 
Subsc 


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Subsc 
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1 


Co & City 
Co & City 
Co & City 
City 


c >. 









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235 



TABLE 144 — Number of Cases of Certain Infectious Diseases Reported by 
Age Groups for the Counties of Maryland: Year Ending June 30, 1946 

Data Furnished by State Department of Health 



Disease 






Age 


Group 






Total 

Number 
of Cases 


0-4 


5-9 


10-14 


15-19 


20 + 


Not 
Given 


Total Cases 


2,104 


3,515 


790 


957 


1,379 


115 


8,860 




310 


655 


253 


562 


205 


27 


2,012 


Tuberculosis 


52 


97 


75 


118 


836 


2 


1 ,180 


Chickenpox 


230 


434 


32 


12 


24 


15 


747 


Measles 


1 , 057 


1 ,706 


209 


72 


98 


57 


3,199 


Mumps 


79 


219 


58 


31 


66 


6 


459 




217 


140 


24 


2 


5 





388 


Poliomyelitis 


26 


28 


18 


11 


11 





94 




91 


149 


70 


114 


58 


8 


490 


Rheumatic fever 


2 


32 


17 


12 


14 





77 


Diphtheria 


35 


44 


29 


17 


41 





166 


Typhoid fever 


5 


11 


5 


6 


21 





48 



TABLE 145 — Report of School Dental Clinics Conducted in the Counties of 
Maryland under the Auspices of the Maryland State Department of Health 

August 1, 1945 to July 31, 1946 

Data Furnished by State Department of Health 









Number of 




Number of 












Children 












County 


Number 


Time 


















of 


Given 


















Clini- 


to 


Ex- 
















cians 


Serv- 


amined 




Fillings 


Teeth 


Clean- 


Treat- 


ToUl 






ice* 


by 


Treated 


Inserted 


Ex- 


ings 


ments 


Opera- 








Dentist 






tracted 




tions 


Total 


10 




20,888 


3,692 


6,284 


5,401 


700 


2.404 


14,789 


Allegany 


1 


Full 


4,602 


1,597 


610 


3 , 633 


365 


1,366 


5.974 


Anne Arundel . . . 


1 


Part 


731 


262 


329 


243 


23 


42 


637 


Baltimore 


4 


Part 


2,573 


346 


1.114 


493 


5 


25 


1.637 


Frederick 


2 


Part 


694 


611 


1,459 


510 


165 


22 


2,156 


Montgomery. . . . 


1 


Full 


11,843 


692 


2,203 


440 





832 


3,475 


Washington 


1 


Full 


445 


184 


569 


82 


142 


117 


910 



The scope of service varies, either full-time or part-time, meaning one or more one-day clinics per 
month. 



236 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



LIST OF STATISTICAL AND FINANCIAL TABLES 1945-46 



Table No. Subject of Tables Page 

Financial Statements 237-239 

I Number of Schools 240 

II Total Public School Enrollment 241-242 

III Catholic Non-Public Schools: Enrollment and 

Teaching Staff 243-244 

IV Non-Catholic, Non-Public Schools: Enrollment 

and Teaching Staff 245-247 

V Non-Public Schools: Enrollment and Teaching 

Staff 248 

VI Average Number of Public School Pupils Belonging 249 

VII Average Da,ily Attendance 250 

VIII Aggregate Days of Attendance 251 

IX Average Days in Session; Percent of Attendance. . . 252 

X Number of Positions- Public Schools 253-254 

XI Receipts from State and Federal Government 255 

XII Receipts from All Sources 256 

XIII Total Disbursements 257 

XIV Disbursements for General Control 258 

XV Disbursements for Instruction and Operation 259 

XVI Disbursements for Maintenance, Auxiliary 

Agencies, and Fixed Charges 260 

XVII Disbursements for Debt Service and Capital 

Outlay 261 

XVIII Disbursements for White Elementary Schools 262 

XIX Disbursements for White High Schools 263 

XX Disbursements for Colored Elementary Schools 264 

XXI Disbursements for Colored High Schools 265 

XXII Cost per Pupil, Teacher and Pupil Data for 

Individual High Schools 266-271 

XXIIIA Enrollment by Subject in Last Four Years of 

Individual High Schools 272-277 

XXIIIB Enrollment bv Subject in Grades 7 and 8 

of Individual High Schools 278-282 

XXIV Library Data for Individual High Schools 282-288 



List of Statistical Tables; Financial Statement of State 

School Funds 



237 



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238 



1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Financial Statement for Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1946 



Source or Purpose 


State Teachers 


Colleges at 






Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Bowie 



RECEIPTS 



$233,112.00 
33,917.00 
5,237.50 
a21.656.06 
3, 138. 18 


$100,598.00 
12,411 .32 
3,458.00 
13.474.36 
281.30 


$297,060.74 


$130,222.98 



State Appropriation 

Students' Fees, Regular Session 
Students' Fees, Summer Session 

Other Receipts 

Receipts to Budget Items 

Total Receipts 



$93,376.00 
22,184.00 
2.304.18 

2 ! 334 . 92 



$120,199.10 



$75,949.00 
17,125.65 

11^864.79 
6,863.66 



$111,803.09 



disbursements 



Salaries, Wages and Special Payments 

General Repairs 

Motor Vehicle Repairs 

Light, Heat, Power and Water 

Travel 

Transportation 

Communication 

Printing Other than Office Supplies . . . 

All Other Contractual Services 

Food 

Forage and Veterinary Supplies 

Fuel 

Office Supplies 

Medical and Laboratory Supplies. . . 

I>aundry, Cleaning and Di.sinfecting 

Supplies 

Refrigeration Supplies 

Educational, Vocational and Recrea- 
tional Supplies 

Agricultural and Botanical Supplies 

Motor Vehicle Supplies 

Power Plant Supplies 

Wearing .\pparel 

Hou3»'h(>ld Supplier 

All Oth<'r Supplies 

Building Materials. 

Motor Vehich' Equipment Material. . . 

Materials for E<juipment 

Highway Materials 

All Other Materials 

Office Equipment 

Household Equipment.. 

Medical and Laboratory Equipment. . 

Motor Vehicles 

Agricultural and Botanical E(iuipment 

Educational, Vocational and Rec- 
reational Equipment 

Tools and Machinery 

All Other Ecjuipment 

Non-structural Improvements 

Insurance 

All Other Fixed Charges 

Summer Session 

Cafeteria 



Total Disbursements. 



Refunds of Students' Fees 

Unexpended Balance Returned to 

State Treasury 

Fees Not Credited to Budget 



$173,586.49 
14.983.24 
440.70 
6.683. 13 
449.50 
19.77 
1.851 .97 
1.205. 10 
383.13 
23.201 .28 
347.40 
11 , 130.00 
499.97 
174 91 

1 , 560 . 99 
67.42 

2.430 19 
140 15 
506 27 
81 43 
156 01 
1 .844 39 
28 29 
1.498.70 



753 43 

77.70 



1 .071 74 
3,242 74 
69 71 
2.359 . 18 



5,776 91 
92 . 33 
46.50 

L 204 . 07 
150. 50 
9.413 60 
9.657. 19 



$277,185.03 

$ 1.429.50 

18.445.86 
.36 



$76, 103.92 
14,834.33 
125.39 
1 ,678.51 
433 74 
21.57 
569.21 
130.34 
978.82 
5.691 .98 

2.752.36 
61 29 
128 29 

168.98 



1,764 08 
84.30 
478. 13 
182.01 

831 .51 
45.76 
316.73 

7^60 



247 95 
2.218.20 

243.40 
1 .644 21 

500 . 00 

5,311. 03 
4.25 



236.69 

6,373 94 
5,474 .06 



$129,642.58 

$ 579 . 50 

.58 
.32 



Grand Total. 



$297,060.74 



$130,222.98 



$77,062.15 
1,371.65 
354.57 
2 . 086 . 82 
397 53 
25.00 
806 . 26 
117.00 
631 .80 
10,659.53 

2 . 449 . 60 
486 86 
372 69 

245.35 
37.50 

3. 175.30 

649 31 
4 19 

320 41 
69.78 
454.70 



200 . 00 

45 00 
467.78 
393 53 
1 . 600 00 



3,282 37 
77.36 

775.00 
343.91 

6^222 80 



$115,185.65 
$ 1.612.00 
3.401 .45 



$120,199.10 



$53,958.80 
4.999.46 
682 . 62 
4.793.44 
179.36 
11.13 
586.42 
66.50 
952. 17 
14,736.08 
1.012.19 
5.692.03 
202 . 73 
270.73 

629 . 07 



1 


129 


17 




700 


00 






861 


68 




2 


53 




590 


48 




14 


70 




98 


22 




117 


41 




116 


31 




28 


80 




12 


54 


1 


000 


00 




94 


29 


15 


897 


90 




21 


54 




13 


72 




417 


90 




1.842 


92 


$111,732 


84 


$ 


70 


25 






$111 


803 


09 



a Includes receipts from faculty and Goucher College students who lived in the dormitory 
and 1944 summer session carried forward. 



Finances State Teachers Colleges, State Dep't and Allied Activities 239 
Financial Statement for Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1946 



Source or Purpose 




a 




o 




8.2 


OQ 




— c 

08 0; 






«^ 


3 08 3 


Phys 
and 





c 

2 

08 .*J 

«^ 08 
08 J3 

°ci 



Receipts 



State Appropriations 

Federal Appropriations 

General Education Board 

Transfer by Budget Amendment . 
Receipts to Budget Items 

Total Receipts 

Salaries, Wages and Special 

Payments 

General Repairs 

Motor Vehicle Repairs 

Travel • 

Transportation 

Communication 

Other Contractual Services 

Summer Work Shop 

Radio Survey 

Child Growth Program 

Office Supplies 

Educational, Vocational and Rec 

reational Supplies 

Motor Vehicle Supplies 

All Other Supplies 

Office Equipment 

Motor Vehicles 

Educational, Vocational and R:ec 

reational Equipment 

Rent 

Insurance 

All Other Fixed Charges 

Total Disbursements. 

Returned to State Treasury 
Transferred by Budget 

Amendment 

Grand Total 



$73,984.00 


$16,495,00 
23,760.74 


$19,390.00 


$18,653.00 


$26 . 500 . 00 
106,258.69 


a52 . 58 
14.096.00 
4.149.00 






1 . 562 . 00 
12.40 


1 . 542 . 00 
15.00 


750.00 


7 , 500 . 00 


$92,281.58 


$41,830.14 


$20,947.00 


$19,403.00 


$140,258.69 



Disbursements 



$58,724. 19 
124.89 
599 . 22 
5.326.48 
47.53 
4, 100.00 
144.44 
7,884.00 
3. 500.00 
2,015.00 
1 .499.62 

697.91 
1 . 600 . 00 
46.45 
1 , 000 . 00 
3.778.74 

62.02 
200.00 
204.70 



$91,555.19 
726.39 



$92,281.58 



$32,407.97 



66.73 
5, 137.16 



444.27. 
21.89 



69.46 

402.48 
550 . 00 

100.00 
1,064.37 

9.65 
154.45 
28.27 



$40,456.70 
1,373.44 



?41,830.14 



;il.988. 14 
28.60 
45.50 
1 .951 .30 
9.16 
578.11 
60.00 



448.95 

195.77 
300.00 
1 ,219.35 
100.00 



67.68 

27.82 
10.00 



$17,030.38 
589 . 62 
3.327.00 
$20,947.00 



$14, 105.80 



125.00 
38.75 



47.06 
5.054.00 



15.00 
3.38 



$19,388.99 
14.01 



$19,403.00 



$56,436.78 



180.50 
b7,636.55 



1,970.70 
b59. 512.87 



1 .916.26 

b2. 542.97 
267.40 



3 . 690 . 03 



b6,081.55 
12.55 



$140,248.16 
10.53 



$140,258.69 



a Travel expenses of Supervisor of Colored Schools for July and August, 1945. 
b Includes expenditures for trainees. 



Construction Accounts at State Teachers Colleges for Fiscal Year Ended 





June 


30, 1946 






Sources and Purposes 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Bowie 


R 


ECEIPTS 







Bonds Authorized in 1939 
Bonds Authorized in 1941 . 

Total Receipts 



$100,000.00 



$100,000.00 



$. 



7 . 000 . 00 



$7,000.00 



$ 



30.000.00 
$30,000.00 



Disbursements 



Disbursements to June 30, 1945 


$ 2.264.15 


$5,873 


99 


$29,891 


00 


Disbursements during Fiscal Year 1945-46: 










L/ibrary Books 








91 


70 








Total Disbursements 


$ 2 , 264 . 1 5 


$5,873 


99 


$29,982 


70 


Balance to 1947 


97.735.85 


1 , 126 


01 


17 


30 


Grand Total 


$100,000.00 


$7,000 


00 


$30,000 


00 



240 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Catholic and Non-Catholic Private Schools 



245 



TABLE IV — Number (►f Pupils and Teachers in Other than Catholic 
Non-l*ublic County Schools Year Ending June 30, 1946 



County and School 



Allegany 

tWaddoU, Cumberland 

fCondon, Cumberland 

Total (2) 

Anne Arundel 

♦Severn School, Soverna Park 

Holladay School, Annapolis 

t Annapolis Nursery 

Total (3) 

Baltimore 

*McDonogh 

Garrison Forest, Garrison 

Hannah More Academy, Reisters 

town 

§Crosby, Catonsville 

St. Timothy's, Catonsville 

Oldfields, Glencoe 

Greenwood, Ruxton-4 

°Blue Bird, Ruxton 

°Happy Day Nursery, Anneslie. .. . 

fLutherville Kindergarten 

"Playground, 6414 Pinehurst Road, 

Baltimore-12 

xMatthews School, LaPaix Lane. 

Rodgers Forge 

tCooperative Kindergarten, Ingle- 
side Avenue, Baltimore-28 . . . 

Total (13) 

Cecil 

♦Jacob Tome Institute, Port Depost 
*West Nottingham Academy, Colora 
Seventh Day Adventist, Perryville 

ToTAL(3) 

Kent 

Rigs O'Marlow, Chestertown, 

Route 3 

Montcomery 

Washington Missionary College, 

Takoma Park 

Landon, Bethesda-14 

xWhit^hall Country, Bethesda 

xCountryside, Silver Spring 

Longfellow, Bethesda 

xChevy Chase Country, 

17 Grafton Street 

*Bullis, Silver Spring 

Lady Isabel, Edgemoor 

xGreen Acres, Bethesda 

Slade, Olney 

Chevy Chase Junior College 

§Walton, Bethesda 

JMother Goose Nursery, Silver 

Spring 

JHappy Day Nursery, Silver Spring 
xCynthia Warner, Takoma Park . 



Enrollment 



Elementary 


Secondary 














Full- 


Part- 










time 


time 


Buys 




Girls 


Boys 


Girls 






16 


15 


■ — — 




1 




24 


18 






1 




40 


33 






2 








125 




13 




20 


59 






4 




28 


22 






3 




48 


81 


125 




20 




423 




255 




35 


13 




54 




126 


26 






17 




80 


14 


2 


44 


43 






2 


3 








92 


17 


3 








68 


10 


3 








66 


11 


1 


28 


41 






4 


1 


34 


8 






4 




8 


6 






1 


2 


12 


28 






3 




8 


4 






2 


1 


30 


14 







1 




587 


215 


255 


432 


130 


29 


93 


106 


31 


47 


13 


2 


23 




67 




12 


1 


16 


7 


1 


2 


2 




132 


113 


99 


49 


27 


3 


3 


6 






3 


1 


9") 


85 


71 


126 


14 


7 


183 




82 




21 


6 


38 


104 






17 


5 


55 


33 






7 




133 




8 




11 




45 


44 






8 


1 






136 




10 


1 


10 


13 


7 




3 




32 


29 






5 


5 


40 








5 


1 








20 




5 


20 


15 






3 




18 


18 






3 




20 


19 








4 


34 


37 






6 


3 



No. OK 
Teachers 



t Kindergarten only. 

* Secondary school accredited by Maryland State Board of Education. 

X Nursery School only. 

§ Includes Kindergarten. 

** Nursery School and Kindergarten only. 

X Includes Nursery School and Kindergarten. 



246 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE IV— Cont'd. No. of Pupils and Teachers in Other than Catholic 
Non-Public County Schools Year Ending June 30, 1946 





Enrollment 


No. OF 
Teachers 


County and School 


Elementary 


Secondary 


Full- 


Part- 




Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


time 


time 


Montgomery (Cont'd) 

xBenjamin Acres, Silver Spring. . . . 

JCounty Seat Community, Rockville 
tSilver Spring Community Nursery 
JJesup Blair Community Nursery, 
Silver Spring 


41 
1 

1 r> 
12 
18 
26 

16 


39 
1 1 

8 
12 
13 

14 






5 
2 
3 
3 

9 

3 


3 

1 

o 

2 


T0TAL(21) 


851 


494 


304 


154 


loo 


44 


Prince George's 

Briarley Military Academy, 

Avondalo Countrv, Laurel 

Mrs. Ballinger's Nursery, Riverdalo 
Hillsido Seventh Day Adventist, 

°l'i('d Piper Nurfw>ry, Hyattsville. . 
°Jack and Jill Scho<>!, Hyattaville. 
Trinity Lutheran, Hyattsville . . . 
JKaywood Gardens, Mt. Rainier . 
"Dorothy Dale Nursery, Suitland. . 


on 

4. ') 

1 1 
.') 
22 
25 

5. ) 

i:? 

1 w 
1 n 


6 

.) 

7 
18 
25 

4 A 

44 

13 

1 n 
1 






5 
5 
1 

1 
2 
3 
4 
3 
4 
4 


3 


TOTAL(IO) 


267 


128 


9 




32 


3 


Queen Anne's 

Gunston Centreville 

Seventh Day Adventist, Grasonville 


6 


16 

3 




15 


6 
1 




Total(2) 


6 


19 




15 


7 




St. Mauy's 

♦Charlotte Hall 

*St. Mary's Female Seminary, 


H) 




123 


46 


10 

5 


1 
1 


Total(2) 

TALhOT 


19 

36 


36 


123 


46 


15 
1 1 


2 


Washington 

St. James, Hagerstown 

§Miss HofTmeier's, Hagerstown. . . 


34 
36 


35 


67 




13 
3 


4 
1 


TOTA\A'^] 


70 


35 


67 




16 


5 


Wicomico 


14 


11 






1 




yToTAL County White (61) . . 


2,073 


1.171 


982 


696 


397 


«7 



i Kindergarten only. 

* Secondary School accredited by Maryland State Board of Education. 
I Nursery School only. 

Includes Kindergarten. 

Nursery School and Kindergarten only. 
X Includes Nursery School and Kindergarten. 



Enrollment and Staff in Other than Catholic Non-Public Schools 247 



TABLE IV— (Continued) 



Number of Pupils and Teachers in Other Than Catholic Non-Public Elemen- 
tary and Secondary Schools in Baltimore City, Year Ending June 30, 1946 



School 


Enrollment 


No. of 
Teachers 


Elementary 


Secondary 


Full- 
time 


Part- 
time 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Schools for White Pupils 
















163 


165 


52 


93 


45 


4 


■r\ -» "¥ T T > 1 # 1 A 




236 




123 


21 


31 


xCalvert School, Tuscany Road 


174 


172 






31 




xPark School, 3025 Liberty Heights Ave.. 


118 


131 


51 


59 


34 


1 


xRoland Park Country, 817 W. Uni- 














versity Parkway 

xGiIman Country, 5407 Roland Ave 


69 


202 




97 


25 


6 


216 




118 




29 


2 


§Talmudical Academy, 3701 Cottage Ave. 


230 




26 




17 


13 




123 




119 




16 


1 


Boys' Latin, 1008 Brevard St 

Girls Latin, 10 Club Road 


110 




72 




15 


2 




ie 




96 


10 


4 


xHomewood, 4906 Roland Ave 


74 


76 






14 


3 


Immanuel Lutheran, 2o S. Caroline St.. 


55 


47 






4 




^Salvation Army Day Nursery, 242 S. 
















76 


44 






7 




^Hamilton Nursery, 3005-07 Hamilton Ave 


33 


24 






2 


1 


Child Study Center of Maryland, Inc. 














rj r%t TT T __Ji_ _ A 


55 


11 






4 




*Samuel Ready, 5150 Old Frederick Rd.. 
xMiss Crater s Country, 3524 Meadow- 




31 




26 


4 


















17 


29 






4 




TKornerstone Kindergarten, Lafayette 














and Bolton Street 


15 


25 






2 


1 


+ XTTl- *J. XT fTl_ \ n ■* TT T 

jWhitmore Nursery School, 3102 W. 














Cold Spring Lane 


51 


40 






5 


1 


Edgecombe Academy, 2907 Edgecombe 














Circle 


25 


21 


8 


10 


4 


2 


tJewish Educational Alliance, 1216 E. 














Baltimore Street 


25 


26 






3 


1 


JKnox Nursery, 6901 Reisterstown Road. 


27 


13 






6 




jWoodland Nursery, 3911 Groveland Ave 


16 


15 






6 






18 


16 






2 




tS.W. Center Nursery, 1920 Wilkens Ave 
"Cathedral Kindergarten, University 


16 


14 






1 
















Parkway and Charles Street 


30 


14 






3 




^Ireland Nursery School, 3021 Wayne Ave 


18 


15 






3 




tWalbrook Memorial, Gwynns Falls 














Parkway and Longwood Street 


12 


12 






4 




Clifton Day Nursery, 2628 Harford Ave 


17 


7 






3 




Garden School, 1525 Bolton Street 


6 


7 






2 




JDickeyville Nursery, 221 5 Forest Park Ave 


49 


31 






9 




JMrs. Weis', 4002 Alto Road 


8 


7 






2 




§Beth Jacob School, 4637 Park Heights 














Avenue 




95 






8 




IGrace and St. Peter's, Park and 














Monument 


14 


12 






3 




Total (34) 

Schools for Colored Pupils 

Seventh Day Adventist, Harlem Ave. & 

Dolphin Street 

JDay Nursery for Colored Children, 

703 Carroll ton Avenue 

T0TAL(2) 


1,860 

40 
9 
49 


1,554 

31 
8 
39 


446 

1 
1 


504 

4 
4 


348 

4 

3 
7 


74 



xincludes Nursery School and Kindergarten. 
{Includes Kindergarten. 
^Nursery School only. 

♦Secondary School accredited by Maryland State Board of Education 
tKindergarten only. 

"Nursery School and Kindergarten only. 



248 1946 Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE V 

Number of Pupils Reported Enrolled in Maryland Non-Public Elementary 
and Secondary Schools, for the Year Ending June 30, 1946 



County 



I- is 
|§ 

1^ 



White 





e 


nrollment 




Elementary 


Com- 
mer- 
cial 


Secondary 


Boys 


Girls 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 



IS 



«-i2 
|§ 



Colored 



Enrollment 



Elementary 



Boys 



Girls 



Secondary 



Boys 



Girls 



Catholic Parish and Private Schools* 



Allegany 


8 


911 


926 


19 


251 


294 


73 














Anne Arundel 


1 


203 


192 








8 


1 


33 


33 






2 


Baltimore 


20 


2,417 


2, 193 




1 .049 


274 


171 














Calvert 


1 


26 


31 




9 


14 


4 














Caroline 


1 




29 








6 














Carroll 


2 


86 


109 




14 


11 


8 














Cecil 


1 


86 


63 








4 














Charles 


2 


166 


185 




33 


61 


15 


1 


75 


81 






3 


Frederick 


6 


284 


280 


24 


24 


129 


43 


1 


4 


2 






3 




1 


35 


37 








4 














Harford 


1 


83 


59 








3 














Howard 


4 


194 


215 






60 


30 


1 


32 


34 






2 


Mont Komery 


6 


690 


651 




158 


195 


71 














Prince George's. . . 


6 


641 


601 




55 


32 


38 


1 


32 


47 






2 


St. Mary's 


9 


790 


675 




83 


151 


54 


2 


145 


140 






6 


Washington 


1 


165 


164 




28 


66 


15 














Total Counties 


70 


6,777 


6.410 


43 


1 .704 


1 .287 


547 


7 


321 


337 






18 


Baltimore City 


64 


13,049 


12,834 


550 


1,759 


3.379 


878 


9 


551 


719 




206 


57 


Total State . 


134 


19,826 


19,244 


593 


3.463 


4.666 


1.425 


16 


872 


1 . 056 




206 


75 



Other Non-Public Private ScHOOLst 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Cecil 

Kent 

Montgomery . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's . . 
St. Mary's. . . . 

Talbot 

Washington . . . 
Wicomico 

Total Counties 
Baltimore City 

Total State . . 



2 


40 


33 








2 












3 


48 


81 




125 




20 












13 


587 


215 




255 


432 


159 












3 


132 


113 




99 


49 


30 












1 


3 


6 








4 












21 


851 


494 




304 


154 


177 












10 


267 


128 




9 




35 












2 


6 


19 






15 


7 












2 


19 






123 


46 


17 












1 


36 


36 








11 












2 


70 


35 




67 




21 












1 


14 


11 








1 












61 


2,073 


1 .171 




982 


696 


484 












34 


1,860 


1,554 




446 


504 


422 


2 


49 


39 


1 


4 


95 


3.933 


2,725 




1,428 


1,200 


906 


2 


49 


39 


1 


4 



Schools and Institutions for Atypical CniLDRENt 



Children's Rehabilitation 

Institute. Cockrysviilo 
Maryland School for the 

Deaf, Frederick 

Maryland School for the 

Blind 

Dept. for Colored 
Deaf, Overlea 
Reinhardt School for Deaf 

Children Inc., Kensington 
Maryland Training School 

for Boys, Loch Raven . 
Montrose School for Girls, 

Reisterstown 

Cheltenham School for 

Colored Boys 

Maryland Training School 

For Colored Girls, 

Glen Burnie 

Rosewood State Training 

School, Owings Mills.. 



44 

77 
34 

9 

163 



98 



25 
67 
27 

10 

83 



73 



6 
14 
11 



42 



9 
17 

15 

3 
4 

10 



10 



17 
24 



153 



10 
22 



102 



*Figures furnished by Rev. Dr. Leo J. McCormick, Superintendent of Catholic Schools. 
fFigures furnished by principals of schools. 



NoN Public 



Schools; Pupils Belonging in Public Schools 



249 



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Total Cost 
of 

Supervision 

and 
Instruction 


—1 eo to c CO c CO '-"T X to ift I.'? CM CO to a; X 'C CM Ol CM in 
to ^ a~. CO 't Oi — 1 oj o) T" c: X x t- — ■ co as ^ t~ 

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Other Costs 
of 

Supervision 

and 
Instructiont 


$8,686.07 

35.00 
t913.22 
401 .76 
441.66 
225 . 59 

63.19 
201.62 

566 [ 39 
tll3.63 
334.46 
113.80 
122.52 
1 . 626 . 00 
t698.33 
363 . 76 
303 . 78 
344.00 
248.68 
2.89 
X 593. 12 
972.67 

at39, 124.66 

$47,810.73 


Materials 
of 

Instruction 


$7,863.84 

27.99 

24.11 
1,135.62 
112. 53 
112.45 

93 . 03 
144.03 
426.55 
238.51 
170.05 
179.99 

72 . 42 
325.78 
900. 89 
1 .908.01 
256 66 
296.51 
241 .34 
408.43 

97 . 22 
476.56 
215.16 

18,136.21 

$26,000.05 


Textbooks 


1-1 cMinxa>oxoiOintooxojt-eocxtC'rco— 1~ 03 
01 xt^'-xooit^o^a-. to'-ocotc-^eo — cr:co>.-c-* c 

t~ t~ 0) -f ^ i.o !x i-o t- tc 01 CO c ci ■»« c) t- -T to ^ 

CM X -t f to ^ i.o «.o — a. I- c^. t~ oi tc 0-. t- x o-. co -f t- -r 

01 etc— 'j'"-''^o>'*'^xineo'-'-otccoci."-Hono a> x 

C73 CO — — —CO — t~ 

— •-' CO 

«^ w 


Salaries 
of 

Principals 

and 
Teachers 


$1,038,087.22 

9.191.92 
150,403.08 
101 .432.21 
40.549.82 
25.219. 19 

15.083.49 
.53.985.14 
42.461 71 
27.235.27 
38.685.24 
24.577.22 
23.065.69 
92.221 .09 
153.370. 18 
27.819.84 
33.919.72 
37.340.48 
33.042.70 
8.317.68 
52 . .542 . 90 
35,063.65 

1.598.145.84 

$2,636.2.33.06 


Traveling 
Kxnen.ses 
of 

SuperN'iscrs 


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$33,894.40 

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t241..50 
2 , 400 . 00 
'488.00 
300.00 
tl, 100.00 
2.915.46 
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1 ,137.50 
833 . 34 
t936 . 68 
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2 . 699 . 98 
1.874.94 
tl .200.00 
2 , 200 . 00 
tl .800.00 
1 .475.00 

3.000.00 
tl .440.00 

33 . 562 . 66 

$67,457.06 


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Enrollment by Subject Last Four Years of Each High School 275 





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2 



INDEX 



A 

Absence of teachers, allowance for, 166 
Academic course, each high school, 266-271 
Administration 

Conferences, 158-159, 160-180 
General Control 

Cost per pupil, 107, 108 
Expenditures, 258 
Percent for, 105, 106 

Superintendents, 2, 3-4, 158-159, 159-180, 
254. 258 

Adolescents, behavior characteristics of 190, 209 
Adult education, 96, 97, 120, 123. 124. 171, 192. 
197, 260 

Agre for admission to first grade. 155. 165 
Age grade distribution. 28. 29 
Agriculture. 158, 197, 214 

Adult education, 96-97, 197 

Enrollment 
Colored, 51 

Each high school, 272, 282 
White, 48. 56 

Failures and withdrawals, white, 62 

Federal aid, 120-122, 123 

Schools offering, 63, 272-282 

State supervision, 2, 158, 214 

Teachers, 63 
Aid from State and/or Federal funds to 

Counties and Baltimore 
Changes proposed, 175-179 
Distribution by type of fund. 1945-46, 255 
1945-1946, 103-104, 237. 255 
1920-1946, 101-102 

State teachers colleges. 225. 226, 227, 237, 238 

Vocational education, 120-123, 237, 239, 255 

Vocational rehabilitation, 99. 237. 239 
Allowances for teachers' absence, 166 
Appropriations 

County, 1946-47, 133, 134 

1945-1946, 103-104, 237, 255, 256 

1920-1946, 101-102 

State, 1945-46, 103-104, 237. 265 
Architects' conferences. 7, 171-172 
Art, 188, 195-196 

Enrollment, 49, 60, 51, 58, 272-282 

Teachers of, 63 
Arts and crafts, 198-199, 200 
Assessable basis, 136-137, 176, 178 
Attendance 

Aggregate days of, 251 

Average daily. 250 

Index of elementary school. 17 

Percent of, 15-16, 18 

Summer school pupils, 100 

Teachers at summer school, 76 

Workers, 145, 176. 242. 253. 258 



A-CContinued) 

Audio-visual aids to instruction. 176. 191 
Auditorium gymnasium. 173 
Auxiliary agencies 

Cost per pupi! for. 111. 113. 115, 117 
Expenditures for 
Colored. 204. 265 
Total by purpose. 2G0 
White. 262. 263 
Percent of current expense budget. 105, 106 

B 

Hands, orchestras, glee clubs, 59 
Basic aid per classroom unit, 177, 237, 255 
Belonging, average number, 249 
Each high school. 266. 271 
Per teacher. 77-82 
Birth rates. 7. 13. 171 
Board of Education, State, 2, 237, 239 
Bonds outstanding, school. 130 
Books and instructional materials 
Cost per pupil 

Elementary, 111. 115 
High. 113. 117 
Curriculum laboratory, 144, 161, 168-169 
Expenditures 

All schools. 259 
Colored, 264, 265 
White. 262, 263 
Percent of current expense budget, 105. 106 
State aid for. 255 
Boys and Girls 

Age grade distribution. 28. 29 
Enrollment 
By grade. 19 
Total 

Non-public school. 243-248 
Public school. 241-242 
Graduates, high school. 36-40. 41-48. 266-271 
Non-promotions 
Elementary. 22-25 
First grade, 23 

High school subjects, white pupils 
Each subje-t, 62 
One or more subjects, 60-61 
Budget (s) 

Local, county and Baltimore City 

1945- 1946. 103-104. 256 

1946- 1947. 133-134 
1920-1946, 101-102 

State public school, 237. 239 
State teachers colleges, 237-238 
Buildings, grounds and equipment. 7. 171-172. 
176. 177. 195 

Cost (see capital outlay) 
Financing. 7.. 172-175. 177-179 



289 



290 



Index 



B- (Continued) 

Buildings (Cont.) 

Number of, 94-97, 240 

Sale of federally financed, 175 

State aid recommended for, 7, 174-175, 177 

178-179 

TTse of, 174, 192 

Value of school, per pupil, 131-132 
Buses and tires. 162-165 

Business education, 49, 57, 63, 120-121, 123, 
201-202 
Enrollment 
Adult, 96, 97 

Each high school, 272-277 

Total and by county, 49, 57, 120-121, 123 
Failures and withdrawals, 62 
Schools having, 63. 272-277 
Teachers, 63 
By-lawa re certification, 160 

c 

Cafeterias, 157, 174, 180, 214 
Capital outlay, school, 172, 173, 175 

By sites, buildings, equipment, 201 

By types of schools, 129 

By year, 1920-1946, 102 

Colored, 115. 117, 264. 265 

State aid for, 174, 175, 177, 178, 179 

White, 111, 113. 262, 263 
Census and attendance fund, 237, 255 
Certificates held by county teachers, 64-67 

Changes in requirements for, 160 
Child care program, 166, 187, 188 
Child study program, 6, 145-146, 157, 168. 181, 

182-187, 204, 205. 212. 213 
Classes 

Evening school, 96, 97, 124, 260 
Size of, 77-82 

Special for handicapped, 34-35 
Summer school, Baltimore City, 100, 244 
246-261 

Clerks, county schools, 61, 176. 253 
Colleges 

High school graduates 

of 1915 entering, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48 
of 1946 entering teachers colleges, 39-40, 
266-271 
Junior, 176, 219 
State teachers, 6, 145, 219-227 
Training teachers appointed in Maryland 
counties, 1945-1946, 75 
Colored schools conferences, 180, 213-215 
Commercial (see Business subjects) 
Committee assignments, 167 
Community life, 168 
Conference programs of 

Architects and school ofl^cials, 171-172 
Colored, 213-215 

High school principals, 205-207 
State department staff, 144-158 



C-(Continued) 

Conference programs (Cont.) 

Superintendents, 158-159, 160-180, 213 
Supervisors 
Colored, 214 

White elementary, 181-187 
White high, 204-209 
Conservation, 168, 179, 191, 192, 207 
Consolidation 

Decrease in one-teacher schools, 91 

Schools closed by, 240 

Transportation of pupils. 125-128 
Construction of schools. 7, 171-172, 173-174, 

175. 177, 178, 179 
Consumer problems. 190, 191, 192 
Core program, 169, 188, 190, 193, 207, 209 
Correspondence courses, 147 
Cost per pupil 

Analyzed for elementary and high school 
pupils. 111, 113, 115. 117 

By types of schools, 108 

Colored elementary and high schools, 114-117 
General control, 107, 108 
Individual high schools, 266-271 
One-teacher schools, white, 108, 109 
State teachers colleges, 225, 227 
Transported. 125, 126 

White elementary and high schools, 110-113 
Costs (see Expenditures) 

Courses in individual high schools, 272-282 
Credit for work in armed services, 146 
Crippled children, scr\ ices for, 34, 35, 234 
Current expenses 
Cost per pupil, 108 
Colored, 114-117 
In<lividual high schools, 266-271 
White schools, 107-113 
Expenditures 

Colored, 264-265 
Total, 257 
White. 262-263 
Currifulum. 6, 144, 146, 161, 168-169, 187-188, 
191. 206, 207, 208, 209 

D 

Dates, opening and closing of schools, days in 

session, 0, 262 
Debt service 

1946-1946. 131, 261 

1946-47, 138, 134 
Tax rate for, 138 
Dental program. 152, 235 
Disbursements (see Expenditures) 
Distributive education, 63, 120-121, 123. 201-202 
Diversified occupations, 201 

E 

Elementary schools, supervision, 181-187 
Employment of high school graduates, 39-47 
English, high school, 192-193 
Enrollment 
Colored, 51 

Each high school, 272-282 
White. 49, 50, 52 



Index 



291 



E- (Continued) 

Knglish (Cont.) 

Failures and withdrawals, white, 62 

Schools ofTering, 63, 272-282 

Teachers, 63 
Enrollment 

Adult, 96-97 

Elementary. 8, 12. 19-21, 241-248 
Grade or year, 19-21 
High school 

Course, each school, 272-282 
Growth in. 12. 118-119 
Subjects 

Colored. 61 
Each school, 272-282 
White, 49-50, 52-58 
Year, 19-21 

Each school, 266-271 
White. 20, 52 
Increase in, 10-12. 14 

Non-public, private and parochial schools, 

8, 10. 12, 243-248 
Public schools, 8, 10-12, 14, 19-21, 241-242, 

249 

State teachers colleges, 222-224 
Subject 

Colored high, 51 

Each high school, 272-282 

White high, 49-50. 52-58 
Summary, elementary and secondary, public 

and non-public, city and county, 8, 10, 

12 

Summer schools, pupils, 100 
Total public schools, 8. 10-12, 14, 241-242, 
249 

Equalization fund, 103-104, 176, 177, 255 
Equivalence examinations, 146, 161, 215-217 
Evening schools and courses 
Enrollment, 96-97 
Expenditures, 120, 123, 124, 260 
Exchange teachers, 160 
Expenditures, 257-265 

(See also general control, instruction, oper- 
ation, maintenance, auxiliary agencies, 
fixed charges, tuition to adjoining 
counties, current expenses, debt service, 
capital outlay) 
Colored schools, 264-265 
Elementary schools, 262, 264 

E\ening schools. 120, 123, 124, 260 

Health, 233, 260 

High schools, 263, 266 

Libraries, 260 

Salaries 

All schools, 259 

Elementary, 262, 264 
High, 118, 119, 263. 265 
Vocational teachers. 120-124 

State teachers colleges. 225-227. 237. 238, 
239 

Summer schools. 260 



K-(C'ontinued) 

Expenditures (Cont.) 

Total, by major classifications. 237. 257 

Transportation, 125, 126. 260 

Vocational work. Federal, 120-124. 255 
Experimental practices, committee on, 188, 

190 

F 

F^lures (see Non-promotions) 
Farm machinery, repair of, 97. 197 
Federal aid 

Federal Works Agency. 129, 175. 255 
Vocational education. 120-124, 237, 239, 255 
Administration and supervision, 123 
Salaries of teachers 

Baltimore City. 120. 123 
County day, 120, 121. 122 
County evening. 120, 124 
B^es in teachers colleges, 6, 219, 225-227, 237, 
238 

Financial statements 

County schools, 255-265 

State public schools, 237, 239 

State teachers colleges, 237, 238, 239 
Financing schools, 7. 167-168, 172-175, 175- 

179 

Fine arts, 188 
First grade 

Enrollment, 19, 20, 24 

Non-promotions, 23 

Reading readiness tests, 155-156, 181, 211-212 
Five-day week, 161 
Fixed charges, 260 
F\)od conservation, 157, 206 
French 

Enrollment 
Colored, 51 

Each high school, 272-282 

White, 49, 56 
Failures and withdrawals, white, 62 
Schools offering, 63, 272-277 
Teachers, 63 

G 

General control 

Cost per pupil, 107, 108 

Expenditures, 258 

Percent for, 105-106 
Glee clubs, bands, orchestras, 59 
Grade enrollment. 19-21, 52 
Graduates 

High school, 36-48 

Entering teachers colleges, 39-10, 42, 4 1, 
47 

From each school, 266-271 

Occupations of, 41-48 
Teachers colleges, 220-221 
Guidance, 63, 188. 191, 202-203. 214 
Gymnasiums, 173, 174 



292 



Index 



H 

Handicapped children 

Expenditures, 34, 237, 239 
Home instruction, 34, 241-242 
Hospital schools, 34, 241-242 
Institutions for, 34, 248 

Opportunities for education of, 34-35, 151 
Receipts from State, 34, 237, 239. 255 
Transportation, 34 
Health 

Activities of State and County Depart- 
ments of. 148, 149, 151-154, 233-235 

And physical education association, 154-155 

Cost per pupil. 111, 113, 115, 117, 233 

Expenditures 

All schools, 260 

By county health offices, 233 

Service program, 148-154, 171, 187. 192. 
194-195 

Hearing, conservation of, classes and tests, 

34, 35, 150, 153 
High school equivalence examinations, 146, 

IGl. 215-217 
High schools 

Aid for. 255 

Disbursements, 263-205 

Growth in, 118, 119 

Individual, 266-288 

Supervision, 204-209, 210-215 
Home economics. 157. 192. 198-199. 213-214 

Adult education, 96, 97, 120 

Enrollment 
Colored, 51 

Each high school. 272-282 
White. 49, 56 
Federal aid. 120-124 
Schools having, 63. 272-282 
Teachers. 63 
Home instruction of pupils. 34. 241, 242 
Huffington, J. W.. P. E., 210-211 

I 

Immunizations, 234, 235 

Incentive funds, 177, 178, 179 

Income payments, per capita, 141, 142 

Income tax, state, per capita, 140 

Incorporated tovma, levy for, 134 

Index of school attendance, 17 

Industrial arts (see also Trades and indus- 
tries), 200 
Enrollment 
Colored, 61 

Each high school. 272-282 

White, 49, 56 
Schools having, 63, 272-282 
Teachers, 63 
Instruction 

Cost per pupil. 111, 113, 115, 117 
Expenditures 

Colored, 264-265 

Salaries, supervision, books, etc., 259 



I-(Continued) 

Institution Expenditures (Cont.) 

State teachers colleges, 226, 227 

White, 262-263 
Percent of current expense budget, 103, 104 
Insurance 

Group for State Department Staff, 148 

Motor vehicles, 164-165 
Intercultural relationships, 192 
International relationships, 192 
Inventories, 227 

J 

Job training of veterans, 7, 218-219 

.Junior colleges, 171, 176, 219 

Junior high school, 188, 190, 207, 209 

K 

Kindergartens, 19-21, 166, 171, 176 

L 

Language arts, 187. 192-193 

Languages (see English. French) 

Late entrants, elementary school, 17 

Latin, (see French) 

Legislation, 1945. 6. 7. 175 

Length of session, 9, 252 

Levies, county 133, 134 

Liberal arts, colleges, 157 

Librarians, certificate requirements, 160 

Libraries, 157, 171, 176. 205-207 
Expenditures all schools, 260 
Public libraries. 176. 231-232 
Schools. 176. 190. 214. 229-230. 283-288 

Library Extension Division. 7. 157, 169-174. 
229-232. 237. 239 

Licensing of schools. 144. 217 

Lip reading classes. 35 

Literature, 195-196 

Lunch program. 157, 219 

M 

Maintenance 

Cost per pupil for. 111, 113, 115. 117 
Expenditures 

By type of repair, 260 
Colored, 264, 265 
White, 262, 263 
Percent of current expense budget, 105, 106 
Maryland the nation in miniature, 193, 207 
Maryland's rank among states, 9, 15, 85, 103, 
107. 131 

Materials of instruction and books 
Cost per pupil for, 111, 113, 115, 117 
Expenditures 

Colored, 264, 265 

Total, 259 

White, 262, 263 
Percent of current expense budget, 105, 106 
State aid for, 255 
Mathematics, high school, 187, 192, 194 
Enrollment 

Colored, 51 

Each high school, 272-282 



Index 



M-(Continued) 

Mathematics enrollment (Cont.) 
White, 49, 60, 55 

Failures and withdrawals, white, 62 

Schools having, 63, 272-282 

Teachers, 63 
Medical examinations 

Pupils, 151-154, 234 

Teachers, 237 
Men teachers. 75, 253, 254 
Mentally handicapped children, 34, 35 
Migration of population, 7 
Music, high school, 188, 195-196 

Enrollment 
Colored, 51 

Each high school, 272-282 

White, 49, 50, 58, 59 
Orchestras, bands, etc., 59 
Schools ha\ing, 63, 272-282 
Teachers, 63 

N 

Night schools (see Evening schools, adult 

education) 
Non-promotions 

Elementary schools, 22-27 

First grade, 23 

Subject, white high schools 
Each subject, 62 
One or more subjects, 60-61 
Number belonging. 249 

Each high school, 266-271 

Per teacher, 77-82 
Number of schools 

Having one teacher, 90, 91 

Non-public, 8, 243-248 

Public, 8, 240 

Elementary, 90-91 
High, 93-95 
Nurses, public health, 148, 149, 151. 152, 153, 

154, 233 
Nursery schools. 166, 171 
Nutrition, 219 

o 

Occupations of high school graduates, 41-48 

One-teacher schools 

Capital outlay for, 129 

Cost per pupil. 111, 113, 115. 117 

Decrease in, 91 

Number belonging in, 91 

Per teacher, 77 
Number of, 90, 91, 240 
White 

Percent of attendance, 16 
Salary per teacher in, 84 
On-the-job training, 7, 218-219 
Operation 

Cost per pupil. 111, 113, 115, 117 
Expenditures 

By fuel, janitors' wages, supplies, 259 



293 

O-(Continued) 

Operation expenditures (Cont.) 

Colored, 264. 265 

White, 262-263 
Percent of current expense budget, 105-106 
Orchestras, bands, etc.. 59 
Overage pupils, 30 

P 

Parent-teacher associations, 143 

Parochial and private schools, 10, 12, 243-248 

Part-payment of salaries, 255 

Pensions, 167, 228, 237 

Persistence to high school graduation, 31-33, 
37-38 

Physical education and health, 148-155, 194- 

195. 233-235, 260 
Physical education and recreation. 148. 154- 

155, 194-195, 214 

Appropriation for, 237, 239 

High school enrollment 
Colored, 51 

Each high school, 272-282 

White, 49, 50, 58 
Program, 148-155. 194-195 
Schools offering, 63, 272-282 
Teachers, 63 
Physical examinations (see Medical examina- 
tions ) 

Physically handicapped children, 34. 35 
Planning school buildings, 171-174 
Practical arts, 188, 196-197 
Pre-kindergarten classes, 171 
Presidents of teachers colleges. 3. 224 
Principals, high schools, 205-207, 214-215 
Private and parochial schools (see parochial 

and private schools) 
Private trade schools, 7, 144. 217 
Programs of conferences (see conferences) 
Property, valuation of 

County and City, 136-137. 176. 178 

School. 131-132 
Psychology, 193 

Public health agencies, relations with, 148-165, 
194-195 

Public relations. 157, 190, 191, 192, 205. 207 
Pupils 

Non-public schools, 8, 10. 12. 243-248 

One-teacher schools, 90, 91 

Overage. 30 

Per teacher, 78-82 

Public school 

Enrollment. 8. 10. 11. 12, 14. 241-242 

Number attending. 250 

Number belonging. 249 

Percent of attendance, 15-16. 18, 262 
Transported, 125, 126. 127 

R 

Radio education. 166. 176. 193 

Rank of Mar>'land. 9. 16. 85, 103. 107, 131 



294 



Index 



R-(Continued) 

Receipts from 

All sources, 256 

Federal government, 255 

Evening schools, counties, 124 
Federal Works Agency, 129, 255 
Teachers' salaries, counties, 120-123 
Vocational education, 120-124 

State 

Distributed by type of fund, 1945-1946, 
237, 255 

1920-1946, 101. 102 

Total and percent, 101, 102 

Teachers colleges, 225-227, 237, 238 
Recreation budget needed, 195 
Rehabilitation, vocational, 2, 98-99, 147-148, 

165. 237. 239 
Repair of farm machinery, 96-97, 197 
Resignations of teachers, 6, 68-69 
Retarded children, classes for, 34, 35 
Retirement system for teachers, 167 

Finances. 167. 228, 237 

Members, 228 

Problems, 167 

Reciprocity, 167 

Staff, 3 

s 

Safety education, 168 
Salaries, 176 

Attendance officers, 258 

Growth in high school, 118, 119 

1945 scale, 7 

Percent of school budget, 105, 106 

State Department Staff, 146 

Superintendents, 159, 258 

Supervisors, 181, 259 

Teachers. 176 

Average per teacher, 82-89 

Cost per pupil. 111. 113, 115, 117 

Total 

Colored elementary, 264 

Colored high. 119, 265 

Vocational. 120-123 

White elementary, 262 

White high, 118. 263 
School census, 171 
School lunch program, 157, 219 
Schools, number of, 8, 94-97, 240 
Science, high school, 187, 192, 193-194 
Enrollment 

Colored, 51 

Each high school. 272-282 
White. 49, 50, 54 
Failures and withdrawals, white high schools. 
62 

Schools offering. 63. 272-282 

Teachers. 63 
Senior high school program, 188. 191-192 
Session, length of, 9, 252 
Sex of teachers, 75. 253, 264 



S-(Continued) 

Shops. 174, 201 
Sick leave, 166 

Sight conservation classes and tests, 35, 150, 
153 

Sites, 171, 173 
Size of 

Classes, 6, 77-82, 173, 176 
Classrooms, 173 
Schools. 171, 172, 240 
Each high, 266-271 
Elementary, 90, 91, 171 
High. 92-95, 171, 172 
Sites. 173 

Teaching staff, 90, 91, 92, 94, 154, 254 
Social studies, 157. 187, 192, 193 
Enrollment in high school 
Colored, 51 

Each high school, 272-282 
White, 49, 50, 53 
Failures and withdrawals, white high schools, 
62 

High schools offering, 63, 272-282 
Teachers, 63 
Spanish (see French) 

Special classes for handicapped, 34, 35, 237 

Special high school teachers, 63 

State 

Aid to health, 233 

Aid to libraries, 170, 171 

Aid to schools. 167-168, 175-179 
1920-1946, 101-102 

Showing various school funds. 175, 237, 255 
Board of Education. 2. 237, 239 
Department of Education, 2, 144, 145, 237, 

239 

Department of Health 
F^xponditures, 233 

Sch<x)l activities, 148, 149, 151, 154, 233- 
235 

Income taxes, 140 

Public school budget, 237-239 

Teachers colleges, 3, 6, 36. 39. 40. 42. 44. 

47. 48. 145, 219-227. 237. 239. 266-271 
Teachers Retirement System, 3, 167. 228, 

237 

Statistical tables, 236, 240-288 
Stenography, typewriting, bookkeeping, 57, 
201-202 

Subjects studied in high school 
Colored, 51 

Each high school. 272-282 
White. 49. 50. 52-58 
Substitute certificates. 160 

Summer conferences at Towson and Bowie, 168, 

187-203, 207-209, 209-210 
Summer school attendance 

County teachers. 76, 161 

Pupils. 100 
Superintendents, 2, 3-4. 148, 149, 159-180 



Index 



295 



S- (Continued) 

Supervision, Supervisors, 144, 145, 146, 176 
Acti\ ities 

Colored, 210-215 

White elementary, 181-187 

White hiffh, 204-209 
Cost per pupil for. 111, 113. 116, 117 
Cost, salaries and expenses 

All schools, 257 

Colored. 264, 265 

White, 262. 263 
Curriculum, 6, 144. 161. 168-169. 181-188. 

206 

Names of. 2, 3, 4, 189, 209, 210 

Number of. 181-182, 204. 253 

Percent of current expense budget. 105-106 

Revised plans for, 176 

Salaries of. 181. 243, 246, 247, 250, 251 

State, 2, 144-159, 161, 204, 210-211 

State aid, 239 
Surplus Federal property, 165 
Survival through school. 31-33 

T 

Taxable basis. 136. 137. 176, 178 

Tax dollar, distribution of school. 105, 106 

Tax rates, county, 138, 176, 177 

Teacher (s) 

Academic, high school, 63 

Certification of, 64-67, 160 

Colleges, 6. 39-40. 42, 44, 47. 48, 145, 146, 219- 
227 

In service training for, 190. 192. 206 
Number of. 253-254 

For each high school subject. 63 
In each high school. 266-271 
In schools of each type 
Colored, 254. 264. 265 
Non-public schools. 8. 243-248 
Public schools. 253. 254 
White elementary. 237. 253. 262 
White high. 253. 263 
Total public school. 253-254 
Pupil planning. 190 
Pupils per. 78-82 
Resignations. 6. 68. 69 
Responsibilities for health, 150 
Salaries of, 6 
Sex of, 75, 253, 254 
Sick leave, allowance for, 166 
Special high school, 63 
Su mmer school attendance of, 76, 161 
Training institutions, 157, 219-227, 228, 237, 
238 

Turnover of, 6, 68-74 
Teachers' Retirement System 

Financial statement. 167, 228, 237 
Problems. 167 
Staff, 3 

Teachers' contributions, to. 228 



T-(Continued) 

Teaching, udvanta^res of, 157, 2^ 
Tests, 150, 151, 153, 155-156, 181, 211-212 
Trades and industry, courses in, 200-201 
Enrollment, day schools 
Colored, 51, 122, 123 
Each high school. 272-277 
White. 49. 56. 121, 123 
Evening schools, 96-97 
Federal aid, 120-123 
Schools having, 63, 272-277 
Training centers, teachers colleges, 222. 224 
Transportation of pupils. 125-128. 162-165, 171, 
180, 244 

Cost, total and per pupil, 125-126, 244 
Percent of pupils transported, 127 
Regulations re, 162-165 
Tuition charge, teachers colleges, 6, 219, 225, 
226, 227 

Turnover in teaching staff, 6. 68-74 
Twelve-year program, 6, 171, 173, 204, 205, 206. 
213 

u 

Unemployment compensation, 165 

V 

Value of 

Assessable property, 136-137 

School property. 131-132 
Veterans, 7, 146-147, 161, 215, 217, 218-219 
Visiting teacher program, 176 
Visual education, 176, 191 

Vocational education. 2. 120-123. 162. 188. 192 
196. 200-201. 237. 239. 255 

Enrollment, day schools, 49, 51, 56, 121-123, 
272-277 

Evening schools, 96. 97. 124 

Federal aid, 120-124. 237. 239, 255 

State aid. 15. 237. 239 
Vocational guidance. 2, 63, 123, 202-203, 214 
Vocational rehabilitation, 2, 98-99, 147-148, 

165, 237-239 

w 

War emergency certificates, 64, 65-67, 160 

Wealth back of each pupil. 136 

Welfare officials, cooperation in health service 

program, 148 
Withdrawals of pupils 

Elementary, 17 

High, 62 

Teachers colleges, freshman, 224 
Withdrawals of teachers, 6, 68-70 
Workshops, 6, 15G, 168, 181, 187-203. 204. 

207-209. 209-210 

Y 

Year, length of school, 9, 252 



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